US8989536B2 - Light-based touch surface with curved borders - Google Patents

Light-based touch surface with curved borders Download PDF

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Publication number
US8989536B2
US8989536B2 US14/465,880 US201414465880A US8989536B2 US 8989536 B2 US8989536 B2 US 8989536B2 US 201414465880 A US201414465880 A US 201414465880A US 8989536 B2 US8989536 B2 US 8989536B2
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US
United States
Prior art keywords
light
screen
emitters
touch
receivers
Prior art date
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Active
Application number
US14/465,880
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US20140362053A1 (en
Inventor
Stefan Holmgren
Lars Sparf
John Karlsson
Anders Jansson
Thomas Eriksson
Joseph Shain
Niklas Kvist
Robert Pettersson
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Neonode Inc
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Neonode Inc
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US13246908P priority Critical
Priority to US12/371,609 priority patent/US8339379B2/en
Priority to US16977909P priority
Priority to US12/486,033 priority patent/US9164654B2/en
Priority to US12/760,568 priority patent/US20100238139A1/en
Priority to US12/760,567 priority patent/US9213443B2/en
Priority to US37901210P priority
Priority to US38060010P priority
Priority to US41093010P priority
Priority to PCT/US2011/029191 priority patent/WO2011119483A1/en
Priority to US201161564164P priority
Priority to US201161564868P priority
Priority to US201261591913P priority
Priority to US13/424,543 priority patent/US9052777B2/en
Priority to US13/424,592 priority patent/US8416217B1/en
Priority to US13/745,874 priority patent/US8676007B2/en
Priority to US14/160,751 priority patent/US8837882B2/en
Priority to US14/465,880 priority patent/US8989536B2/en
Application filed by Neonode Inc filed Critical Neonode Inc
Publication of US20140362053A1 publication Critical patent/US20140362053A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US8989536B2 publication Critical patent/US8989536B2/en
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
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    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/042Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by opto-electronic means
    • G06F3/0421Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by opto-electronic means by interrupting or reflecting a light beam, e.g. optical touch-screen
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K37/00Dashboards
    • B60K37/04Arrangement of fittings on dashboard
    • B60K37/06Arrangement of fittings on dashboard of controls, e.g. controls knobs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/0001Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • G02B6/0005Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being of the fibre type
    • G02B6/0008Light guides specially adapted for lighting devices or systems the light guides being of the fibre type the light being emitted at the end of the fibre
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/26Optical coupling means
    • G02B6/32Optical coupling means having lens focusing means positioned between opposed fibre ends
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
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    • G06F1/16Constructional details or arrangements
    • G06F1/1613Constructional details or arrangements for portable computers
    • G06F1/1615Constructional details or arrangements for portable computers with several enclosures having relative motions, each enclosure supporting at least one I/O or computing function
    • G06F1/1616Constructional details or arrangements for portable computers with several enclosures having relative motions, each enclosure supporting at least one I/O or computing function with folding flat displays, e.g. laptop computers or notebooks having a clamshell configuration, with body parts pivoting to an open position around an axis parallel to the plane they define in closed position
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    • G06F1/1633Constructional details or arrangements of portable computers not specific to the type of enclosures covered by groups G06F1/1615 - G06F1/1626
    • G06F1/1637Details related to the display arrangement, including those related to the mounting of the display in the housing
    • G06F1/1643Details related to the display arrangement, including those related to the mounting of the display in the housing the display being associated to a digitizer, e.g. laptops that can be used as penpads
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    • G06F1/1633Constructional details or arrangements of portable computers not specific to the type of enclosures covered by groups G06F1/1615 - G06F1/1626
    • G06F1/1684Constructional details or arrangements related to integrated I/O peripherals not covered by groups G06F1/1635 - G06F1/1675
    • G06F1/169Constructional details or arrangements related to integrated I/O peripherals not covered by groups G06F1/1635 - G06F1/1675 the I/O peripheral being an integrated pointing device, e.g. trackball in the palm rest area, mini-joystick integrated between keyboard keys, touch pads or touch stripes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
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    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/041Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means
    • G06F3/042Digitisers, e.g. for touch screens or touch pads, characterised by the transducing means by opto-electronic means
    • GPHYSICS
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    • G06F3/048Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI]
    • G06F3/0487Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser
    • G06F3/0488Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser using a touch-screen or digitiser, e.g. input of commands through traced gestures
    • G06F3/04883Interaction techniques based on graphical user interfaces [GUI] using specific features provided by the input device, e.g. functions controlled by the rotation of a mouse with dual sensing arrangements, or of the nature of the input device, e.g. tap gestures based on pressure sensed by a digitiser using a touch-screen or digitiser, e.g. input of commands through traced gestures for entering handwritten data, e.g. gestures, text
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2203/00Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/00 - G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/041Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/041 - G06F3/045
    • G06F2203/04104Multi-touch detection in digitiser, i.e. details about the simultaneous detection of a plurality of touching locations, e.g. multiple fingers or pen and finger
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2203/00Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/00 - G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/048Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/04806Zoom, i.e. interaction techniques or interactors for controlling the zooming operation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F2203/00Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/00 - G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/048Indexing scheme relating to G06F3/048
    • G06F2203/04808Several contacts: gestures triggering a specific function, e.g. scrolling, zooming, right-click, when the user establishes several contacts with the surface simultaneously; e.g. using several fingers or a combination of fingers and pen

Abstract

A user input device, including a user input area, light emitters arranged along a first edge of the input area so as to be evenly spaced, light receivers arranged along a second edge of the input area, a curved lens arranged in front of the emitters, such that light emitted by each of the emitters is refracted as it enters the curved lens, and is again refracted as it exits the curved lens, resulting in unevenly spaced collimated light exiting the curved lens and crossing the input area, the collimated light being shifted laterally by a non-zero offset along a direction parallel to the first edge, the offset being a characteristic of the arrangement of that emitter vis-à-vis the curved lens, and a calculating unit for determining location of an object inserted into the input area from outputs of the receivers, based on the characteristic offsets of the emitters.

Description

CROSS REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/160,751, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,837,882, entitled LIGHT-BASED TOUCH SURFACE WITH CURVED BORDERS, and filed on Jan. 22, 2014 by inventors Stefan Holmgren, Lars Sparf, John Karlsson, Anders Jansson, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Niklas Kvist and Robert Pettersson. U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/160,751 is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/745,874, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,676,007, entitled LIGHT-BASED TOUCH SURFACE WITH CURVED BORDERS AND SLOPING BEZEL, and filed on Jan. 21, 2013 by inventors Stefan Holmgren, Lars Sparf, John Karlsson, Anders Jansson, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Niklas Kvist and Robert Pettersson. U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/745,874 claims priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 61/591,913, entitled LIGHT-BASED TOUCH SURFACE WITH CURVED BORDERS AND SLOPING BEZEL, and filed on Jan. 29, 2012 by inventors Stefan Holmgren, Lars Sparf, John Karlsson, Anders Jansson, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Niklas Kvist and Robert Pettersson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/745,874 is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/424,592, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,416,217, entitled LIGHT-BASED FINGER GESTURE USER INTERFACE, and filed on Mar. 20, 2012 by inventors Thomas Eriksson, Per Leine, Jochen Laveno Mangelsdorff, Robert Pettersson and Anders Jansson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/745,874 is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/424,543, entitled OPTICAL ELEMENTS WITH ALTERNATING REFLECTIVE LENS FACETS, and filed on Mar. 20, 2012 by inventors Stefan Holmgren, Lars Sparf, Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Anders Jansson, Niklas Kvist, Robert Pettersson and John Karlsson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,592, entitled LIGHT-BASED FINGER GESTURE USER INTERFACE, filed on Mar. 20, 2012 by inventors Thomas Eriksson, Per Leine, Jochen Laveno Mangelsdorff, Robert Pettersson and Anders Jansson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,543, entitled OPTICAL ELEMENTS WITH ALTERNATING REFLECTIVE LENS FACETS, filed on Mar. 20, 2012 by inventors Stefan Holmgren, Lars Sparf, Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Anders Jansson, Niklas Kvist, Robert Pettersson and John Karlsson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,592 claims priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/564,868, entitled LIGHT-BASED FINGER GESTURE USER INTERFACE, filed on Nov. 30, 2011 by inventors Thomas Eriksson, Per Leine, Jochen Laveno Mangelsdorff, Robert Pettersson and Anders Jansson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,543 claims priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/564,164, entitled OPTICAL ELEMENTS WITH ALTERNATIVE REFLECTIVE LENS FACETS, filed on Nov. 28, 2011 by inventors Stefan Holmgren, Lars Sparf, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Anders Jansson, Niklas Kvist, Robert Pettersson and John Karlsson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,543 claims priority benefit of PCT Application No. PCT/US11/29191, entitled LENS ARRANGEMENT FOR LIGHT-BASED TOUCH SCREEN, filed on Mar. 21, 2011 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Anders Jansson, Niklas Kvist, Robert Pettersson, Lars Sparf and John Karlsson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,543 is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 12/371,609, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,339,379, entitled LIGHT-BASED TOUCH SCREEN, filed on Feb. 15, 2009 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson and Joseph Shain, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,543 is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 12/486,033, entitled USER INTERFACE FOR MOBILE COMPUTER UNIT, filed on Jun. 17, 2009 by inventors Magnus Goertz and Joseph Shain, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,543 is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 12/760,567, entitled OPTICAL TOUCH SCREEN SYSTEMS USING REFLECTED LIGHT, filed on Apr. 15, 2010 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson and Joseph Shain, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 13/424,543 is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 12/760,568, entitled OPTICAL TOUCH SCREEN SYSTEMS USING WIDE LIGHT BEAMS, filed on Apr. 15, 2010 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson and Joseph Shain, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

PCT Application No. PCT/US11/29191 claims priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/379,012, entitled OPTICAL TOUCH SCREEN SYSTEMS USING REFLECTED LIGHT, filed on Sep. 1, 2010 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Anders Jansson, Niklas Kvist and Robert Pettersson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

PCT Application No. PCT/US11/29191 claims priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/380,600, entitled OPTICAL TOUCH SCREEN SYSTEMS USING REFLECTED LIGHT, filed on Sep. 7, 2010 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Anders Jansson, Niklas Kvist and Robert Pettersson, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

PCT Application No. PCT/US11/29191 claims priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/410,930, entitled OPTICAL TOUCH SCREEN SYSTEMS USING REFLECTED LIGHT, filed on Nov. 7, 2010 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson, Joseph Shain, Anders Jansson, Niklas Kvist, Robert Pettersson and Lars Sparf, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 12/486,033 claims priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/132,469, entitled IMPROVED KEYPAD FOR CHINESE CHARACTERS, filed on Jun. 19, 2008 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Robert Pettersson, Staffan Gustafsson and Johann Gerell, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

U.S. application Ser. No. 12/760,567 claims priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/169,779, entitled OPTICAL TOUCH SCREEN, filed on Apr. 16, 2009 by inventors Magnus Goertz, Thomas Eriksson and Joseph Shain, the contents of which are hereby incorporated herein in their entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The field of the present invention is light-based touch input surfaces.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Many consumer electronic devices are now being built with touch sensitive screens, for use with finger or stylus touch user inputs. These devices range from small screen devices such as mobile phones and car entertainment systems, to mid-size screen devices such as notebook computers, to large screen devices such as check-in stations at airports.

Most conventional touch screen systems are based on resistive or capacitive layers. Such systems are not versatile enough to offer an all-encompassing solution, as they are not easily scalable.

Reference is made to FIG. 1, which is a prior art illustration of a conventional touch screen system. Such systems include an LCD display surface 606, a resistive or capacitive overlay 801 that is placed over the LCD surface, and a controller integrated circuit (IC) 701 that connects to the overlay and converts inputs from the overlay to meaningful signals. A host device (not shown), such as a computer, receives the signals from controller IC 701, and a device driver or such other program interprets the signals to detect a touch-based input such as a key press or scroll movement.

Reference is made to FIG. 2, which is a prior art illustration of a conventional resistive touch screen. Shown in FIG. 2 are conductive and resistive layers 802 separated by thin spaces. A PET film 803 overlays a top circuit layer 804, which overlays a conductive coating 806. Similarly, a conductive coating 807 with spacer dots 808 overlays a bottom circuit layer 805, which overlays a glass layer 607. When a pointer 900, such as a finger or a stylus, touches the screen, a contact is created between resistive layers, closing a switch. A controller 701 determines the current between layers to derive the position of the touch point.

Advantages of resistive touch screens are their low cost, low power consumption and stylus support.

A disadvantage of resistive touch screens is that as a result of the overlay, the screens are not fully transparent. Another disadvantage is that pressure is required for touch detection; i.e., a pointer that touches the screen without sufficient pressure goes undetected. As a consequence, resistive touch screens do not detect finger touches well. Another disadvantage is that resistive touch screens are generally unreadable in direct sunlight. Another disadvantage is that resistive touch screens are sensitive to scratches. Yet another disadvantage is that resistive touch screens are unable to discern that two or more pointers are touching the screen simultaneously, referred to as “multi-touch”.

Reference is made to FIG. 3, which is a prior art illustration of a conventional surface capacitive touch screen. Shown in FIG. 3 is a touch surface 809 overlaying a coated glass substrate 810. Two sides of a glass 811 are coated with a uniform conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) coating 812. In addition, a silicon dioxide hard coating 813 is coated on the front side of one of the ITO coating layers 812. Electrodes 814 are attached at the four corners of the glass, for generating an electric current. A pointer 900, such as a finger or a stylus, touches the screen, and draws a small amount of current to the point of contact. A controller 701 then determines the location of the touch point based on the proportions of current passing through the four electrodes.

Advantages of surface capacitive touch screens are finger touch support and a durable surface.

A disadvantage of surface capacitive touch screens is that as a result of the overlay, the screens are not fully transparent. Another disadvantage is a limited temperature range for operation. Another disadvantage is a limited capture speed of pointer movements, due to the capacitive nature of the touch screens. Another disadvantage is that surface capacitive touch screens are susceptible to radio frequency (RF) interference and electromagnetic (EM) interference. Another disadvantage is that the accuracy of touch location determination depends on the capacitance. Another disadvantage is that surface capacitive touch screens cannot be used with gloves. Another disadvantage is that surface capacitive touch screens require a large screen border. As a consequence, surface capacitive touch screens cannot be used with small screen devices. Yet another disadvantage is that surface capacitive touch screens are unable to discern a multi-touch.

Reference is made to FIG. 4, which is a prior art illustration of a conventional projected capacitive touch screen. Shown in FIG. 4 are etched ITO layers 815 that form multiple horizontal (x-axis) and vertical (y-axis) electrodes. Etched layers 815 include outer hard coat layers 816 and 817, an x-axis electrode pattern 818, a y-axis electrode pattern 819, and an ITO glass 820 in the middle. AC signals 702 drive the electrodes on one axis, and the response through the screen loops back via the electrodes on the other axis. Location of a pointer 900 touching the screen is determined based on the signal level changes 703 between the horizontal and vertical electrodes.

Advantages of projective capacitive touch screens are finger multi-touch detection and a durable surface.

A disadvantage of projected capacitive touch screens is that as a result of the overlay, the screens are not fully transparent. Another disadvantage is their high cost. Another disadvantage is a limited temperature range for operation. Another disadvantage is a limited capture speed, due to the capacitive nature of the touch screens. Another disadvantage is a limited screen size, typically less than 5″. Another disadvantage is that surface capacitive touch screens are susceptible to RF interference and EM interference. Yet another disadvantage is that the accuracy of touch location determination depends on the capacitance.

One type of touch screen that overcomes these disadvantages is a light-based touch screen. Conventional light-based touch screens include rows of infra-red (IR) light emitters along horizontal and vertical screen edges, that emit light beams across a screen input surface, in the form of a lattice of light beams. Corresponding rows of IR light receivers detect the emitted light beams. An absence of expected light beams detected by the IR light receivers is used to determine the location of a touch.

In conventional light-based touch screens, the IR emitters and IR receivers are encased in a protective housing. An IR transparent lens along the screen edges joins the touch screen to the housing, and directs emitted IR light to pass across the screen surface.

Conventional light-based touch screens are rectangular. Rectangular touch screens are easy to assemble using straight IR-transparent lenses along the four screen edges. However, curved edges have a disadvantage in that light passing through a curved lens is distorted; in particular, collimated light beams emitted from a row of emitters do not emerge as collimate beams after passing through a conventional curved lens. In turn, a precise touch coordinate cannot be determined based solely on an absence of expected light.

Conventional light-based touch screens include a vertical bezel. Sloped bezels have a disadvantage of light leakage due to refraction, whereby light beams refracted by a sloped bezel do not arrive at receivers.

It would thus be of advantage to provide curved lenses for non-rectangular light-based touch screens that are bordered by curved edges, so that a touch location may be easily and precisely determined.

It would also be of advantage to provide sloping bezels for touch screen light guides, which minimize light leakage.

SUMMARY OF THE DESCRIPTION

Aspects of the present invention relate to light-based touch surfaces and lenses therefor. The surface may be opaque or transparent. The surface may be a hollow frame that detects user input when a user inserts a finger or object into the frame cavity. The surface may or may not include a display screen.

Aspects of the present invention provide special curved lenses for non-rectangular touch screens that are bordered by curved edges, so that a touch location may be easily and precisely determined. In one embodiment, the touch-sensitive portion of the non-rectangular touch screen is an inscribed rectangle, and the IR emitters and IR receivers are evenly spaced in straight rows.

Further aspects of the present invention provide sloped bezels for touch screen light guides, which minimize light leakage.

There is thus provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention a light-based touch-sensitive surface, including a housing, a surface attached to the housing for receiving touch input, a plurality of light sources in the housing for emitting light that crosses the surface, a plurality of light receivers in the housing for detecting the light emitted by the light sources, a curved lens adjacent to the surface through which the light emitted by the light sources passes, including two substantially similarly curved exterior panels, one of which forms a curved rim for the surface, and a calculating unit in said housing, connected to the light receivers, for calculating a touch location based on an absence of light expected to be received by the receivers.

There is additionally provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention a light-based touch-sensitive surface, including a housing, a surface attached to the housing for receiving touch input, a plurality of light sources in the housing for emitting light that crosses the surface, a plurality of light receivers in the housing for detecting the light emitted by the light sources, a curved lens adjacent to the surface through which the light emitted by the light sources passes, including a vertical lens face, and an exterior sloping lens panel joined to the vertical lens face at an apex of the sloping lens panel so as to form an inner angular cavity in the lens, and a calculating unit in the housing, connected to the light receivers, for calculating a touch location based on the absence of light expected to be received by the receivers.

There is further provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention a lens for use with a light-based touch-sensitive apparatus, including a vertical lens face, and an exterior sloping lens panel joined to the vertical lens face at an apex of the sloping lens panel so as to form an inner angular cavity in the lens.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention will be more fully understood and appreciated from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a prior art illustration of a conventional touch screen system;

FIG. 2 is a prior art illustration of a conventional resistive touch screen;

FIG. 3 is a prior art illustration of a conventional surface capacitive touch screen;

FIG. 4 is a prior art illustration of a conventional projected capacitive touch screen;

FIG. 5 is an illustration of a portion of a touch screen including a plurality of emitters that are positioned close together, wherein light is guided by fiber optic light guides to locations along a first screen edge, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a diagram of a touch screen having 16 emitters and 16 receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 7-9 are diagrams of the touch screen of FIG. 6, showing detection of two pointers that touch the screen simultaneously, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 10 and 11 are diagrams of a touch screen that detects a two-finger glide movement, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 12 is a circuit diagram of the touch screen from FIG. 6, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 13 is a simplified diagram of a light-based touch screen system, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 14 is a simplified cross-sectional diagram of the touch screen system of FIG. 13, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 15 is a simplified illustration of an arrangement of emitters, receivers and optical elements that enable a touch screen system to determine a precise location of a fingertip touching the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 16 is a simplified illustration of an arrangement of emitters, receivers and optical elements that enable a touch screen system to detect a pointer that is smaller than the sensor elements, including inter alia a stylus, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 17 is a simplified diagram of a touch screen with wide light beams covering the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 18 is a simplified illustration of a collimating lens, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 19 is a simplified illustration of a collimating lens in cooperation with a light receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 20 is a simplified illustration of a collimating lens having a surface of micro-lenses facing an emitter, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 21 is a simplified illustration of a collimating lens having a surface of micro-lenses facing a receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 22 is a simplified diagram of an electronic device with a wide-beam touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 23 is a diagram of the electronic device of FIG. 22, depicting overlapping light beams from one emitter detected by two receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 24 is a diagram of the electronic device of FIG. 22, depicting overlapping light beams from two emitters detected by one receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 25 is a diagram of the electronic device of FIG. 22, showing that points on the screen are detected by at least two emitter-receiver pairs, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 26 is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen, showing an intensity distribution of a light signal, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 27 is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen, showing intensity distributions of overlapping light signals from two emitters, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 28 is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen, showing intensity distributions of two sets of overlapping light signals from one emitter, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 29 is a simplified diagram of a wide beam touch screen with emitter and receiver lenses that do not have micro-lens patterns, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 30 and 31 are simplified diagrams of a wide-beam touch screen with emitter and receiver lenses that have micro-lens patterns, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 32 is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen with emitter and receiver lenses that do not have micro-lens patterns, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 33 is a simplified diagram of a wide beam touch screen, with emitter and receiver lenses that have micro-lens patterns, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 34 is a simplified diagram of two emitters with lenses that have micro-lens patterns integrated therein, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 35 is a simplified diagram of two receivers with lenses that have micro-lens patterns integrated therein, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 36 is a simplified diagram of a side view of a single-unit light guide, in the context of an electronic device with a display and an outer casing, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 37 is a simplified diagram of side views, from two different angles, of a lens with applied feather patterns on a surface, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 38 is a simplified diagram of a portion of a wide-beam touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 39 is a top view of a simplified diagram of light beams entering and exiting micro-lenses etched on a lens, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 40 is a simplified diagram of a side view of a dual-unit light guide, in the context of a device having a display and an outer casing, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 41 is a picture of light guide units, within the context of a device having a PCB and an outer casing, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 42 is a top view of the light guide units of FIG. 41, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 43 is a simplified diagram of a side view cutaway of a light guide within an electronic device, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 44 is a simplified diagram of a side view cutaway of a portion of an electronic device and an upper portion of a light guide with at least two active surfaces for folding light beams, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 45 is a simplified drawing of a section of a transparent optical touch light guide, formed as an integral part of a protective glass covering a display, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 46 is a simplified illustration of the electronic device and light guide of FIG. 44, adapted to conceal the edge of the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 47 is a simplified diagram of a light guide that is a single unit extending from opposite an emitter to above a display, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 48 is a simplified diagram of a dual-unit light guide, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 49 is a simplified diagram of a touch screen device held by a user, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 50 is a simplified diagram of a touch screen with wide light beams covering the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 51-53 are respective simplified side, top and bottom views of a light guide in the context of a device, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 54 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen surrounded by emitters and receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 55 is a simplified illustration of an optical element with an undulating angular pattern of reflective facets, shown from three angles, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 56 is a simplified illustration of an optical element reflecting, collimating and interleaving light from two neighboring emitters, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 57 is a simplified diagram of a multi-faceted optical element, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 58 is a simplified graph showing the effect of various reflective facet parameters on light distribution for nine facets, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 59 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen with a wide light beam crossing the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 60 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen with two wide light beams crossing the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 61 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen with three wide light beams crossing the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 62 is a simplified graph of light distribution of a wide beam in a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 63 is a simplified illustration of detection signals from three wide beams as a fingertip moves across a screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 64-66 are simplified graphs of light distribution in overlapping wide beams in a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 67 is a simplified graph of detection signals from a wide beam as a fingertip moves across a screen at three different locations, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 68 is a simplified diagram of four optical elements and four neighboring emitters, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 69 is a simplified diagram of a diffractive surface that directs beams from two emitters along a common path, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 70 is a simplified diagram of a touch screen surrounded with alternating emitters and receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 71 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen surrounded with alternating emitters and receivers, and a wide beam crossing the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 72 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen surrounded with alternating emitters and receivers and two wide beams crossing the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 73 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen surrounded with alternating emitters and receivers and three wide beams crossing the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 74 is a simplified illustration of a collimating optical element reflecting and interleaving light for an emitter and a neighboring receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 75-78 are illustrations of multi-touch locations that are ambiguous vis-à-vis a first orientation of light emitters, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 79-81 are illustrations of the multi-touch locations of FIGS. 75-77 that are unambiguous vis-à-vis a second orientation of light emitters, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 82 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen with light beams directed along four axes, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 83 is a simplified illustration of an alternate configuration of light emitters and light receivers with two grid orientations, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 84 is a simplified illustration of a configuration of alternating light emitters and light receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 85 is a simplified illustration of two wide light beams from an emitter being detected by two receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 86 is a simplified illustration of two wide beams and an area of overlap between them, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 87 is a simplified illustration of a touch point situated at the edges of detecting light beams, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 88 is a simplified illustration of an emitter along one edge of a display screen that directs light to receivers along two edges of the display screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 89 and 90 are simplified illustrations of a lens for refracting light in three directions, having a lens surface with a repetitive pattern of substantially planar two-sided and three-sided recessed cavities, respectively, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention;

FIGS. 91-93 are simplified illustrations of a touch screen surrounded with alternating emitters and receivers and diagonal wide beams crossing the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 94 is a simplified graph of light distribution across a diagonal wide beam in a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 95 is a simplified graph of light distribution across three overlapping diagonal wide beams in a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 96 is a simplified graph of touch detection as a finger glides across three overlapping diagonal wide beams in a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 97 is a simplified graph of detection signals from a diagonal wide beam as a fingertip moves across the screen at three different locations, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 98 is a simplified illustration of a first embodiment for a touch screen surrounded with alternating emitters and receivers, whereby diagonal and orthogonal wide beams crossing the screen are detected by one receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 99 is a simplified illustration of a second embodiment for a touch screen surrounded with alternating emitters and reciters, whereby diagonal and orthogonal wide beams crossing the screen are detected by one receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 100 is a simplified illustration of a user writing on a prior art touch screen with a stylus;

FIG. 101 is a simplified illustration of light beams detecting location of a stylus when a user's palm rests on a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 102 is a simplified illustration of a frame surrounding a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 103 is a simplified illustration of a first embodiment of emitters, receivers and optical elements for a corner of a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 104 is a simplified illustration of a second embodiment of emitters, receivers and optical elements for a corner of a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 105 is an illustration of optical components made of plastic material that is transparent to infrared light, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 106 is a simplified diagram of a side view of a touch screen with light guides, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 107 is an illustration of a touch screen with a block of three optical components on each side, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 108 is a magnified illustration of one of the emitter blocks of FIG. 107, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 109 is an illustration of a touch screen having a long thin light guide along a first edge of the screen, for directing light over the screen, and having an array of light receivers arranged along an opposite edge of the screen for detecting the directed light, and for communicating detected light values to a calculating unit, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 110 is an illustration of a touch screen having an array of light emitters along a first edge of the screen for directing light beams over the screen, and having a long thin light guide for receiving the directed light beams and for further directing them to light receivers situated at both ends of the light guide, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 111 is an illustration of two light emitters, each emitter coupled to each end of a long thin light guide, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 112-115 are illustrations of a touch screen that detects occurrence of a hard press, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 116 and 117 are bar charts showing increase in light detected, when pressure is applied to a rigidly mounted 7-inch LCD screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 118 is a simplified diagram of an image sensor positioned beneath a screen glass display, to capture an image of the underside of the screen glass and touches made thereon, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 119 is a simplified diagram of a display divided into pixels, and three touch detections, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 120 is a simplified diagram of a camera sensor positioned on a hinge of a laptop computer and pointing at a screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 121 is a simplified side view diagram showing a camera viewing a touch area, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 122 is a simplified top view diagram showing a camera viewing a touch area, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 123 is a simplified diagram of a camera viewing a touch area, and two image axes, an image x-axis and an image y-axis, for locating a touch pointer based on an image captured by the camera, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 124 is a simplified diagram of a camera viewing a touch area, and two screen axes, a screen x-axis and a screen y-axis, for locating a touch pointed based on an image captured by the camera, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 125 and 126 are simplified diagrams of two cameras, each capturing a touch area from different angles, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 127 is a simplified diagram of four cameras, each capturing a touch area from different angles, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 128 is a simplified diagram, from a camera viewpoint, of a camera viewing a complete touch area, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 129 is a simplified diagram of a portion of a touch area showing a stylus and a mirror image of the stylus, which are tangent to one another, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 130 is a simplified diagram showing a stylus and a mirror image of the stylus, moved closer to the center of a touch area vis-à-vis FIG. 129, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 131 is a simplified diagram showing a stylus and a mirror image of the stylus, moved closer to the bottom of a touch area vis-à-vis FIG. 129, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 132 is a simplified diagram showing a stylus and a mirror image of the stylus, separated apart from one another, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 133 is a simplified flowchart of a method for determining a three-dimensional pointed location, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 134 is a simplified diagram of a touch area that displays six touch icons, used for determining a camera orientation, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 135 is a simplified diagram of a touch screen surrounded by a frame that has slightly curved edges, and having emitters and receivers along each screen edge that project and receive light beams substantially along the screen surface plane, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 136 is a simplified diagram of a touch screen surrounded by a frame that has slightly curved edges, and having upward-facing emitters and receivers underneath the screen edge that project and receive light beams perpendicular to the screen surface plane, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 137 is an exploded view of the touch screen of FIG. 136, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 138 is a simplified diagram of a touch screen surrounded by a frame that has slightly curved edges, and having outward-facing emitters and receivers underneath the screen edge that project and receive light beams on a plane below the screen surface, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 139 is an exploded view of the touch screen of FIG. 138, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 140 is a simplified diagram of a light guide for a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 141 is a simplified diagram showing how light may be lost when light guide surfaces are not vertical, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 142 and 143 are simplified diagrams of light guides for a touch screen that has a sloping outer surface, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 144 and 145 are illustrations of opposing rows of emitter and receiver lenses in a touch screen system, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 146 is a simplified illustration of a technique for determining a touch location, by a plurality of emitter-receiver pairs in a touch screen system, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 147 is an illustration of a light guide frame for the configuration of FIGS. 144 and 145, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 148 is a simplified flowchart of a method for touch detection for a light-based touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 149-151 are illustrations of a rotation gesture, whereby a user places two fingers on the screen and rotates them around an axis;

FIGS. 152-155 are illustrations of touch events at various locations on a touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIGS. 156-159 are respective bar charts of light saturation during the touch events illustrated in FIGS. 152-155, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 160 is a simplified flowchart of a method for determining the locations of simultaneous, diagonally opposed touches, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 161 is a simplified flowchart of a method for discriminating between clockwise and counter-clockwise gestures, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 162 is a simplified flowchart of a method of calibration and touch detection for a light-based touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 163 is a picture showing the difference between signals generated by a touch, and signals generated by a mechanical effect, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 164 is a simplified diagram of a control circuit for setting pulse strength when calibrating a light-based touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 165 is a plot of calibration pulses for pulse strengths ranging from a minimum current to a maximum current, for calibrating a light-based touch screen in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 166 is a simplified pulse diagram and a corresponding output signal graph, for calibrating a light-based touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 167 is an illustration showing how a capillary effect is used to increase accuracy of positioning a component, such as an emitter or a receiver, on a printed circuit board, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 168 is an illustration showing the printed circuit board of FIG. 167, after having passed through a heat oven, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 169 is a simplified illustration of a light-based touch screen and an ASIC controller therefor, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 170 is a circuit diagram of a chip package for a controller of a light-based touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 171 is a circuit diagram for six rows of photo emitters with 4 or 5 photo emitters in each row, for connection to the chip package of FIG. 170, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 172 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen surrounded by emitters and receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 173 is a simplified application diagram illustrating a touch screen configured with two controllers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 174 is a graph showing performance of a scan sequence using a conventional chip vs. performance of a scan using a dedicated controller of the present invention;

FIG. 175 is a simplified illustration of a touch screen having a shift-aligned arrangement of emitters and receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 176 is a simplified diagram of a touch screen having alternating emitters and receivers along each screen edge, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

For reference to the figures, the following index of elements and their numerals is provided. Elements numbered in the 100's generally relate to light beams, elements numbered in the 200's generally relate to light sources, elements numbered in the 300's generally relate to light receivers, elements numbered in the 400's and 500's generally relate to light guides, elements numbered in the 600's generally relate to displays, elements numbered in the 700's generally relate to circuit elements, elements numbered in the 800's generally relate to electronic devices, and elements numbered in the 900's generally relate to user interfaces. Elements numbered in the 1000's are operations of flow charts.

Similarly numbered elements represent elements of the same type, but they need not be identical elements.

Element Description
Elements generally related to light beams
100-102 Light beams
105, 106 Reflected light beam
107-109 Arc of light output from light source
110 Dist between centers of two beams
111 Dist from emitter/rcvr to opt element
112 Refracted beam
113-117 Blocked light beams
118-120 Light beams
125 Beam offset inside of lens
142 Arc of light output from light source
143 Arc of light input to light receiver
144 Wide light beams
145-148 Edge of wide light beam
151-154 Light beams
158 Wide light beam
167-169 Wide light beam
170-172 Signals received by light receivers
173 Beam from 1 emitter to 2 receivers
174 Beam from 1 emitter to 1st receiver
175 Beam from 1 emitter to 2nd receiver
176 Beam from emitter to 1st receiver
177 Beam from emitter to 2nd receiver
178 Beam from 1 emitter to 1st receiver
179 Beam from 1 emitter to 2nd receiver
182 Beam from 1 emitter to 2 receivers
183-187 Middle of arc of light
190 Light beams output from light source
191 Light beams input to light receiver
192 Arcs of light
193 Wide light beam from two sources
Elements generally related to light sources
200-213 Light emitters
220 LED cavity
230 Combined emitter-receiver elements
235-241 Light emitters
Elements generally related to light receivers
300-319 Light receivers
394 Light receiver
398 Light receiver/light emitter
Elements generally related to light guides
400 Lens
401, 402 Fiber optic light guides
407 Raised reflector bezel
408 Cutout
437, 438 Reflector & lens
439-443 Lens
444 Micro-lenses
445 Surface with fan of micro-lenses
450 Light guide
451, 452 Internally reflective surface
453, 454 Light guide surface
455 Light guide
456 Internally reflective surface
457 Collimating lens & reflective surface
458 Micro-lenses
459 Light guide surface
460 Surface with fan of micro-lenses
461 Lens
462 Micro-lenses
463 Upper portion of light guide
464 Lower portion of light guide
465 Light guide surface
466 Surface with parallel row micro-lenses
467 Parallel row pattern of micro-lenses
468 Light guide
469, 470 Internally reflective surface
471 Light guide surface
472 Light guide
473 Internally reflective surface
474 Light guide surface
475 Focal line of a lens
476 Light guide
477 Internally reflective surface
478 Light guide surface
479 Light guide
480 Internally reflective surface
481 Light guide surface
482 Black plastic transmissive element
483 Light guide
484 Surface with fan of micro-lenses
485 Upper portion of light guide
486 Lower portion of light guide
487 Surface with parallel row micro-lenses
488, 489 Optical component
490-492 Surface of optical component
493 Multi-faceted reflective surface
494-497 Optical component
498, 499 Light guide
500-501 Emitter optical component block
502-503 Receiver optical component block
504 Emitter lenses
505 Receiver lenses
506, 507 Emitter optical component
508-510 Receiver optical component
511 Emitter optical components
512 Receiver optical components
513 Optical component/temporary guide
514 Long thin light guide
515 Light guide reflector
516 Micro-lenses
517 Light scatterer strip
518, 519 Light guides
520, 521 Protruding lips on light guides
522, 523 Relative position of light guide element
524 Clear, flat glass
525 Collimating lens
526 Clear flat glass with micro-lens surface
527 Lens with pattern of refracting surfaces
528 Micro-lens pattern
530-534 Opt element with multi-faceted surface
541 Optical element surface
542 Multi-faceted reflective surface
545-549 Reflective facets
550-552 Lens section in multi-lens assembly
555, 556 Air gap
559 Connector joining lens section
560 Diffractive surface
561, 562 Air gap
564 Lens frame
565 Two-part collimating lens
566 Curved lens
571, 572 Curved lens surfaces
Elements generally related to displays
600 Screen glass
606 LCD display (prior art)
607 Screen glass (prior art)
635-637 Display
638 Protective glass
639 Daylight filter sheet
640 Protective glass
641 Daylight filter sheet
642, 643 Display
645 Reflection on display glass
Elements generally related to circuit elements
700 Printed circuit board
701 Controller integrated circuit (pr. art)
702 AC input signal (prior art)
703 Output signal (prior art)
720 Shift register for column activation
730 Shift register for column activation
731 Chip package
732, 733 Signal conducting pins
736 Input/output pins
737 Chip select pin
740 Emitter driver circuitry
742 Emitter pulse control circuitry
750 Detector driver circuitry
753 Detector signal processing circuitry
755 Detector current filter
756 Analog-to-digital convertor
759 Controller circuitry
760, 761 Electrical pad
762, 763 Printed circuit board
764 Guide pin
765 Solder pad
766 Component solder pad
767 Solder pads after heat oven
768, 769 Notch in optical component/guide
770 Calculating unit
771 Clip-on fastener
772 Host processor
774 Touch screen controller
775 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
Elements generally related to touch-based electronic devices
800 Touch screen
801 Touch overlay (prior art)
802 Conductive & resistive layers (pr. art)
803 PET film (prior art)
804 Top circuit layer (prior art)
805 Bottom circuit layer (prior art)
806, 807 Conductive coating (prior art)
808 Spacer dot (prior art)
809 Touch surface (prior art)
810 Coated glass substrate (prior art)
811 Glass substrate (prior art)
812 Conductive ITO coating (prior art)
813 Silicon dioxide hard coating (prior art)
814 Electrode (prior art)
815 Etched ITO layers (prior art)
816, 817 Hard coat layer (prior art)
818 x-axis electrode pattern (prior art)
819 y-axis electrode pattern (prior art)
820 ITO glass (prior art)
826 Electronic device
827-832 Device casing
841, 842 Resilient members
843 Flex air gap
844-847 Image sensors
848 Laptop computer
849 Screen frame
Elements generally related to user interfaces
900-903 Pointer/finger/thumb/stylus
905-908 Detected touch area
910-912 Light signal attenuation area
920, 921 Light signal attenuation gradient
925-927 Path across a wide beam
930 Hand
931 Stylus
932 Drawn line
965-970 Touch icons
971, 972 Touch points
973-976 Light signal attenuation area
977 Point on lens
980 Touch point
981, 982 Point on lens
989, 990 Pin
991-993 Active touch area
996-999 Mid-line between pointer and reflection

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Aspects of the present invention relate to light-based touch surfaces and lenses therefor. The surface may be opaque or transparent. The surface may be a hollow frame that detects user input when a user inserts a finger or object into the frame cavity. The surface may or may not include a display screen.

For clarity of exposition, throughout the present specification the terms “touch screen” and “touch surface” are used as generic terms to refer to touch sensitive surfaces that may or may not include an electronic display. As such, the terms “touch screen” and “touch surface” as used herein include inter alia a mouse touchpad as included in many laptop computers, and the cover of a handheld electronic device. The term “touch screen” and “touch surface” also include hollow frames that enable detection of objects inserted into the frame cavities. The terms “optical touch screen” and “optical touch surface” are used as generic terms to refer to light-based touch screens, including inter alia screens that detect a touch based on the difference between an expected light intensity and a detected light intensity, where the detected light intensity may be greater than or less than the expected light intensity. The term “screen glass” is used as a generic term to refer to a transparent screen surface. The screen may be constructed inter alia from glass, or from a non-glass material including inter alia crystal, acrylic and plastic. In some embodiments of the present invention, the screen allows near-infrared light to pass through, but is otherwise non-transparent.

For clarity of exposition, throughout the present specification, the term “emitter” is used as a generic term to refer to a light emitting element, including inter alia a light-emitting diode (LED), and the output end of a fiber optic or tubular light guide that outputs light into a lens or reflector that directs the light over a display surface. The term “receiver” is used as a generic term to refer to a light detecting element, including inter alia a photo diode (PD), and the input end of a fiber optic or tubular light guide that receives light beams that traversed a display surface and directs them to a light detecting element or to an image sensor, the image sensor being inter alia a charge coupled device (CCD) or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor.

Reference is made to FIG. 5, which is an illustration of a portion of a touch screen including a plurality of emitters 201-203 that are positioned close together, wherein light is guided by fiber optic light guides 401 to locations along a first screen edge, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The portion of the touch screen also includes a plurality of receivers 301-305 that are positioned close together, wherein light is guided thereto by fiber optic light guides 402 from locations along a second screen edge.

According to embodiments of the present invention, a light-based touch screen includes one or more emitters, including inter alia infra-red or near infra-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and a plurality of receivers, including inter alia photo diodes (PDs), arranged along the perimeter surrounding the touch screen or touch surface. The emitters project light substantially parallel to the screen surface, and this light is detected by the receivers. A pointer, such as a finger or a stylus, placed over a portion of the screen blocks some of the light beams, and correspondingly some of the receivers detect less light intensity. The geometry of the locations of the receivers, and the light intensities they detect, suffice to determine screen coordinates of the pointer. The emitters and receivers are controlled for selective activation and deactivation by a controller. Generally, each emitter and receiver has I/O connectors, and signals are transmitted to specify which emitters and which receivers are activated.

In an embodiment of the present invention, plural emitters are arranged along two adjacent sides of a rectangular screen, and plural receivers are arranged along the other two adjacent sides. In this regard, reference is now made to FIG. 6, which is a diagram of a touch screen 800 having 16 emitters 200 and 16 receivers 300, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Emitters 200 emit infra-red or near infra-red light beams across the top of the touch screen, which are detected by corresponding receivers 300 that are directly opposite respective emitters 200. When a pointer touches touch screen 800, it blocks light from reaching some of receivers 300. By identifying, from the receiver outputs, which light beams have been blocked by the pointer, the pointer's location can be determined.

Light-based touch screens do not place a physical layer over a display, and this provides a user experience that is advantageous over that of conventional capacitive and resistive touch screens. When writing with a stylus on a conventional capacitive and resistive touch screen overlay, the stylus is removed from the display surface, which produces a parallax effect. In distinction, when writing with a stylus on a light-based touch screen, which has no overlay and no protective glass, the stylus is in contact with the writing surface, which produces a natural writing effect.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 7-9, which are diagrams of touch screen 800 of FIG. 6, showing detection of two pointers, 901 and 902, that touch the screen simultaneously, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. When two or more pointers touch the screen simultaneously, this is referred to as a “multi-touch.” Pointers 901 and 902, which are touching the screen, block light from reaching some of receivers 300. In accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, the locations of pointers 901 and 902 are determined from the crossed lines of the infra-red beams that the pointers block. In distinction, prior art resistance-based and capacitance-based touch screens are generally unable to detect a multi-touch.

When two or more pointers touch screen 800 simultaneously along a common horizontal or vertical axis, the positions of the pointers are determined by the receivers 300 that are blocked. Pointers 901 and 902 in FIG. 7 are aligned along a common vertical axis and block substantially the same receivers 300 along the bottom edge of touch screen 800; namely the receivers marked a, b, c and d. Along the left edge of touch screen 800, two different sets of receivers 300 are blocked. Pointer 901 blocks the receivers marked e and f, and pointer 902 blocks the receivers marked g and h. The two pointers are thus determined to be situated at two locations. Pointer 901 has screen coordinates located at the intersection of the light beams blocked from receivers a-d and receivers e and f; and pointer 902 has screen coordinates located at the intersection of the light beams blocked from receivers a-d and receivers g and h.

Pointers 901 and 902 shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 are not aligned along a common horizontal or vertical axis, and they have different horizontal locations and different vertical locations. From the blocked receivers a-h, it is determined that pointers 901 and 902 are diagonally opposite one another. They are either respectively touching the top right and bottom left of touch screen 800, as illustrated in FIG. 8; or else respectively touching the bottom right and top left of touch screen 800, as illustrated in FIG. 9.

Discriminating between FIG. 8 and FIG. 9 is resolved by either (i) associating the same meaning to both touch patterns, or (ii) by associating meaning to only one of the two touch patterns. In case (i), the UI arranges its icons, or is otherwise configured, such that the effects of both touch patterns FIG. 8 and FIG. 9 are the same. For example, touching any two diagonally opposite corners of touch screen 800 operates to unlock the screen.

In case (ii), the UI arranges its icons, or is otherwise configured, such that only one of the touch patterns FIG. 8 and FIG. 9 has a meaning associated therewith. For example, touching the upper right and lower left corners of touch screen 800 operates to unlock the screen, and touch the lower right and upper left of touch screen 800 has no meaning associated therewith. In this case, the UI discriminates that FIG. 8 is the correct touch pattern.

Determining locations of a diagonally oriented multi-touch is described further hereinbelow with reference to shift-aligned arrangements of emitters and receivers, and with reference to light beams directed along four axes. An additional method of resolving ambiguous multi-touches is described with reference to fast scan frequencies enabled by the ASIC controller discussed hereinbelow.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 10 and 11, which are diagrams of a touch screen 800 that detects a two-finger glide movement, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The two-finger glide movement illustrated in FIGS. 10 and 11 is a diagonal pinch gesture that brings pointers 901 and 902 closer together. The direction of the glide is determined from changes in which receivers 300 are blocked. As shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, blocked receivers are changing from a and b to receivers 300 more to the right, and from c and d to receivers 300 more to the left. Similarly, blocked receivers are changing from e and f to receivers 300 more to the bottom, and from g and h to receivers 300 more to the top. For a two-finger glide in the opposite direction, i.e., a spread, or reverse-pinch gesture, that moves pointers 901 and 902 farther apart, the blocked receivers change in the opposite directions.

When pointers 901 and 902 are aligned along a common vertical or horizontal axis, there is no ambiguity in identifying glide patterns. When pointers 901 and 902 are not aligned in a common vertical or horizontal axis, there may be ambiguity in identifying glide patterns, as illustrated in FIGS. 10 and 11. In case of such ambiguity, and as described hereinabove with reference to FIGS. 8 and 9, discriminating between FIG. 10 and FIG. 11 is resolved by either (i) by associating the same meaning to both glide patterns, or (ii) by associating meaning to only one of the two glide patterns.

Associating the same meaning to both glide patterns may be performed in a pinch zoom gesture, whereby a user places two fingers on the screen and spreads the fingers apart along a diagonal of the screen. Such a gesture activates a zoom-in operation, for increasing the magnification of graphics displayed on the screen. Such a gesture has the same meaning irrespective of whether the pinch zoom is performed along a top-left to bottom-right diagonal, or along a top-right to bottom-left diagonal.

Similar considerations apply to a zoom-out gesture, whereby a user places two fingers on the screen and brings the fingers closer together along a diagonal of the screen, for decreasing the magnification of graphics displayed on the screen. This gesture, too, has the same meaning irrespective of along which diagonal of the screen the gesture is performed.

Reference is made to FIG. 12, which is a circuit diagram of touch screen 800 from FIG. 6, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The emitters and receivers are controlled by a controller (not shown). The emitters receive respective signals LED00-LED15 from switches A, and receive current from VROW and VCOL through current limiters B. The receivers receive respective signals PD00-PD15 from shift register 730. Receiver output is sent to the controller via signals PDROW and PDCOL. Operation of the controller, of switches A and of current limiters B is described in applicant's U.S. Pat. No. 8,339,379, issued on Dec. 25, 2012 and entitled LIGHT-BASED TOUCH SCREEN, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the emitters are controlled via a first serial interface, which transmits a binary string to a shift register 720. Each bit of the binary string corresponds to one of the emitters, and indicates whether to activate or deactivate the corresponding emitter, where a bit value “1” indicates activation and a bit value “0” indicates deactivation. Successive emitters are activated and deactivated by shifting the bit string within shift register 720.

Similarly, the receivers are controlled by a second serial interface, which transmits a binary string to a shift register 730. Successive receivers are activated and deactivated by shifting the bit string in shift register 730. Operation of shift registers 720 and 730 is described in applicant's U.S. Pat. No. 8,339,379, referenced above.

Reference is made to FIG. 13, which is a simplified diagram of a light-based touch screen system, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The touch screen of FIG. 13 does not require an overlay. Instead, a small infrared transparent frame 407 surrounds the display to reflect beams between emitters 200 and receivers positioned on opposite sides of the screen. When a pointer, such as a finger or a stylus, touches the screen in a specific area 905, one or more light beams generated by emitters 200 are obstructed. The obstructed light beams are detected by corresponding decreases in light received by one more of the receivers, which is used to determine the location of the pointer.

Reference is made to FIG. 14, which is a simplified cross-sectional diagram of the touch screen system of FIG. 13, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of a section A-A of an LCD display 600 and its surrounding infrared transparent frame 407. The cross-sectional view shows an emitter 200 emitting light 100 that is reflected by a cut-out 408 in frame 407, and directed substantially parallel over the display surface. As a finger 900 approaches near the display surface, some of the light, 101, emitted by the emitters and directed over the location of the near touch is blocked by the finger, and some of the light, 102, passes between the fingertip and the screen glass. When finger 900 touches the display surface, all of the light emitted by the emitters and directed over the touch location is blocked by finger 900.

Touch Screen System Configuration No. 1

Reference is made to FIG. 15, which is a simplified illustration of an arrangement of emitters, receivers and optical elements that enable a touch screen system to determine a precise location of a fingertip touching the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 15 are a mirror or optical lens 400, an emitter 200, a wide reflected light beam 105, a pointer 900 and a receiver 300. Mirror or optical lens 400 generates a wide light beam that is focused onto receiver 300 by a second mirror or optical lens. The wide beam makes it possible to sense an analog change in the amount of light detected at receiver 300 when a pointer blocks a portion of the wide beam. In some embodiments of the present invention, the mirror or optical lens 400 distributes light at approximately uniform intensity along the width of beam 105. Thus, as a fingertip passes across wide beam 105 it blocks increasing amounts of the beam's light, and the amount of blocked light is linearly proportional to the width of the blocked portion of the beam. The fingertip is slightly wider than each wide beam, such that the fingertip is detected by at least two adjacent wide beams. The precise location of the finger is determined by interpolating the detection signals in adjacent beams. In systems, where beam 105 is directed though air over screen 800, pointer 900 in FIG. 15 blocks only a portion of wide beam 105. The wide beam also enables mounting the emitters far apart from one another, and mounting the receivers far apart from one another. Consequently, this reduces the bill of materials by requiring fewer emitters and fewer receivers.

Reference is made to FIG. 16, which is a simplified illustration of an arrangement of emitters, receivers and optical elements that enable a touch screen system to detect a pointer that is smaller than the sensor elements, including inter alia a stylus, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 16 are a mirror or optical lens 400, an emitter 200, a wide reflected light beam, 105, a pointer 900 and a receiver 300. Mirror or optical lens 400 generates a wide light beam that is focused onto receiver 300 by a second mirror or optical lens. The wide beam enables sensing of an analog change in the amount of light detected at receiver 300 when a pointer 900 blocks a portion of the wide beam, in particular, when pointer 900 is placed in front of mirror or lens 400. Pointer 900, as shown in FIG. 16, blocks only a portion of wide beam 105, indicated by beam 106 being blocked by the tip of pointer 900. The wide beam also enables mounting emitters far apart from one another, and mounting receivers far apart from one another. In turn, this reduces the bill of materials by requiring fewer emitters and fewer receivers.

Without the wide beam, there are generally spaces between beams that go undetected, making it impossible to distinguish between a user dragging a fine-point stylus across the beams, and the user tapping on different beams with a fine-point stylus. Moreover, with widely spaced narrow beams the pointer touch must be very precise in order to cross a narrow beam.

Reference is made to FIG. 17, which is a simplified diagram of a touch screen with wide light beams covering the screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Touch screen systems using wide beams are described in applicant's co-pending patent application, U.S. application Ser. No. 12/760,568 filed on Apr. 15, 2010 and entitled OPTICAL TOUCH SCREEN SYSTEMS USING WIDE LIGHT BEAMS, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

The emitters and receivers shown in FIG. 17 are spaced relatively widely apart. Generally, the emitters are not activated simultaneously. Instead, they are activated one after another, and the coverage areas of their light beams are substantially connected.

FIG. 17 shows a top view and a side view of a touch system having a touch screen or touch surface 800. The touch system provides touch-sensitive functionality to a surface irrespective of whether or not the surface includes a display screen. Moreover, a physical surface is not required; the light beams may be projected though the air, and the location of a pointer in mid-air that breaks the light beams may be detected.

Also shown in FIG. 17 are emitters 200, reflectors 437 and 438, and receivers 300 coupled with a calculating unit 770. Emitters 200 and receivers 300 are positioned beneath screen 800. Emitters 200 project arcs 142 of light under screen 800 onto reflectors 437. The distance between emitters 200 and reflectors 437 is sufficient for an arc to spread into a wide beam at a reflector 437. In various embodiments of the present invention, the distance between emitters 200 and reflectors 437 may be approximately 4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm or greater, depending on factors including inter alia the widths of the wide beams, the required touch resolution, the emitter characteristics and the optical reflector characteristics.

Reflectors 437 collimate the light as wide beams 144 across a swath of screen surface. A wide beam 144 reaches a reflector 438, which (i) redirects the light beam below screen 800, and (ii) narrows the wide beam 144 into an arc 143. As such, wide beam 144 converges onto the surface of one of receivers 300 below the surface of screen 800. The light intensity detected by each of receivers 300 is communicated to calculating unit 770.

The configuration of FIG. 17 is of advantage in that the wide light beams cover the entire screen surface, thereby enabling touch sensitive functionality anywhere on the screen. Additionally, the cost of materials for the touch screen is reduced, since relatively few emitter and receiver components are required.

Touch Screen System Configuration No. 2

Configurations 2-5 use multiple emitter-receiver pairs to precisely identify a touch position. In some of the configurations described hereinabove there are opposing rows of emitters and receivers, each emitter being opposite a respective receiver. In configurations 2 and 3 the emitters are shift-aligned with the receivers. For example, each emitter may be positioned opposite a midpoint between two opposing receivers. Alternatively, each emitter may be off-axis aligned with an opposite receiver, but not opposite the midpoint between two receivers.

Embodiments of the present invention employ two types of collimating lenses; namely, (i) conventional collimating lenses, and (ii) collimating lenses coupled with a surface of micro-lenses that refract light to form multiple wide divergent beams. When a light source is positioned at the focus of a conventional collimating lens, the lens outputs light in substantially parallel beams, as illustrated inter alia in FIGS. 15-17. When a light source is positioned between a conventional collimating lens and its focus, the lens outputs a wide beam, the outer edges of which are not parallel to each other, as illustrated inter alia in FIGS. 23-26.

Reference is made to FIG. 18, which is a simplified illustration of a collimating lens in cooperation with a light emitter, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 18 is (A) a light emitter 200 transmitting light beams 190 through a flat clear glass 524. Beams 190 are unaltered by the glass.

Also shown in FIG. 18 is (B) an emitter positioned at the focus of a collimating lens 525. Beams 190 are collimated by lens 525.

Also shown in FIG. 18 is (C) an emitter 200 positioned between collimating lens 525 and the lens' focus. Beams 190 are partially collimated by lens 525; i.e., the output wide beams are not completely parallel.

Reference is made to FIG. 19, which is a simplified illustration of a collimating lens in cooperation with a light receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 19 is (A) substantially parallel light beams 191 transmitted through a flat clear glass 524. Beams 191 are unaltered by the glass.

Also shown in FIG. 19 is (B) a receiver 300 positioned at the focus of collimating lens 525. Beams 191 are refracted onto receiver 300 by collimating lens 525.

Also shown in FIG. 19 is (C) a receiver 300 positioned between collimating lens 525 and the lens' focus. Beams 191 are collimated by lens 525, but because receiver 300 is not at the lens focus, the beams do not converge thereon.

Collimating lenses coupled with an outer surface of micro-lenses, which face away from emitters or receivers, transmit light in two stages. As light passes through the bodies of the lenses, light beams are collimated as with conventional collimating lenses. However, as the light passes through the surface of micro-lenses, the light is refracted into multiple wide divergent beams, as illustrated inter alia in FIGS. 30, 31 and 33-35. In FIGS. 34 and 35, collimating lenses 439 and 440 are shown having micro-lens surfaces 444. In FIG. 34, light emitters 201 and 202 are positioned within the focal distance of collimating lenses 439 and 440, and wide light beams from the emitters are shown entering lenses 439 and 440. Light is collimated as it passes through the lens, as with conventional collimating lenses. When the collimated light passes through micro-lens surface 444, it is refracted into multiple wide divergent beams, three of which are illustrated in FIG. 34. In FIG. 35, light receivers 301 and 302 are positioned within the focal distance of the collimating lenses, and light beams are shown entering lenses 439 and 440 through micro-lens surface 444. The incoming beams are refracted into wide divergent beams inside the lens bodies. The refracted beams are directed by the collimating portions of lenses 439 and 440, which concentrate the beams onto light receivers 301 and 302.

Reference is made to FIG. 20, which is a simplified illustration of a collimating lens having a surface of micro-lenses facing an emitter, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 20 shows (A) a flat glass 526 having micro-lenses etched on a surface facing an emitter 200. Light beams 190 enter glass 526 at various angles. At each entry point, a micro-lens refracts an incoming beam into a wide arc 192. Lines 183 show how the middle of each arc is oriented in a different direction, depending on the angle of approach of the beam into glass 526.

FIG. 20 also shows (B) a collimating lens 527 having micro-lenses etched on a surface facing an emitter 200. A focus point of the lens, without the micro-lenses, is determined, and emitter 200 is positioned at that point. Light beams 190 enter collimating lens 527 at various angles. At each entry point, a micro-lens refracts the incoming beams into a wide arc 192. Lines 184 show how the middle of each arc is oriented in the same direction, irrespective of the angle of approach of the beams into collimating lens 527. This type of lens is referred to as a “multi-directional collimating lens”, because it outputs arcs of light, not parallel beams, but all of the arcs are substantially uniformly directed.

FIG. 20 also shows (C) the same collimating lens 527, but with emitter 200 positioned between the lens and the focus point. The output arcs 192 are oriented in directions between those of the arcs of (A) and the arcs of (B), indicated by lines 185.

Reference is made to FIG. 21, which is a simplified illustration of a collimating lens having a surface of micro-lenses facing a receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 21 shows (A) a flat glass 526 having micro-lenses etched on a surface facing a receiver 300. Light beams 191 are shown entering glass 526 as parallel beams. At each exit point, a micro-lens refracts a beam into a wide arc 192. Lines 186 show how the middle of each arc is oriented in the same direction. The arcs do not converge on receiver 300.

FIG. 21 also shows (B) a multi-directional collimating lens 527 having micro-lenses etched on a surface facing receiver 300. A focus point of the lens, without the micro-lenses, is determined, and receiver 300 is positioned at that point. Light beams 191 enter lens 527 as substantially parallel beams. At each exit point, a micro-lens refracts an incoming beam into a wide arc 192. Lines 187 show how the middle of each arc is oriented towards receiver 300.

FIG. 21 also shows (C) the same lens 527, but with receiver 300 positioned between the lens and the focus point.

As used through the present specification, the term “collimating lens” includes a multi-directional collimating lens.

Reference is made to FIG. 22, which is a simplified diagram of an electronic device with a wide-beam touch screen, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 22 is an electronic device 826 with two emitters, 201 and 202, and three receivers, 301, 302 and 303, the emitters and receivers being placed along opposite edges of a display 636. Light intensities detected at each of receivers 301, 302 and 303, are communicated to a calculating unit 770. Each emitter and receiver uses a respective primary lens, labeled respectively 441, 442, 443, 439 and 440. Emitters and receivers use the same lens arrangement, to ensure that light emitted by an emitter and re-directed by an emitter lens, is reverse-directed by an opposing lens onto a receiver.

It is desirable that the light beam from each emitter covers its two opposite receiver lenses. Such a condition is achieved by positioning each emitter between its lens and its lens' focal point. As such, the emitter is not in focus and, as a result, its light is spread, instead of being collimated, by its lens. Each receiver is similarly positioned between its lens and its lens' focal point.

Reference is made to FIG. 23, which is a diagram of electronic device 826 of FIG. 22, depicting overlapping light beams from one emitter detected by two receivers, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 23 are two wide light beams from emitter 201, one of which is detected at receiver 301 and another of which is detected at receiver 302, respectively. The left and right sides of the one beam are marked 145 and 146, respectively, and the left and right sides of the other beam are marked 147 and 148, respectively. The shaded area in FIG. 23 indicates the area on display 636 at which a touch blocks a portion of both wide beams. As such, a touch in this area is detected by two emitter-receiver pairs; namely, 201-301 and 201-302.

Reference is made to FIG. 24, which is a diagram of electronic device 826 of FIG. 22, depicting overlapping light beams from two emitters detected by one receiver, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 24 are wide beams, one from emitter 201 and another from emitter 202, that are both detected at receiver 302. The left and right sides of the one beam are marked 145 and 146, respectively, and the left and right sides of the other beam are marked 147 and 148, respectively. The shaded area in FIG. 24 indicates the area on display 636 at which a touch blocks a portion of both wide beams. As such, a touch in this area is detected by two emitter-receiver pairs; namely, 201-302 and 202-302.

Reference is now made to FIG. 25, which is a diagram of the electronic device 826 of FIG. 22, showing that points on the screen are detected by at least two emitter-receiver pairs, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 25 shows the wide beams of FIGS. 23 and 24, and illustrates that touches in the shaded wedges on display 636 are detected by at least two emitter-receiver pairs. The two emitter-receiver pairs are either one emitter with two receivers, as in FIG. 23, or two emitters with one receiver, as in FIG. 24. More specifically, touches that occur near the row of emitters are generally detected by the former, and touches that occur near the row of detectors are generally detected by the latter. By surrounding the screen with similarly arranged emitters, lenses and receivers, any point may be similarly detected by two emitter-receiver pairs.

Reference is made to FIG. 26, which is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen, showing an intensity distribution of a light signal, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 26 is a wide angle light beam emitted by emitter 201 into lens 439. The light beam crosses over display 636 and substantially spans lenses 441 and 442. The light is detected at receivers 301 and 302.

Shown in FIG. 26 is a graph of detected light intensity. Total detected light corresponds to a shaded area under the graph. An object touching the screen blocks a portion of this light. If the object touching the screen moves across the wide beam, from left to right, the amount of blocked light increases, and correspondingly the total detected light decreases, as the object progresses from the left edge of the beam to the center of the beam. Similarly, the amount of blocked light decreases, and correspondingly the total detected light increases, as the object progresses from the center of the beam to the right edge of the beam.

It is noted that the detected light intensities at the edges of the light beam are strictly positive, thus ensuring that a touch at these edges is detected.

Reference is made to FIG. 27, which is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen, showing intensity distributions of overlapping light signals from two emitters, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 27 shows light detected from emitters 201 and 202. A touch point 980 on display 636 blocks light from these emitters differently. Area 973 indicates attenuation of light from emitter 201 by touch point 980, and the union of areas 973 and 974 corresponds to the attenuation of light from emitter 202 by point 980. By comparing the light attenuation the two emitter-receiver pairs, 201-302 and 202-302, a precise touch coordinate is determined.

Reference is made to FIG. 28, which is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen, showing intensity distributions of two sets of overlapping light signals from one emitter, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 28, touch point 980 is inside the area detected by emitter-receiver pair 201-301 and emitter-receiver pair 201-302. The attenuation of the light signal at receiver 302, depicted as area 976, is greater than the attenuation at receiver 301, depicted as area 975. By comparing the light attenuation in the two emitter-receiver pairs, 201-301 and 201-302, a precise touch coordinate is determined.

Determining the position of touch point 980 requires determining a position along an axis parallel to the edge along which the emitters are positioned, say, the x-axis, and along an axis perpendicular to the edge, say, the y-axis. In accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, an approximate y-coordinate is first determined and then, based on the expected attenuation values for a point having the thus determined y-coordinate and based on the actual attenuation values, a precise x-coordinate is determined. In turn, the x-coordinate thus determined is used to determine a precise y-coordinate. In cases where the touch point 980 is already touching the screen, either stationary or in motion, previous x and y coordinates of the touch point are used as approximations to subsequent x and y coordinates. Alternatively, only one previous coordinate is used to calculate a first subsequent coordinate, with the second subsequent coordinate being calculated based on the first subsequent coordinate. Alternatively, previous coordinates are not used.

Reference is made to FIG. 29, which is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen with emitter and receiver lenses that do not have micro-lens patterns, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 29 is an electronic device 826 with a display 636, emitters 201 and 202, corresponding emitter lenses 439 and 440, receivers 301, 302 and 303, and corresponding receiver lenses 441, 442 and 443. Two light beams, 151 and 152, from respective emitters 201 and 202, arrive at a point 977 that is located at an outer edge of lens 442. Since beams 151 and 152 approach point 977 at different angles of incidence, they do not converge on receiver 302. Specifically, light beam 152 arrives at receiver 302, and light beam 151 does not arrive at receiver 302.

In order to remedy the non-convergence, a fine pattern of micro-lenses is integrated with the receiver lenses, at many points long the surfaces of the lenses. The micro-lenses distribute incoming light so that a portion of the light arriving at each micro-lens reaches the receivers. In this regard, reference is made to FIGS. 30 and 31, which are simplified diagrams of a wide-beam touch screen with emitter and detector lenses that have micro-lens patterns, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 30 shows incoming beam 151 being spread across an angle θ by a micro-lens at location 977, thus ensuring that a portion of the beam reaches receiver 302. FIG. 31 shows incoming beam 152 being spread across an angle ψ by the same micro-lens at location 977, thus ensuring that a portion of this beam, too, reaches receiver 302. By arranging the micro-lenses at many locations along each receiver lens, light beams that enter the locations from different angles are all detected by the receiver. The detected light intensities are communicated to a calculating unit 770 coupled with the receivers.

Reference is made to FIG. 32, which is a simplified diagram of a wide-beam touch screen with emitter and receiver lenses that do not have micro-lens patterns, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Shown in FIG. 32 is an electronic device 826 with a display 636, emitters 201 and 202, corresponding emitter lenses 439 and 440, receivers 301, 302 and 303, and corresponding receiver lenses 441, 442 and 443. Two light beams emitted by emitter 201 and detected by respective receivers 301 and 302, are desired in order to determine a precise location of touch point 980. However, lens 439, without micro-lens patterns, cannot refract a beam crossing point 980 to receiver 301. I.e., referring to FIG. 32, lens 439 cannot refract beam 153 as shown. Only the beam shown as 154, crossing point 980, is detected.

In order to remedy this detection problem, micro-lenses are integrated with the emitter lenses at many points along the surface of the lenses. The micro-lenses distribute outgoing light so that a portion of the light reaches the desired receivers. In this regard, reference is made to FIG. 33, which is a simplified diagram of a wide beam touch screen, with emitter and receiver lenses that have micro-lens patterns, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 33 shows that a portion of light exiting from micro-lens location 982 reaches multiple receivers. As such, a touch at point 980 is detected by receivers 301 and 302. It will be noted from FIGS. 32 and 33 that the beams passing through point 980 are generated by micro-lenses at different locations 981 and 982. Light intensity values detected by the receivers of FIGS. 32 and 33 are communicated to a calculating unit 770.

Micro-lens patterns integrated with emitter and receiver lenses thus generate numerous overlapping light beams that a