New! View global litigation for patent families

US8408706B2 - 3D gaze tracker - Google Patents

3D gaze tracker Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US8408706B2
US8408706B2 US12965948 US96594810A US8408706B2 US 8408706 B2 US8408706 B2 US 8408706B2 US 12965948 US12965948 US 12965948 US 96594810 A US96594810 A US 96594810A US 8408706 B2 US8408706 B2 US 8408706B2
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
gaze
person
eye
tracker
light
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
US12965948
Other versions
US20120147328A1 (en )
Inventor
Giora Yahav
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Microsoft Technology Licensing LLC
Original Assignee
Microsoft Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B3/00Apparatus for testing the eyes; Instruments for examining the eyes
    • A61B3/10Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients' perceptions or reactions
    • A61B3/113Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients' perceptions or reactions for determining or recording eye movement
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/011Arrangements for interaction with the human body, e.g. for user immersion in virtual reality
    • G06F3/013Eye tracking input arrangements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/00597Acquiring or recognising eyes, e.g. iris verification
    • G06K9/00604Acquisition
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic or multiview television systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/02Picture signal generators
    • H04N13/0203Picture signal generators using a stereoscopic image camera
    • H04N13/0239Picture signal generators using a stereoscopic image camera having two 2D image pickup sensors representing the interocular distance
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic or multiview television systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/04Picture reproducers
    • H04N13/0468Picture reproducers using observer tracking
    • H04N13/0484Picture reproducers using observer tracking for tracking with gaze detection, i.e. detecting the lines of sight of the observers eyes

Abstract

An embodiment of the invention provides a gaze tracker for determining a gaze vector for a person, which comprises a 3D camera that and a picture camera that image the person and a controller that processes images acquired by the cameras to determine a gaze direction and origin for the gaze vector.

Description

TECHNICAL FIELD

Embodiments of the invention relate to methods and apparatus for tracking a person's gaze and determining a “point of regard” (POR) in the person's environment to which the gaze is attended.

BACKGROUND

Various types of eye tracking, or gaze tracking, systems for determining a direction of a person's gaze and what the person is looking at, are known in the art. The systems are used, by way of example, for ergonomic and medical research, diagnostics, and interfacing a person with a computer, or a computer generated artificial environment.

Generally, the systems operate to determine a location for the person's pupil, and a gaze direction along which the person is looking, which is defined as a direction of a “gaze vector” that extends out from the eye along a line from a center of rotation of the eye through the center of the located pupil. A location of the eye in three-dimensional (3D) space is determined and used to determine coordinates of a region of space through which the gaze vector passes. The determined coordinates of the region, hereinafter referred to as an “origin” of the vector, locate the gaze vector in space. Given the direction and origin of the gaze vector, its intersection with a region or object in the person's environment is identified to determine what the person is looking at, which, presumably, is a point regard (POR) to which the person's attention is directed.

Hereinafter, a POR, is assumed to be coincident with an intersection of a person's direction of gaze and an object or region in the person's environment, and is used to refer to the intersection, object, and/or region. A gaze tracking system, hereinafter referred to as a “gaze tracker”, provides both a direction and an origin for a person's gaze vector, and optionally a POR, for the person.

Intrusive and non-intrusive methods and gaze trackers exist for determining a direction for a gaze vector. In some intrusive gaze trackers a person wears special contact lenses comprising induction micro-coils that move with the eye and pupil. A high frequency electromagnetic field is used to track orientation of the micro-coils and thereby the person's eyes and direction of gaze. In some intrusive gaze trackers, a person is fitted with electrodes that sense changes in orientation of a dipole electric field that the eye generates to determine direction of gaze.

Non-intrusive gaze trackers and tracking methods often image reflections, referred to as “Purkinje reflections”, of light from surfaces of different structures of the eye and process images of the reflections to determine their relative motion, and therefrom changes in direction of a person's gaze. The changes in gaze direction are referenced to a reference gaze direction to determine the person's gaze direction. First, second, third, and fourth Purkinje reflections refer respectively to reflections from the front surface of the cornea, from the back surface of the cornea, the front surface of the lens and the back surface of the lens.

For a given stationary source of light, reflections from the front surface of the cornea, the first Purkinje reflection, are strongest and are conventionally referred to as “glints”. Locations of images of glints are relatively independent of direction of gaze for moderate eye rotations (eye rotations up to about ±15°) and a fixed position of the head. Locations of images of glints are typically used to reference motion of images of features of the eye and/or of other Purkinje reflections to determine changes in a person's gaze direction.

In many non-intrusive gaze trackers, changes in location of an image of the pupil relative to an image of a glint are used to determine gaze direction. In some non-intrusive gaze trackers, reflections of light from the retina, which are not usually classified as a Purkinje reflections are used to image the pupil and track eye motion and gaze direction. The retina acts like a retro reflector and light that enters the pupil and is reflected by the retina exits the pupil along a direction that it entered the eye and backlights the pupil. The retinal backlighting of the pupil produces the familiar “bright eye”, or “red eye” effect, frequently seen in images of people's faces acquired with a flash. Bright eye pupil images of a person are acquired by a camera using light sources that illuminate the person's face from a direction substantially coincident with the camera optic axis. Locations of the bright eye pupil in the images are tracked relative to locations of glints in the images to determine the person's gaze direction. Bright eye pupil images are not produced by off axis light sources, and for off axis light sources, an imaged pupil appears dark. In many non-intrusive gaze trackers, locations of “dark pupil images” are compared to locations of images of glints to determine direction of gaze.

For many applications of a gaze tracker, a person's head is required to be stabilized relative to components of the gaze tracker so that it can provide acceptably accurate determinations of a direction and an origin for a gaze vector, and therefrom a POR for the person. For some gaze trackers, the person's head is stabilized by a static support, such as a chin rest often used in ophthalmic examinations, or a bite bar, to fix the head and eyes relative to components of the gaze trackers.

For applications such as interfacing a person with a virtual or augmented reality, it is advantageous for the person to be able to freely move his or her head and for these applications, a person typically wears a headgear, such as a helmet or goggles, that comprises gaze tracker components. The headgear holds the gaze tracker components in substantially fixed locations relative to the person's head and provides fixed, known, distances and orientations of the eye relative to the components. The known distances and orientations facilitate determining gaze vector directions and origins for the person relative to the headgear. Gaze vector directions and origins relative to the real world, a virtual or augmented reality, are determined from the gaze directions and origins relative to the headgear, and orientation of the headgear in the real world. Orientation of the headgear is determined using any of various optical, electromagnetic and/or mechanical position and orientation sensor systems.

Some gaze trackers provide directions and origins of gaze vectors and PORs for a person without recourse to a worn headgear. However, these gaze trackers generally operate for head positions restricted to a relatively small range of distances between about 50 cm and about 80 cm from the gaze trackers.

SUMMARY

An embodiment of the invention provides a three-dimensional (3D) gaze tracker that determines gaze vectors for a person who is unencumbered by headgear and enjoying freedom of motion in a field of view (FOV) of the gaze tracker having a depth of field that extends to a relatively large distance from the tracker. Optionally, the gaze tracker determines a POR for gaze vectors that it determines.

In an embodiment of the invention, the 3D gaze tracker comprises a 3D camera, which acquires range images of the person that provide 3D spatial coordinates for features of the person's face and/or head, and a camera, hereinafter also a “picture camera”, which acquires contrast images, hereinafter “pictures”, of the features. A processor processes the contrast and range images to distinguish the person's eyes and features of the eyes, for example, an eye glint and/or a bright or dark pupil, and features of the face and/or head, such as the nose, chin and/or forehead, and determines 3D spatial coordinates for the features. The processor provides directions and origins for gaze vectors for the person, and optionally PORs associated with the gaze vectors, responsive to the distinguished features, and their 3D spatial coordinates.

Optionally, the 3D camera comprises a time of flight (TOF) 3D camera configured to provide range images in a FOV that extends to a distance between at least 1 m (meter) and 3 m from the gaze tracker. Optionally, the FOV extends from a distance equal to about 30 cm from the gaze tracker.

This Summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description. This Summary is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES

Non-limiting examples of embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to figures attached hereto that are listed following this paragraph. Identical structures, elements or parts that appear in more than one figure are generally labeled with a same numeral in all the figures in which they appear. Dimensions of components and features shown in the figures are chosen for convenience and clarity of presentation and are not necessarily shown to scale.

FIG. 1 schematically shows a 3D gaze tracker comprising a TOF 3D camera determining gaze vectors and a POR for a person, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

FIGS. 2A-2C schematically illustrate relationships between the pupil of an eye and a glint as a function of gaze angle that may be used by a 3D gaze tracker, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

FIGS. 3A-3C schematically illustrate aspects of head orientation on determination of gaze direction;

FIG. 4 schematically shows a 3D gaze tracker that concentrates light on a person's head to acquire range images and pictures for determining a gaze direction and POR for the person, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 5 schematically illustrates aspects of determining an origin for a gaze vector of an eye and its associated POR responsive to distance of the eye from a gaze tracker, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention; and

FIG. 6 schematically shows a 3D gaze tracker comprising a stereoscopic 3D camera determining gaze vectors and a POR for a person in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In the detailed description below aspects of embodiments of the invention are discussed with respect to a 3D gaze tracker schematically shown in FIG. 1, which comprises a TOF 3D camera, and a picture camera, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Aspects of determining gaze directions responsive to images of eye glints and pupils acquired by the 3D gaze tracker, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention, are discussed with reference to FIGS. 2A-2C. Effects of head orientation on determining gaze directions, and aspects of determining head orientations and gaze directions by the 3D gaze tracker in accordance with an embodiment of the invention are illustrated and discussed with reference to FIGS. 3A-3C. A variation of a 3D gaze tracker that tracks a person with a cone of light to provide enhanced illumination of the person, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention, is discussed with reference to FIG. 4. Determinations of gaze vector origins using range images acquired by a 3D gaze tracker in accordance with an embodiment of the invention are discussed with reference to FIG. 5. FIG. 6 schematically shows an embodiment of a 3D gaze tracker comprising a stereoscopic 3D imager that determines distances by triangulation.

In the discussion, unless otherwise stated, adverbs such as “substantially” and “about” modifying a condition or relationship characteristic of a feature or features of an embodiment of the invention, are understood to mean that the condition or characteristic is defined to within tolerances that are acceptable for operation of the embodiment for an application for which it is intended.

FIG. 1 schematically shows a 3D gaze tracker 20 imaging a person 22 whose head is located within a field of view (FOV) 30 of the 3D gaze tracker, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. The gaze tracker is tracking the person's gaze by determining gaze vectors and PORs for the person as he or she moves around, and engages in activities, in the FOV. A dashed line 61 represents an optical axis of the 3D gaze tracker, and dashed lines 32, 34, and 36, outline a frustum delimiting a volume of FOV 30. The FOV has a depth of field extending from 3D gaze tracker 20 having a minimum, lower bound range schematically indicated by location of a plane defined by dashed lines 32, and a maximum, upper bound range schematically indicated by location of a plane defined by dashed lines 36.

In some embodiments of the invention, the lower bound range is equal to or greater than about 30 cm. Optionally, the lower bound range is equal to or greater than about 50 cm. In some embodiments of the invention, the upper bound range is greater than or equal to about 1 m. Optionally, the upper bound range is equal to or greater than about 2 m. In some embodiments of the invention, the upper bound range is equal to about 3 m.

A view angle of 3D gaze tracker 20 is a largest possible angle between lines that lie in FOV 30 and a plane through optical axis 61. Horizontal and vertical view angles are view angles for horizontal (parallel to the ground) and vertical (perpendicular to the ground) planes respectively that contain optical axis 61. In some embodiments of the invention, at least one of the horizontal and vertical view angles is equal to or greater than about 45°. Optionally, at least one of the view angles is equal to or greater than 90°. In some embodiments of the invention, at least one of the view angles is equal to about 120° or 150°.

By way of example, 3D gaze tracker 20 is assumed to be tracking the person's gaze to interface the person with a computer (not shown) video display 40. Block arrows 42 in FIG. 1 schematically represent gaze vectors for the person, and dashed lines 43 indicate their directions as converging to a POR 44 at the lower left corner of video display 40. A controller 24 controls 3D gaze tracker 20 and is interfaced with the video display computer by a suitable application programming interface (API) so that information generated by the 3D gaze tracker is applicable to images displayed on video display 40.

The 3D gaze tracker optionally comprises a light source 50 controllable by controller 24 to radiate a train 51 of light pulses, schematically represented by square “pulses” labeled with a numeral 52, to illuminate objects and people in FOV 30, and by way of example in FIG. 1, person 22. Numeral 52 is also used to refer to the light pulses. Whereas light pulses 52 may comprise light from any portion of the spectrum provided by a suitable light emitting diode (LED) and/or laser, usually the light pulses are vision safe, near infrared (NIR) light pulses.

An optical system, represented by a lens 60 having an optical axis that coincides with optical axis 61, comprised in 3D gaze tracker 20 collects light from light pulses 52 that is reflected back to the 3D gaze tracker by features of person 22, and directs the collected light to a beam splitter 62. Light that beam splitter 62 receives from lens 60 is schematically represented by a block arrow 64, and the numeral 64 is used to reference the light.

Beam splitter 62 directs, optionally about one-half, of the light it receives from lens 60 to a photosensor 70, hereinafter also referred to as a “range photosensor 70”, having light sensitive pixels 72 (FIG. 1A). Light that beam splitter 62 directs to range photosensor 70 is represented by a block arrow 74 and the numeral 74 is used to reference the light. Photosensor 70 is shuttered open or closed to respectively enable it to register light 74 or prevent it from registering the light. Optionally, as schematically shown in FIG. 1, shuttering is accomplished by a shutter 76 located between beam splitter 62 and photosensor 70 that is controlled by controller 24 to prevent or enable light 74 directed towards the photosensor by beam splitter 62 to propagate to the photosensor. In some embodiments, turning on and turning off the photosensor respectively accomplish shuttering the photosensor open and closed.

Following a predetermined delay from a time at which each light pulse 52 in the train of light pulses is radiated by light source 50 to illuminate person 22, controller 24 controls shutter 76 to shutter open photosensor 70 for a short exposure period. Light 74 that reaches 3D gaze tracker 20 during the exposure period is transmitted by shutter 76 and imaged onto photosensor 70 for registration by pixels 72 in the photosensor. An amount of light 74 registered by a given pixel 72 during the short exposure period is a portion of a total amount of light 74 reflected from the light pulse by a feature imaged on the pixel and directed towards photosensor 70 by beam splitter 62. The amount is a function of a distance of the feature from 3D gaze tracker 20.

The amounts of light reflected by features of person 22 from the light pulses in light pulse train 51 that are registered by pixels 72 provides a range image of the person. Controller 24 uses the amounts of light registered by the pixels to determine how long it takes light from light pulses 52 to travel round trip from light source 50 to the person's features respectively imaged on the pixels and back to 3D gaze tracker 20. The controller determines distances from the 3D gaze tracker of the features from the speed of light and the round trip times.

Light reflected by features of person 22 that is collected by optical lens 60 and not directed by beam splitter 62 to photosensor 70 is directed by the beam splitter to a photosensor 80, hereinafter referred to as a “picture photosensor 80”, having pixels 82. A block arrow 84 schematically represents light directed by beam splitter 62 to picture photosensor 80, and the numeral 84 is used to reference the light. Optionally, a shutter 86 located between beam splitter 62 and photosensor 80 shutters the photosensor. Unlike 3D photosensor 70 however, photosensor 80 is shuttered open for relatively long exposure periods, sufficiently long so that substantially all the light reflected from a pulse 52 that is collected by 3D gaze tracker 20 and directed by beam splitter 62 to picture photosensor 80 (that is, light 84) is registered by the photosensor. Picture photosensor 80 therefore provides a contrast image 88, hereinafter also referred to as a “picture 88”, of person 22, similar to conventional pictures acquired by a camera.

Whereas, generally a picture of person 22 imaged on photosensor 80 includes a picture of the person's head, and objects and possibly other people in the near vicinity of the person, for convenience of presentation, only eyes 100 of person 22 are shown in picture 88.

Controller 24 processes picture 88 using any of various pattern recognition algorithms to identify and locate an image of an eye 100 in the picture and identify at least one feature of the eye that is useable for determining a direction of gaze vector 42 associated with the eye. The at least one eye feature comprises at least one of the pupil, the iris, a boundary between the iris and the sclera, and a glint generated by light reflected off the eye. An enlarged image of an eye 100 imaged by 3D gaze tracker 20 on photosensor 80 is schematically shown in an inset 110 in FIG. 1. A glint 101, a pupil 102, an iris 103, sclera 104, and a boundary 105 between the sclera and iris are schematically shown for the eye in the inset. Controller 24 determines a direction of a gaze vector for the eye responsive to the at least one identified eye feature.

By way of example, in an embodiment of the invention, controller 24 determines gaze vector direction for an eye 100 of person 22 from locations of glint 101 and pupil 102 in the image of an eye 100 in picture 88. FIGS. 2A-2C schematically show relationships between features of eye 100 that may be used in an embodiment of the invention for determining gaze direction for person 22 responsive to images of glint 101 and pupil 102 of the eye.

FIGS. 2A and 2B show a schematic circular cross section 120 of an eye 100, assumed to be a sphere having a surface 121, center of rotation 124, an iris 103, and a pupil 102 having a center 122 located at a distance “dp” from center of rotation 124. Whereas the eye is not a perfect sphere, but is slightly ovate with a bulge at the location of the cornea, modeling the eye as a sphere provides qualitative and quantitative insight into aspects of determining gaze direction. Typically, the eye has a diameter equal to about 24 mm (millimeters) and dp is equal to about 10 mm.

In FIGS. 2A and 2B a camera 130 comprising a lens 131 and a photosensor 132 is shown imaging eye 100. Functioning of camera 130 in imaging eye 100 simulates imaging of eyes 100 of person 22 by lens 60 and picture photosurface 80 in 3D gaze tracker 20. Principles of the imaging that apply to camera 130 also apply to imaging of the eyes by 3D gaze tracker 20.

In FIG. 2A, center of rotation 124 of eye 100 is assumed by way of example to be located along an optical axis 135 of camera 130 and the eye is assumed to be illuminated by light, represented by a block arrow 136 that is coaxial with the optical axis. The light is reflected by surface 121 of eye 100 to generate a glint 101 at an intersection 123 of the optical axis and the eye surface. The glint is imaged on photosensor 132 with a center of the glint image located at an intersection 137 of optical axis 135 and the photosensor. A circle 138 at intersection 137 schematically represents the image of glint 101.

In the figure, a gaze of eye 100 is assumed to be directed towards camera 130 along optical axis 135. As a result, pupil 102 is aligned with glint 101 and center 122 of the pupil lies on optical axis 135. Pupil 102 is imaged on photosensor 132 with the center of the pupil image located at intersection 137 and coincident with the center of image 138 of glint 101. The image of pupil 102 is schematically represented by a filled circle 140 located to the left of circle 138 representing the image of glint 101.

FIG. 2B schematically shows eye 100 being imaged as in FIG. 2A, but with the eye and its gaze direction rotated “upwards” by an angle θ. As a result, whereas glint 101 has not moved, pupil 102 is no longer aligned with glint 101 along optic axis 135. Center 122 of pupil 102 is located a distance Δ=dp sin θ from optic axis 135 and image 140 of the center of pupil 102 is no longer located at intersection 137 and coincident with the center of glint 101.

If magnification of camera 130 is represented by “M”, centers of images 138 and 140 of glint 101 and pupil 102 are separated by a distance ΔI=MΔ=Mdp sin θ. Gaze direction θ of eye 100 can be determined from a relationship sin θ=(ΔI/Mdp). In practice, images of a pupil and a glint are generally not perfect circles, and typically ΔI is determined as a distance between centroids of images of the pupil and glint.

FIG. 2C shows schematic images 150 of eye 100, and in each image shows images of glint 101, pupil 102, iris 103 and sclera 104 for the eye, acquired by camera 130 (FIGS. 2A and 2B) for rotations of the eye by a same angle θ about different axes through center of rotation 124 of the eye. All the images are associated with a same position of center of rotation 124 along optical axis 135 (FIGS. 2A and 2B).

A central image 151 corresponds to an image acquired for eye 100 for the orientation of the eye shown in FIG. 2A, for which there is no rotation (θ=0) of the eye, and glint 101 is aligned with pupil 102 along optical axis 135. Each of the other eye images 150 is associated with an axis 160 of rotation about which the eye in the image and direction of gaze of the eye is rotated by same angle θ. The axis of rotation passes though the center of rotation 124 (FIGS. 2A and 2B) of the eye, is parallel to the plane of FIG. 2C, and is associated with a circle arrow 161 indicating direction of rotation of the eye about the axis. Direction of gaze for each image 150 of the eye relative to the gaze direction of central image 151 along optical axis 135 (FIGS. 2A and 2B), is schematically indicated by a block arrow 163. For each different rotation of eye 100 and its associated direction of gaze, orientation of glint 101 and pupil 102 is different, and the orientation and distance between the centers of the glint and pupil may be used to determine direction of gaze of person 22.

It is noted that embodiments of the invention, are not limited to determining gaze direction in accordance with the discussion above. For example, an embodiment may determine gaze direction of a person by processing images of his or her eyes to determine centers or centroids of their irises rather than centers or centroids of the pupils. The embodiment may use a location of the centers or centroids of the irises relative to a centroid or center of a glint to determine gaze direction. In some embodiments, direction of gaze of an eye is determined from a distribution in an image of the eye of regions determined to belong to the eye's sclera (referenced by numeral 104 in FIGS. 1, and 2C) relative to regions that are determined to belong to the iris. In some embodiments relative motion of Purkinje reflections, in particular the glint and the fourth Purkinje reflection, which is a reflection form the back of the eye lens, is used to determine direction of gaze.

FIGS. 2A-2C, and the above description of the Figs. provide a very simplified exposition of a method of determining gaze direction from images of glints and pupils. In practice, determining eye direction from images of pupils and glints generally comprises accounting for head motion, differences in the eye structure of different individuals, and, advantageously, calibrating images of eyes with eye gaze directions.

Influence of head orientation on gaze direction and limitations of determining gaze direction responsive only to relative positions of the pupil of an eye and a glint are illustrated for a simplified set of circumstances in FIG. 3A-FIG. 3C.

All the figures show, very schematically, on a left side of the figure, a perspective view of a camera 130 imaging a person 22 to acquire pictures of the person's eye 100 for determining his or her direction of gaze responsive to relative positions of a glint 101 and pupil 102 in the acquired pictures. An arrow 170 in FIGS. 3A, 3B and 3C points from the schematic perspective view in the figure to a schematic picture 171, 172, and 173 respectively, of the person acquired by camera 130.

In FIG. 3B, camera 130 is assumed to be directly in front of person 22, with its optic axis 135 aligned with and pointing at the person's nose. The person is looking slightly upward along a direction indicated by a block arrow 182. In picture 172 of the person acquired by camera 130, glint 101 is therefore directly below pupil 102. The relative positions of the glint and pupil indicate the alignment of the person with the camera and the slightly upward direction of the person's gaze.

In FIG. 3A the only change in the relative positions of camera 130 and person 22 is that the person's head is rotated clockwise in a direction indicated by a circle arrow 174, about an axis 175 that passes through the center of pupil 102 and the center of glint 101. As a result, the person is looking along a direction indicated by a block arrow 181 that is rotated with respect to the gaze direction indicated by block arrow 182 in FIG. 3B. However, whereas the gaze direction of the person in FIG. 3A is different from that in FIG. 3B, relative locations of pupil 102 and glint 101 in picture 171 of the person in FIG. 3A are the same as those in FIG. 3B. The relative locations are the same because the head is rotated about an axis through the pupil and glint.

In FIG. 3C, the only change in the positions of camera 130 and person 22 relative to their positions in FIG. 3B is that the person's head is rotated counterclockwise in a direction indicated by a circle arrow 176 about axis 177 by an angle equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction to that of the rotation angle in FIG. 3A. A block arrow 183 indicates direction of gaze of person 22 in FIG. 3C. Whereas direction of gaze indicated by block arrow 183 is different from gaze directions indicated by block arrows 181 and 182, location of pupil 102 relative to glint 101 in picture 173 is the same as in pictures 171 and 172.

For the conditions noted in the discussion of FIGS. 3A-3C, the images of glint 101 and pupil 102 in FIGS. 171, 172 and 173 do not distinguish the gaze directions represented by block arrows 181, 182 and 183. Without additional information, such as orientation of the person's head in FIGS. 3A-3C, glint 101 and pupil 102 acquired by camera 130 by themselves do not disambiguate gaze directions indicated by the block arrows. Images of the person's features, for example images of direction of the nose, in pictures 171, 173 and 174 may provide additional information useable to determine a direction of the person's head and differentiate the gaze directions.

In an embodiment of the invention, controller 24 processes range images acquired by range photosensor 70 and/or pictures of person 22 shown in FIG. 1 acquired by picture photosensor 80 to determine head orientation of person 22 for use in determining gaze directions of the person.

For example, in an embodiment of the invention, controller 24 processes range images of person 22 to determine distances from 3D gaze tracker 20 of features, hereinafter referred to as “fiducial features”, of the person's head that may advantageously be used to indicate orientation of the head. Fiducial features may include facial features such as the forehead, eyes, tip of the nose, lips and chin, and the ears. Distances of the eyes, and/or cheekbones, and/or ears of person 22 from the 3D gaze tracker may be used to determine an azimuthal angle of the person's head. An azimuthal angle is an angle about an axis through the person's head that is perpendicular to the ground when the person is standing upright with the head. A tilt angle of the head about an axis through the ears, which axis is parallel to the ground when the person is standing upright may be determined responsive to distance from 3D gaze tracker 20 of the person's forehead and chin.

In an embodiment of the invention, fiducial features are identified responsive to their images in a picture acquired by picture photosensor 80 (FIG. 1). Distances to the fiducial features imaged on pixels 82 in picture photosensor 80 are determined from distances provided by corresponding pixels 72 in range photosensor 70 on which light from the fiducial features is imaged.

To facilitate determining correspondence of pixels 72 in range photosensor 70 with pixels 82 in picture photosensor 80, optionally, the photosensors are configured having equal size pixels and are positioned and mounted in 3D gaze tracker 20 so that homologous pixels image same regions in FOV 30.

In some embodiments of the invention, pixels 72 and pixels 82 may have different sizes. For example, generally, intensity of light in light pulses 52 is limited by cost considerations and heat dissipation requirements for maintaining light source 50 (FIG. 1) and components of 3D gaze tracker 20 at acceptable operating temperatures. In addition, durations of the light pulses and exposure periods provided by shutter 76 are relatively short and may be less than a 10 or 20 nanoseconds. Amounts of light from light source 50 reflected by person 22 that are available per pixel 72 of range photosensor 70 for acquiring a range image of the person may therefore be limited. As a result, for pixels 72 in range photosensor 70 to register quantities of light sufficient to provide signals having acceptable signal to noise ratios (SNRs), it can be advantageous for the pixels to be relatively large. In an embodiment of the invention therefore, pixels 72, which are typically square, may advantageously have side dimensions greater than about 10μ (microns).

On the other hand, because exposure periods of photosensor 80 may be at least three times longer than exposure periods of photosensor 70, more light is generally available for imaging a person on picture photosensor 80 than for imaging the person on range photosensor 70. To resolve distances between a glint and the pupil of an eye, pixels 82 in photosensor 80 are therefore advantageously relatively small.

In general, a maximum change in a distance between a glint and the pupil of an eye per degree of rotation of the eye is about 0.17 mm, if only the eye rotates and the glint is localized to the cornea. For example, for a 1° of change in angle θ of direction of a person's gaze, distance Δ in FIG. 2B relative to optical axis 135 in the figure changes by about 0.17 mm If 3D gaze tracker 20 images person 22 at a magnification of about 10−2 on picture photosensor 80, to resolve changes of about 2° in θ responsive to changes in distance between pupil 102 and glint 101, pixels 72 in the picture photosensor are advantageously less than or equal to about 2.5μ on a side.

In some embodiments for which pixels 72 and 82 differ in size, range and picture photosensors 70 and 80 are aligned so that the larger pixels in one of the photosensors are substantially homologous with tiles of smaller pixels in the other of the photosensors and image same regions of FOV 30 that their homologous tiles image. For example, in an embodiment of the invention for which pixels 72 in range photosensor 70 are 10μ along a side and pixels 82 in picture photosensor 80 are 2.5μ along a side, large pixels 72 in range photosensor 70 may be homologous with square tiles comprising 16 small, 2.5μ pixels 82 in picture photosensor 80.

In some embodiments of the invention to accommodate different requirements and constraints of imaging on range photosensor 70 and picture photosensor 80, 3D gaze tracker comprises optics for adjusting magnification of imaging on the photosensors independently of each other.

For example, an embodiment of the invention may comprise optical elements, such as zoom lens optics (not shown) located between beam splitter 62 and picture photosensor 80 that controller 24 controls to adjust magnification of images of person 22 formed on the picture photosensor. For situations in which person 22 is far from 3D gaze tracker 20, the controller optionally controls the zoom lens optics to zoom in on the person and magnify an image of eyes 100 and distances between glints 101 and pupils 102 in the image. The increased magnification improves accuracy with which distances between glints and pupils, and thereby gaze directions, are determined. In an embodiment of the invention, controller 24 controls magnification of images on picture photosensor 80 responsive to distances to person 22 provided by range images acquired by range photosensor 70, and increases and decreases magnification as images acquired by the range photosensor indicate increase and decrease respectively in distance of person 22 from 3D gaze tracker 20.

In some embodiments of the invention, controller 24 controls intensity of light in light pulses 52 responsive to distance measurements provided by range photosensor 70. As person 22 moves farther from or closer to 3D gaze tracker 20, the controller respectively increases and decreases intensity of light in light pulses 52. Adjusting light intensity as a function of distance can improve efficiency with which light from light source 50 is used. For constant intensity of light transmitted by light source 50, SNR of signals provided by pixels 72 for determining distance of features of person 22 is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the person from 3D gaze tracker 20. Increasing illumination with distance can compensate, at least partially, for decrease in intensity of illumination of person 22 as the person moves away from 3D gaze tracker 20.

In some embodiments of the invention, light source 50 is controllable to direct light pulses 52 into a cone, hereinafter an “illumination cone”, having a desired direction and solid angle to concentrate light in a limited region in FOV 30 and improve efficiency with which light form the light source is used to illuminate person 22. In an embodiment of the invention, controller 24 controls direction and solid angle of the cone responsive to location of the face and head of person 22 in FOV 30 determined from images acquired by range photosensor 70 and/or picture photosensor 80 to concentrate light on the person's face, or a portion thereof. By illuminating a limited region of FOV 30 that contains the head of person 22, or a portion of the head, such as a portion comprising the eyes, intensity of light available for imaging the head and/or eyes can be increased, and accuracy of gaze vector determination improved.

FIG. 4 schematically shows a 3D gaze tracker 320 similar to 3D gaze tracker 20 shown in FIG. 1 generating and directing an illumination cone 322, shown shaded, to concentrate light in a limited portion of FOV 30 to illuminate the head and face of a person 22, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. A portion of illumination cone 322 is outlined by dashed lines 323 that extend from light source 50 to corners of an optionally square illumination area “A” outlined by dashed lines 324.

Area A is an area illuminated by light from light pulses 52 and is assumed to be located at a distance D of person 22 from 3D gaze tracker 320. Area A determines a solid angle, Ω, of illumination cone 322 in accordance with an expression Ω=A/D2. A is optionally independent of D and optionally constant, for any distance of person 22 D within FOV 30. A is optionally determined so that in a time it takes 3D gaze tracker 20 to acquire an image of person 22, the person cannot generally move his or her head fast enough from a location along a central axis (not shown) of the illumination cone to move the head out of illumination cone 322.

Optionally, area A is a square area having a side length equal to about 50 cm. Assuming that images of person 22 are acquired by 3D gaze tracker 20 at a video rate of 30 images per second it requires about 30 ms (milliseconds) for the 3D gaze tracker to acquire an image. In 30 ms, a person moving at 10 km (kilometers) per hour moves about 10 cm. A 50 cm by 50 cm square illumination area A is therefore generally sufficient for defining a light cone that can be directed to track and provide continuous, advantageous illumination of a person moving in FOV 30.

Any of various devices and methods can be used in practice of an embodiment of the invention to generate and control direction and solid angle of illumination cone 322. For example, the light source may comprise an array of micro mirrors controllable to reflect and direct light provided by the light source into cone 322. Optionally, the light source comprises a lens system, for example a zoom lens system having a focal point located at a light emitting element of the light source, for controlling the solid angle of illumination cone 322. In some embodiments of the invention, the light source comprises a mechanical system that rotates the light source to direct illumination cone 322 to maintain person 22 within the illumination cone. In some embodiments of the invention, different light sources are turned on and off to maintain person 22 within a small angle illumination cone as the person moves around in FOV 30.

Except for the rare and generally uninteresting circumstance for which a person looks directly at a camera that is imaging the person, gaze direction by itself is not sufficient to define a gaze vector for the person and determine therefrom a POR. For most circumstances, three spatial coordinates (for example, x, y, and z coordinates of a Cartesian coordinate system) of an origin for the gaze vector is required to locate the gaze vector in space and determine a POR for the gaze vector.

In an embodiment of the invention, range images of a person, such as person 22 in FOV 30 of 3D gaze tracker 20, acquired by range photosensor 70 and/or pictures of the person provided by picture photosensor 80 are processed by controller 24 to provide 3D spatial coordinates for origins of the person's gaze vectors. In particular, distances from 3D gaze tracker 20 determined responsive to range images acquired by range photosensor 70 are used to provide a z-coordinate for the origins. A z-coordinate is arbitrarily assumed to be a coordinate measured along a z-axis of an x,y,z, Cartesian coordinate system for which the z-axis is parallel to optical axis 61 (FIG. 1) of 3D gaze tracker 20.

Whereas three spatial coordinates for a person's eye can usually be estimated from an image analysis of a picture of the person acquired by a camera, such estimates are generally practical for a limited range of distances from the camera, and are typically associated with relatively large margins of error. A TOF 3D camera, such as range photosensor 70 and associated optics in 3D gaze tracker 20, can provide spatial coordinates, and in particular a coordinate for distance from the 3D camera and therefore a z-coordinate of the eye relative to the camera, having a relatively small margin for error.

FIG. 5 schematically shows a very simplified configuration that illustrates how uncertainty in determining distance of a person's eye from a camera (not shown) that images the person generates uncertainty in identifying a POR for the person from a gaze vector determined for the eye. The figure shows an eye, schematically represented by an ellipse 100, at three different collinear positions at different distances, indicated by witness lines 201, 202, and 203, from a video display 40. The positions are arbitrarily defined to be the positions of the centers of rotation 124 of the eye and are located along a same line, referred to as a “z-axis”, perpendicular to the video display. The positions indicated by the witness lines are referred to by the numerals 201, 202, and 203 labeling the witness lines, and the eye is referred to by the numeral 100 labeling the ellipse representing the eye. Distance of the eye from the camera imaging the eye is assumed to be the same as distance of the eye from video display 40.

At each position 201, 202 and 203, the eye has a gaze vector 221, 222, and 223 respectively. Each gaze vector 221, 222, and 223 extends along a dashed line 251, 252, and 253 respectively that passes from the eye's center of rotation 124 through the center of its pupil 102. All the gaze vectors make a same inclination angle θ with the z-axis. Gaze vectors 221, 222, and 223 intersect video screen 40 at intersection points 231, 232, and 233 respectively, where dashed line 251, 252, and 253 associated with the gaze vectors intersect the video screen. Intersections 231, 232, and 233 represent locations of PORs on video display 40 that are determined from gaze vectors 221, 222, and 223 respectively.

The eye is assumed to actually be located at “middle” position 202, and intersection 232 an actual POR for gaze vector 222 associated with the eye at the middle position. Positions 201 and 203 represent lower and upper bound estimates respectively for the z-coordinate of the eye that might reasonably result from image analysis of a picture that images the eye. A distance “ΔZ” between positions 201 and 203 represents an uncertainty in the z-coordinate of the eye determined from the image analysis. A concomitant uncertainty in where the actual POR is located, is represented by a “distance of uncertainty (DOU)” 236, between intersection points 231 and 233 on video display 40.

Z-coordinates indicated by witness lines 241 and 242 along the z-axis are referred to by numerals 241 and 242 and represent reasonable lower and upper error bounds respectively in the z-coordinate of the eye determined by a TOF 3D camera. By way of example, witness lines 241 and 242 may represent z-coordinate lower and upper error bounds for the TOF 3D camera comprising light source 50, range photosensor 70 and associated optical elements in 3D gaze tracker 20. Distance “ΔZ*” between z-coordinates 241 and 242 represents an uncertainty in a z-coordinate for the eye determined by the TOF camera.

If eye 100 were located at 241, it is assumed that its gaze vector (not shown) would lie along a dashed line 257 that extends from point 241 at an angle θ with respect to the z-axis. The eye would be determined to have a POR located at an intersection point 247 of dashed line 257 with video screen 40. Similarly, if eye 100 were located at position 242, it would be determined to have a POR located at an intersection point 248 of a dashed line 258 with video screen 40. The uncertainty generates a corresponding DOU244, which is a distance between intersection points 247 and 248. DOU 244 provided by the TOF 3D camera is generally smaller than DOU 236 provided by image analysis alone.

By way of numerical example, assume that a person's eye 100 is located at a distance of about 50 cm from video display 40 and that the video display has a diagonal dimension of about 60 cm so that a gaze angle θ for the eye may often be as large as 30°. An uncertainty ΔZ in a z-coordinate for the person's eye provided by image analysis may reasonably be assumed to be about 5 cm (±2.5 cm). The uncertainty results in an uncertainty, DOU 236, in the location of a POR for the eye that may be estimated by the expression DOU 236=ΔZ tan θ, which for ΔZ=5 cm and θ=30°, is equal to about 3 cm.

On the other hand, an uncertainty in the z-coordinate for the eye determined by a TOF 3D camera may reasonably be assumed equal to about 1 cm (±0.5 cm) resulting in an uncertainty DOU 244 in the location of the POR for θ=30° equal to about 0.6 cm. For example, assume a TOF 3D camera that illuminates a FOV having a view angle of 45° with light pulses having intensity greater than or equal to about 50 milliwatts and pulse width between 15 and 20 ns that images objects in the FOV on a photosurface comprising 10μ×10μ pixels. The camera can generally provide distance measurements characterized by z-coordinate accuracy equal to about 1 cm for distance measurements between about 0.5 m and 3 m.

In an embodiment of the invention, to calibrate 3D gaze tracker 20 shown in FIG. 1 (or 3D gaze tracker 320 FIG. 4), and adapt the 3D gaze tracker to differences in eye structure and facial features of different users of the 3D gaze tracker, the 3D gaze tracker and display on video display 40 are controlled to acquire calibration images of the users.

In an embodiment, acquiring calibration images for a user, such as person 22 shown in FIG. 1, comprises imaging the person for each of a plurality of different “calibration positions” in FOV 30. Different calibration positions differ in distance from gaze tracker 20 and/or location in FOV 30. For each calibration position, a range image and a picture of the person are acquired for each of a plurality of different “calibration PORs” presented on video display 40 to which the person's gaze is directed. Optionally, for a plurality of calibration positions, the person is requested to maintain his or her head in a fixed position and move only the eyes to direct gaze at different calibration PORs.

The images are processed to provide 3D spatial coordinates for the person's eye features, such as the pupil, iris, sclera, glints and/or Purkinje reflections, and/or fiducial features, for each of the calibration positions and calibration PORs. The gaze vector for a given calibration position and POR is optionally determined by 3D spatial coordinates of the given calibration position and location of the calibration POR on video screen 40. The eye feature and fiducial feature coordinates, and associated gaze vectors, are stored as reference data in a suitable data array. In an embodiment of the invention, the reference data array is used to determine gaze vectors of person 22 as the person moves around freely in FOV 30.

In some embodiments of the invention, to determine a gaze vector for person 22 at a given time and position in FOV 30, responsive to values in the reference data array, 3D gaze tracker 20 acquires a range image and picture of the person at the given time and position. Controller 24 processes the range image and picture to identify and determine spatial coordinates for eye and fiducial features of the person.

To determine head orientation of the person, the controller optionally determines an affine transformation of reference coordinates of fiducial features that, in accordance with a best fit criterion, such as a least squares criterion, most closely reproduces the 3D spatial coordinates determined for the fiducial features. A transformation of a head orientation associated with the reference coordinates by the affine transformation provides the head orientation. A gaze vector direction relative to the head orientation of the person is determined responsive to coordinates of the eye features. The head orientation, gaze vector direction, and a gaze vector origin, optionally determined from spatial coordinates of the eye, define the gaze vector.

In some embodiments of the invention, controller 24 interpolates reference data values responsive to spatial coordinates for eye and fiducial features of the person provided from the range image and picture to determine a gaze vector for person 22.

In the above discussion, 3D gaze trackers are shown comprising a TOF 3D camera, which though sharing optical components with a picture camera is separate from the picture camera. Embodiments of the invention are not however, limited to 3D gaze trackers having separate range and picture cameras, nor to TOF 3D cameras.

In some embodiments of the invention, a 3D gaze tracker comprises a single photosensor, which is used to acquire both range images of a person and pictures of the person. A shutter that shutters the photosensor is controlled to shutter the photosensor open for exposure periods to acquire range images of the person that have durations, which are different from durations of exposure periods that the shutter provides for acquiring pictures of the person.

And in some embodiments of the invention, a 3D gaze tracker comprises a stereoscopic 3D imager that determines distances to features of a person in the 3D gaze tracker's FOV responsive to parallax exhibited by images of the features provided by two, spatially separated cameras in the system.

FIG. 6 schematically shows a stereoscopic 3D gaze tracker 250 comprising a stereoscopic 3D imager 252 having two spatially separated cameras 254 and 255 that acquire pictures (contrast images) of features in a FOV 256 of the 3D gaze tracker from different perspectives. A controller 257 in the stereoscopic 3D gaze tracker processes the pictures to identify and locate eye and fiducial features and determine spatial coordinates to the features responsive to distances to the features determined from parallax that they exhibit in the pictures.

In the description and claims of the present application, each of the verbs, “comprise” “include” and “have”, and conjugates thereof, are used to indicate that the object or objects of the verb are not necessarily a complete listing of components, elements or parts of the subject or subjects of the verb.

Descriptions of embodiments of the invention in the present application are provided by way of example and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. The described embodiments comprise different features, not all of which are required in all embodiments of the invention. Some embodiments utilize only some of the features or possible combinations of the features. Variations of embodiments of the invention that are described, and embodiments of the invention comprising different combinations of features noted in the described embodiments, will occur to persons of the art. The scope of the invention is limited only by the claims.

Claims (20)

The invention claimed is:
1. A gaze tracker for determining a gaze vector having a direction and origin for a person, the gaze tracker comprising:
a 3D camera that acquires a range image of a person located in a field of view (FOV) of the camera;
a picture camera that acquires a picture of the person in the FOV of the 3D camera; and
a controller that processes the range image and the picture to determine spatial coordinates for features of the person's head and an eye of the person, and determines a gaze direction and origin for a gaze vector of the eye.
2. A gaze tracker according to claim 1, wherein the FOV extends to a distance from the gaze tracker equal to or greater than about 1 m.
3. A gaze tracker according to claim 1, wherein the FOV extends to a distance from the gaze tracker equal to or greater than about 2 m.
4. A gaze tracker according to claim 1, wherein the FOV extends to a distance from the gaze tracker equal to or greater than about 3 m.
5. A gaze tracker according to claim 1, wherein the FOV extends from a distance from the gaze tracker equal to about 0.3 m.
6. A gaze tracker according to claim 1 and comprising a light source that illuminates at least a portion of the FOV.
7. A gaze tracker according to claim 6 wherein the controller adjusts intensity of light provided by the light source responsive to a spatial coordinate determined by the controller.
8. A gaze tracker according to claim 6 wherein the controller adjusts direction of light provided by the light source responsive to a spatial coordinate determined by the controller.
9. A gaze tracker according to claim 1, wherein the features comprise at least one feature of the person's eye for which spatial coordinates can be used to determine gaze direction of the eye.
10. A gaze tracker according to claim 9, wherein the at least one feature of the eye comprises at least one of the pupil, iris, sclera, and a Purkinje reflection.
11. A gaze tracker according to claim 1, wherein the features comprise at least one feature of the person's head for which spatial coordinates can be used to determine orientation of the head.
12. A gaze tracker according to claim 11, wherein the at least one feature of the head comprises the forehead, an eye, the nose, lips chin, and an ear.
13. A gaze tracker according to claim 1, wherein the 3D camera comprises a stereoscopic camera.
14. A gaze tracker according to claim 1, wherein the 3D camera comprises a time of flight (TOF) 3D camera.
15. A gaze tracker according to claim 14, wherein the TOF 3D camera and the picture camera comprise different photosensors comprising pixels on which they image light to respectively acquire the range image and picture.
16. A gaze tracker according to claim 15, wherein pixels in the different photosensors have different sizes.
17. A gaze tracker according to claim 16, wherein pixels in the photosensor on which the 3D camera images light are larger than pixels in the photosensor on which the picture camera images light.
18. A gaze tracker according to claim 15 and comprising optics for adjusting magnification of imaging on the photosensors independently of each other.
19. A gaze tracker according to claim 18 wherein the controller adjusts magnification responsive to a spatial coordinate determined by the controller.
20. A method of determining a gaze direction of a person, the method comprising:
acquiring a range image of a person that provides distances to the person's features;
acquiring a contrast image of the person; and
processing the range image and the contrast image to provide a gaze vector for the person that defines a direction along which the person is looking.
US12965948 2010-12-13 2010-12-13 3D gaze tracker Active US8408706B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12965948 US8408706B2 (en) 2010-12-13 2010-12-13 3D gaze tracker

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12965948 US8408706B2 (en) 2010-12-13 2010-12-13 3D gaze tracker
CN 201110436594 CN102551655A (en) 2010-12-13 2011-12-13 3D gaze tracker
US13783417 US8888287B2 (en) 2010-12-13 2013-03-04 Human-computer interface system having a 3D gaze tracker

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US13783417 Continuation-In-Part US8888287B2 (en) 2010-12-13 2013-03-04 Human-computer interface system having a 3D gaze tracker

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20120147328A1 true US20120147328A1 (en) 2012-06-14
US8408706B2 true US8408706B2 (en) 2013-04-02

Family

ID=46199066

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12965948 Active US8408706B2 (en) 2010-12-13 2010-12-13 3D gaze tracker

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US8408706B2 (en)
CN (1) CN102551655A (en)

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20130235169A1 (en) * 2011-06-16 2013-09-12 Panasonic Corporation Head-mounted display and position gap adjustment method
US20130250086A1 (en) * 2012-03-20 2013-09-26 Cisco Technology, Inc. Automatic magnification of data on display screen based on eye characteristics of user
US20140003738A1 (en) * 2011-03-18 2014-01-02 Sensomotoric Instruments Gesellschaft Fur Innovative Sensorik Mbh Method and apparatus for gaze point mapping
US20140176327A1 (en) * 2012-12-20 2014-06-26 Nokia Corporation Method and apparatus for determining that medical assistance may be required
US20140184569A1 (en) * 2012-12-28 2014-07-03 Wistron Corporaition Coordinate Transformation Method and Computer System for Interactive System
US20140243971A1 (en) * 2013-02-28 2014-08-28 Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc. Electronic ophthalmic lens with eye gaze sensor
US20160026246A1 (en) * 2014-04-10 2016-01-28 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Eye gaze tracking method and apparatus and computer-readable recording medium
US20160046295A1 (en) * 2014-08-14 2016-02-18 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method and device for determining a reaction time of a vehicle driver
US9794542B2 (en) 2014-07-03 2017-10-17 Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc. Secure wearable computer interface
US9858719B2 (en) 2015-03-30 2018-01-02 Amazon Technologies, Inc. Blended reality systems and methods

Families Citing this family (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014144940A3 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-11-06 Percept Technologies, Inc. Enhanced optical and perceptual digital eyewear
KR101046677B1 (en) * 2011-03-15 2011-07-06 동국대학교 산학협력단 Methods for tracking position of eyes and medical head lamp using thereof
US8911087B2 (en) 2011-05-20 2014-12-16 Eyefluence, Inc. Systems and methods for measuring reactions of head, eyes, eyelids and pupils
US8885877B2 (en) 2011-05-20 2014-11-11 Eyefluence, Inc. Systems and methods for identifying gaze tracking scene reference locations
US8929589B2 (en) 2011-11-07 2015-01-06 Eyefluence, Inc. Systems and methods for high-resolution gaze tracking
US20150302652A1 (en) 2014-04-18 2015-10-22 Magic Leap, Inc. Systems and methods for augmented and virtual reality
ES2444542B1 (en) 2012-07-25 2014-11-18 Davalor Consultoria Estrategica Y Tecnologica, S.L Apparatus for measuring the topography and thickness of the cornea and measurement procedure used
JP5949319B2 (en) * 2012-08-21 2016-07-06 富士通株式会社 Line-of-sight detection apparatus and a line-of-sight detection method
EP2903551A2 (en) * 2012-09-10 2015-08-12 Elbit Systems Ltd. Digital system for surgical video capturing and display
EP2709060A1 (en) * 2012-09-17 2014-03-19 SensoMotoric Instruments Gesellschaft für innovative Sensorik mbH Method and an apparatus for determining a gaze point on a three-dimensional object
JP6056323B2 (en) * 2012-09-24 2017-01-11 富士通株式会社 Line-of-sight detection apparatus, the line-of-sight detection for computer programs
US9077647B2 (en) * 2012-10-05 2015-07-07 Elwha Llc Correlating user reactions with augmentations displayed through augmented views
US20140098129A1 (en) 2012-10-05 2014-04-10 Elwha Llc Systems and methods for sharing augmentation data
US9141188B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2015-09-22 Elwha Llc Presenting an augmented view in response to acquisition of data inferring user activity
US9111383B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2015-08-18 Elwha Llc Systems and methods for obtaining and using augmentation data and for sharing usage data
US20140098133A1 (en) 2012-10-05 2014-04-10 Elwha Llc Correlating user reaction with at least an aspect associated with an augmentation of an augmented view
WO2014085438A3 (en) * 2012-11-28 2014-10-09 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Methods, systems, and media for detecting gaze locking
WO2014132259A1 (en) * 2013-02-27 2014-09-04 Inuitive Ltd. Method and system for correlating gaze information
US9216133B2 (en) 2013-01-16 2015-12-22 Elwha Llc Using a 3D display to train a weak eye
US9041645B2 (en) 2013-02-15 2015-05-26 International Business Machines Corporation Transparent display field of view region determination
US9167147B2 (en) 2013-02-15 2015-10-20 International Business Machines Corporation Mobile device field of view region determination
US9179833B2 (en) 2013-02-28 2015-11-10 Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc. Systems and methods for improved ease and accuracy of gaze tracking
US9424467B2 (en) * 2013-03-14 2016-08-23 Disney Enterprises, Inc. Gaze tracking and recognition with image location
US9639964B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-05-02 Elwha Llc Dynamically preserving scene elements in augmented reality systems
GB201305726D0 (en) * 2013-03-28 2013-05-15 Eye Tracking Analysts Ltd A method for calibration free eye tracking
US20140313308A1 (en) * 2013-04-19 2014-10-23 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method for tracking gaze based on camera array
US20150365628A1 (en) * 2013-04-30 2015-12-17 Inuitive Ltd. System and method for video conferencing
US9319665B2 (en) * 2013-06-19 2016-04-19 TrackThings LLC Method and apparatus for a self-focusing camera and eyeglass system
US20140375772A1 (en) * 2013-06-19 2014-12-25 Thaddeus Gabara Method and Apparatus for an SR and LR 3-D Visual Images and Sharing
US20140375541A1 (en) * 2013-06-25 2014-12-25 David Nister Eye tracking via depth camera
CN104679226A (en) * 2013-11-29 2015-06-03 上海西门子医疗器械有限公司 Non-contact medical control system and method and medical device
US20160370605A1 (en) * 2013-12-17 2016-12-22 Liron Ain-Kedem Controlling vision correction using eye tracking and depth detection
JP2015132787A (en) * 2014-01-16 2015-07-23 コニカミノルタ株式会社 Spectacle type display device
US20170180720A1 (en) * 2014-03-19 2017-06-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Medical devices, systems, and methods using eye gaze tracking for stereo viewer
US20160103484A1 (en) * 2014-10-08 2016-04-14 Huimin Guo Gaze tracking through eyewear
DE102014226185A1 (en) * 2014-12-17 2016-06-23 Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft A method for determining a viewing direction of a person
US9888843B2 (en) 2015-06-03 2018-02-13 Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc Capacitive sensors for determining eye gaze direction
CN105700677A (en) * 2015-12-29 2016-06-22 努比亚技术有限公司 Mobile terminal and control method thereof
DE102016003625A1 (en) * 2016-03-22 2017-09-28 Pyramid Computer Gmbh Method and apparatus for non-contact gesture-controlled operation of a user interface
US9916501B2 (en) * 2016-07-22 2018-03-13 Yung-Hui Li Smart eyeglasses with iris recognition device

Citations (167)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6181343B2 (en)
US4627620A (en) 1984-12-26 1986-12-09 Yang John P Electronic athlete trainer for improving skills in reflex, speed and accuracy
US4630910A (en) 1984-02-16 1986-12-23 Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. Method of measuring in three-dimensions at high speed
US4645458A (en) 1985-04-15 1987-02-24 Harald Phillip Athletic evaluation and training apparatus
US4695953A (en) 1983-08-25 1987-09-22 Blair Preston E TV animation interactively controlled by the viewer
US4702475A (en) 1985-08-16 1987-10-27 Innovating Training Products, Inc. Sports technique and reaction training system
US4711543A (en) 1986-04-14 1987-12-08 Blair Preston E TV animation interactively controlled by the viewer
US4751642A (en) 1986-08-29 1988-06-14 Silva John M Interactive sports simulation system with physiological sensing and psychological conditioning
US4796997A (en) 1986-05-27 1989-01-10 Synthetic Vision Systems, Inc. Method and system for high-speed, 3-D imaging of an object at a vision station
US4809065A (en) 1986-12-01 1989-02-28 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Interactive system and related method for displaying data to produce a three-dimensional image of an object
US4817950A (en) 1987-05-08 1989-04-04 Goo Paul E Video game control unit and attitude sensor
US4843568A (en) 1986-04-11 1989-06-27 Krueger Myron W Real time perception of and response to the actions of an unencumbered participant/user
US4893183A (en) 1988-08-11 1990-01-09 Carnegie-Mellon University Robotic vision system
US4901362A (en) 1988-08-08 1990-02-13 Raytheon Company Method of recognizing patterns
US4925189A (en) 1989-01-13 1990-05-15 Braeunig Thomas F Body-mounted video game exercise device
US5016282A (en) 1988-07-14 1991-05-14 Atr Communication Systems Research Laboratories Eye tracking image pickup apparatus for separating noise from feature portions
US5101444A (en) 1990-05-18 1992-03-31 Panacea, Inc. Method and apparatus for high speed object location
US5148154A (en) 1990-12-04 1992-09-15 Sony Corporation Of America Multi-dimensional user interface
US5184295A (en) 1986-05-30 1993-02-02 Mann Ralph V System and method for teaching physical skills
US5229754A (en) 1990-02-13 1993-07-20 Yazaki Corporation Automotive reflection type display apparatus
US5229756A (en) 1989-02-07 1993-07-20 Yamaha Corporation Image control apparatus
US5239464A (en) 1988-08-04 1993-08-24 Blair Preston E Interactive video system providing repeated switching of multiple tracks of actions sequences
US5239463A (en) 1988-08-04 1993-08-24 Blair Preston E Method and apparatus for player interaction with animated characters and objects
EP0583061A2 (en) 1992-07-10 1994-02-16 The Walt Disney Company Method and apparatus for providing enhanced graphics in a virtual world
US5288078A (en) 1988-10-14 1994-02-22 David G. Capper Control interface apparatus
US5295491A (en) 1991-09-26 1994-03-22 Sam Technology, Inc. Non-invasive human neurocognitive performance capability testing method and system
US5320538A (en) 1992-09-23 1994-06-14 Hughes Training, Inc. Interactive aircraft training system and method
US5347306A (en) 1993-12-17 1994-09-13 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc. Animated electronic meeting place
US5385519A (en) 1994-04-19 1995-01-31 Hsu; Chi-Hsueh Running machine
US5405152A (en) 1993-06-08 1995-04-11 The Walt Disney Company Method and apparatus for an interactive video game with physical feedback
US5417210A (en) 1992-05-27 1995-05-23 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for augmentation of endoscopic surgery
US5423554A (en) 1993-09-24 1995-06-13 Metamedia Ventures, Inc. Virtual reality game method and apparatus
US5454043A (en) 1993-07-30 1995-09-26 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc. Dynamic and static hand gesture recognition through low-level image analysis
US5469740A (en) 1989-07-14 1995-11-28 Impulse Technology, Inc. Interactive video testing and training system
US5495576A (en) 1993-01-11 1996-02-27 Ritchey; Kurtis J. Panoramic image based virtual reality/telepresence audio-visual system and method
US5516105A (en) 1994-10-06 1996-05-14 Exergame, Inc. Acceleration activated joystick
US5524637A (en) 1994-06-29 1996-06-11 Erickson; Jon W. Interactive system for measuring physiological exertion
US5534917A (en) 1991-05-09 1996-07-09 Very Vivid, Inc. Video image based control system
US5563988A (en) 1994-08-01 1996-10-08 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and system for facilitating wireless, full-body, real-time user interaction with a digitally represented visual environment
US5577981A (en) 1994-01-19 1996-11-26 Jarvik; Robert Virtual reality exercise machine and computer controlled video system
US5580249A (en) 1994-02-14 1996-12-03 Sarcos Group Apparatus for simulating mobility of a human
US5594469A (en) 1995-02-21 1997-01-14 Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America Inc. Hand gesture machine control system
US5597309A (en) 1994-03-28 1997-01-28 Riess; Thomas Method and apparatus for treatment of gait problems associated with parkinson's disease
US5617312A (en) 1993-11-19 1997-04-01 Hitachi, Ltd. Computer system that enters control information by means of video camera
US5616078A (en) 1993-12-28 1997-04-01 Konami Co., Ltd. Motion-controlled video entertainment system
US5638300A (en) 1994-12-05 1997-06-10 Johnson; Lee E. Golf swing analysis system
US5641288A (en) 1996-01-11 1997-06-24 Zaenglein, Jr.; William G. Shooting simulating process and training device using a virtual reality display screen
US5682196A (en) 1995-06-22 1997-10-28 Actv, Inc. Three-dimensional (3D) video presentation system providing interactive 3D presentation with personalized audio responses for multiple viewers
US5682229A (en) 1995-04-14 1997-10-28 Schwartz Electro-Optics, Inc. Laser range camera
US5690582A (en) 1993-02-02 1997-11-25 Tectrix Fitness Equipment, Inc. Interactive exercise apparatus
US5703367A (en) 1994-12-09 1997-12-30 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Human occupancy detection method and system for implementing the same
US5704837A (en) 1993-03-26 1998-01-06 Namco Ltd. Video game steering system causing translation, rotation and curvilinear motion on the object
US5715834A (en) 1992-11-20 1998-02-10 Scuola Superiore Di Studi Universitari & Di Perfezionamento S. Anna Device for monitoring the configuration of a distal physiological unit for use, in particular, as an advanced interface for machine and computers
US5875108A (en) 1991-12-23 1999-02-23 Hoffberg; Steven M. Ergonomic man-machine interface incorporating adaptive pattern recognition based control system
US5877803A (en) 1997-04-07 1999-03-02 Tritech Mircoelectronics International, Ltd. 3-D image detector
US5913727A (en) 1995-06-02 1999-06-22 Ahdoot; Ned Interactive movement and contact simulation game
US5933125A (en) 1995-11-27 1999-08-03 Cae Electronics, Ltd. Method and apparatus for reducing instability in the display of a virtual environment
US5980256A (en) 1993-10-29 1999-11-09 Carmein; David E. E. Virtual reality system with enhanced sensory apparatus
US5989157A (en) 1996-08-06 1999-11-23 Walton; Charles A. Exercising system with electronic inertial game playing
US5995649A (en) 1996-09-20 1999-11-30 Nec Corporation Dual-input image processor for recognizing, isolating, and displaying specific objects from the input images
US6005548A (en) 1996-08-14 1999-12-21 Latypov; Nurakhmed Nurislamovich Method for tracking and displaying user's spatial position and orientation, a method for representing virtual reality for a user, and systems of embodiment of such methods
US6009210A (en) 1997-03-05 1999-12-28 Digital Equipment Corporation Hands-free interface to a virtual reality environment using head tracking
US6054991A (en) 1991-12-02 2000-04-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method of modeling player position and movement in a virtual reality system
US6066075A (en) 1995-07-26 2000-05-23 Poulton; Craig K. Direct feedback controller for user interaction
US6072494A (en) 1997-10-15 2000-06-06 Electric Planet, Inc. Method and apparatus for real-time gesture recognition
US6073489A (en) 1995-11-06 2000-06-13 French; Barry J. Testing and training system for assessing the ability of a player to complete a task
US6077201A (en) 1998-06-12 2000-06-20 Cheng; Chau-Yang Exercise bicycle
US6101289A (en) 1997-10-15 2000-08-08 Electric Planet, Inc. Method and apparatus for unencumbered capture of an object
US6100896A (en) 1997-03-24 2000-08-08 Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc. System for designing graphical multi-participant environments
US6098458A (en) 1995-11-06 2000-08-08 Impulse Technology, Ltd. Testing and training system for assessing movement and agility skills without a confining field
US6128003A (en) 1996-12-20 2000-10-03 Hitachi, Ltd. Hand gesture recognition system and method
US6130677A (en) 1997-10-15 2000-10-10 Electric Planet, Inc. Interactive computer vision system
US6141463A (en) 1997-10-10 2000-10-31 Electric Planet Interactive Method and system for estimating jointed-figure configurations
US6147678A (en) 1998-12-09 2000-11-14 Lucent Technologies Inc. Video hand image-three-dimensional computer interface with multiple degrees of freedom
US6152856A (en) 1996-05-08 2000-11-28 Real Vision Corporation Real time simulation using position sensing
US6152563A (en) 1998-02-20 2000-11-28 Hutchinson; Thomas E. Eye gaze direction tracker
US6159100A (en) 1998-04-23 2000-12-12 Smith; Michael D. Virtual reality game
US6173066B1 (en) 1996-05-21 2001-01-09 Cybernet Systems Corporation Pose determination and tracking by matching 3D objects to a 2D sensor
US6181343B1 (en) 1997-12-23 2001-01-30 Philips Electronics North America Corp. System and method for permitting three-dimensional navigation through a virtual reality environment using camera-based gesture inputs
US6188777B1 (en) 1997-08-01 2001-02-13 Interval Research Corporation Method and apparatus for personnel detection and tracking
US6215890B1 (en) 1997-09-26 2001-04-10 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Hand gesture recognizing device
US6215898B1 (en) 1997-04-15 2001-04-10 Interval Research Corporation Data processing system and method
US6226396B1 (en) 1997-07-31 2001-05-01 Nec Corporation Object extraction method and system
US6229913B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2001-05-08 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Apparatus and methods for determining the three-dimensional shape of an object using active illumination and relative blurring in two-images due to defocus
US6256400B1 (en) 1998-09-28 2001-07-03 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Method and device for segmenting hand gestures
US6283860B1 (en) 1995-11-07 2001-09-04 Philips Electronics North America Corp. Method, system, and program for gesture based option selection
US6289112B1 (en) 1997-08-22 2001-09-11 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for determining block direction in fingerprint images
US6299308B1 (en) 1999-04-02 2001-10-09 Cybernet Systems Corporation Low-cost non-imaging eye tracker system for computer control
US6308565B1 (en) 1995-11-06 2001-10-30 Impulse Technology Ltd. System and method for tracking and assessing movement skills in multidimensional space
US6316934B1 (en) 1998-09-17 2001-11-13 Netmor Ltd. System for three dimensional positioning and tracking
US6363160B1 (en) 1999-01-22 2002-03-26 Intel Corporation Interface using pattern recognition and tracking
US6384819B1 (en) 1997-10-15 2002-05-07 Electric Planet, Inc. System and method for generating an animatable character
US6394602B1 (en) 1998-06-16 2002-05-28 Leica Microsystems Ag Eye tracking system
US6411744B1 (en) 1997-10-15 2002-06-25 Electric Planet, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a clean background subtraction
US6417950B1 (en) * 2000-08-28 2002-07-09 University Technology Corporation Three-color imaging on each pixel for increased resolution
US6430997B1 (en) 1995-11-06 2002-08-13 Trazer Technologies, Inc. System and method for tracking and assessing movement skills in multidimensional space
US6476834B1 (en) 1999-05-28 2002-11-05 International Business Machines Corporation Dynamic creation of selectable items on surfaces
US6496598B1 (en) 1997-09-02 2002-12-17 Dynamic Digital Depth Research Pty. Ltd. Image processing method and apparatus
US6503195B1 (en) 1999-05-24 2003-01-07 University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill Methods and systems for real-time structured light depth extraction and endoscope using real-time structured light depth extraction
US6539931B2 (en) 2001-04-16 2003-04-01 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Ball throwing assistant
US6570555B1 (en) 1998-12-30 2003-05-27 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for embodied conversational characters with multimodal input/output in an interface device
US6578962B1 (en) * 2001-04-27 2003-06-17 International Business Machines Corporation Calibration-free eye gaze tracking
US6633294B1 (en) 2000-03-09 2003-10-14 Seth Rosenthal Method and apparatus for using captured high density motion for animation
US6640202B1 (en) 2000-05-25 2003-10-28 International Business Machines Corporation Elastic sensor mesh system for 3-dimensional measurement, mapping and kinematics applications
US6661918B1 (en) 1998-12-04 2003-12-09 Interval Research Corporation Background estimation and segmentation based on range and color
US6681031B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2004-01-20 Cybernet Systems Corporation Gesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications
US6714665B1 (en) 1994-09-02 2004-03-30 Sarnoff Corporation Fully automated iris recognition system utilizing wide and narrow fields of view
US6731799B1 (en) 2000-06-01 2004-05-04 University Of Washington Object segmentation with background extraction and moving boundary techniques
US6738066B1 (en) 1999-07-30 2004-05-18 Electric Plant, Inc. System, method and article of manufacture for detecting collisions between video images generated by a camera and an object depicted on a display
US6788809B1 (en) 2000-06-30 2004-09-07 Intel Corporation System and method for gesture recognition in three dimensions using stereo imaging and color vision
US6801637B2 (en) 1999-08-10 2004-10-05 Cybernet Systems Corporation Optical body tracker
US6873723B1 (en) 1999-06-30 2005-03-29 Intel Corporation Segmenting three-dimensional video images using stereo
US6937742B2 (en) 2001-09-28 2005-08-30 Bellsouth Intellectual Property Corporation Gesture activated home appliance
US6950534B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2005-09-27 Cybernet Systems Corporation Gesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications
US7003134B1 (en) 1999-03-08 2006-02-21 Vulcan Patents Llc Three dimensional object pose estimation which employs dense depth information
US7036094B1 (en) 1998-08-10 2006-04-25 Cybernet Systems Corporation Behavior recognition system
US7039676B1 (en) 2000-10-31 2006-05-02 International Business Machines Corporation Using video image analysis to automatically transmit gestures over a network in a chat or instant messaging session
US7042440B2 (en) 1997-08-22 2006-05-09 Pryor Timothy R Man machine interfaces and applications
US7050606B2 (en) 1999-08-10 2006-05-23 Cybernet Systems Corporation Tracking and gesture recognition system particularly suited to vehicular control applications
US7058204B2 (en) 2000-10-03 2006-06-06 Gesturetek, Inc. Multiple camera control system
US7060957B2 (en) 2000-04-28 2006-06-13 Csem Centre Suisse D'electronique Et Microtechinique Sa Device and method for spatially resolved photodetection and demodulation of modulated electromagnetic waves
US7113918B1 (en) 1999-08-01 2006-09-26 Electric Planet, Inc. Method for video enabled electronic commerce
US7121946B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2006-10-17 Cybernet Systems Corporation Real-time head tracking system for computer games and other applications
US7170492B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2007-01-30 Reactrix Systems, Inc. Interactive video display system
US7202898B1 (en) 1998-12-16 2007-04-10 3Dv Systems Ltd. Self gating photosurface
US7222078B2 (en) 1992-08-06 2007-05-22 Ferrara Ethereal Llc Methods and systems for gathering information from units of a commodity across a network
US7227526B2 (en) 2000-07-24 2007-06-05 Gesturetek, Inc. Video-based image control system
US7259747B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2007-08-21 Reactrix Systems, Inc. Interactive video display system
US7308112B2 (en) 2004-05-14 2007-12-11 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Sign based human-machine interaction
US7317836B2 (en) 2005-03-17 2008-01-08 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Pose estimation based on critical point analysis
US20080026838A1 (en) 2005-08-22 2008-01-31 Dunstan James E Multi-player non-role-playing virtual world games: method for two-way interaction between participants and multi-player virtual world games
US7348963B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2008-03-25 Reactrix Systems, Inc. Interactive video display system
US7367887B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2008-05-06 Namco Bandai Games Inc. Game apparatus, storage medium, and computer program that adjust level of game difficulty
US7379563B2 (en) 2004-04-15 2008-05-27 Gesturetek, Inc. Tracking bimanual movements
US7379566B2 (en) 2005-01-07 2008-05-27 Gesturetek, Inc. Optical flow based tilt sensor
US7389591B2 (en) 2005-05-17 2008-06-24 Gesturetek, Inc. Orientation-sensitive signal output
US7412077B2 (en) 2006-12-29 2008-08-12 Motorola, Inc. Apparatus and methods for head pose estimation and head gesture detection
US7430312B2 (en) 2005-01-07 2008-09-30 Gesturetek, Inc. Creating 3D images of objects by illuminating with infrared patterns
US7436496B2 (en) 2003-02-03 2008-10-14 National University Corporation Shizuoka University Distance image sensor
US7450736B2 (en) 2005-10-28 2008-11-11 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Monocular tracking of 3D human motion with a coordinated mixture of factor analyzers
US7452275B2 (en) 2001-06-29 2008-11-18 Konami Digital Entertainment Co., Ltd. Game device, game controlling method and program
US7489812B2 (en) 2002-06-07 2009-02-10 Dynamic Digital Depth Research Pty Ltd. Conversion and encoding techniques
US7522344B1 (en) 2005-12-14 2009-04-21 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Projection-based head-mounted display with eye-tracking capabilities
US7536032B2 (en) 2003-10-24 2009-05-19 Reactrix Systems, Inc. Method and system for processing captured image information in an interactive video display system
US7560701B2 (en) 2005-08-12 2009-07-14 Mesa Imaging Ag Highly sensitive, fast pixel for use in an image sensor
US7574020B2 (en) 2005-01-07 2009-08-11 Gesturetek, Inc. Detecting and tracking objects in images
US7576727B2 (en) 2002-12-13 2009-08-18 Matthew Bell Interactive directed light/sound system
US7590262B2 (en) 2003-05-29 2009-09-15 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Visual tracking using depth data
US7593552B2 (en) 2003-03-31 2009-09-22 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Gesture recognition apparatus, gesture recognition method, and gesture recognition program
US7598942B2 (en) 2005-02-08 2009-10-06 Oblong Industries, Inc. System and method for gesture based control system
US7607509B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2009-10-27 Iee International Electronics & Engineering S.A. Safety device for a vehicle
US7618144B2 (en) 2008-01-07 2009-11-17 Optical Physics Company System and method for tracking eye movement
US7620202B2 (en) 2003-06-12 2009-11-17 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Target orientation estimation using depth sensing
US7683954B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2010-03-23 Brainvision Inc. Solid-state image sensor
US7684592B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2010-03-23 Cybernet Systems Corporation Realtime object tracking system
US7701439B2 (en) 2006-07-13 2010-04-20 Northrop Grumman Corporation Gesture recognition simulation system and method
US7702130B2 (en) 2004-12-20 2010-04-20 Electronics And Telecommunications Research Institute User interface apparatus using hand gesture recognition and method thereof
US7704135B2 (en) 2004-08-23 2010-04-27 Harrison Jr Shelton E Integrated game system, method, and device
US7710391B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2010-05-04 Matthew Bell Processing an image utilizing a spatially varying pattern
US7729530B2 (en) 2007-03-03 2010-06-01 Sergey Antonov Method and apparatus for 3-D data input to a personal computer with a multimedia oriented operating system
CN101254344B (en) 2008-04-18 2010-06-16 李刚 Game device of field orientation corresponding with display screen dot array in proportion and method
US7852262B2 (en) 2007-08-16 2010-12-14 Cybernet Systems Corporation Wireless mobile indoor/outdoor tracking system
US20110043644A1 (en) * 2008-04-02 2011-02-24 Esight Corp. Apparatus and Method for a Dynamic "Region of Interest" in a Display System
US20110109880A1 (en) * 2006-01-26 2011-05-12 Ville Nummela Eye Tracker Device
US20110182472A1 (en) * 2008-07-08 2011-07-28 Dan Witzner Hansen Eye gaze tracking
US8035624B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2011-10-11 Intellectual Ventures Holding 67 Llc Computer vision based touch screen
US8072470B2 (en) 2003-05-29 2011-12-06 Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. System and method for providing a real-time three-dimensional interactive environment

Family Cites Families (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002009025A1 (en) * 2000-07-24 2002-01-31 Seeing Machines Pty Ltd Facial image processing system
DE10321506B4 (en) * 2003-05-13 2006-10-05 Siemens Ag A method for determining the current head position of vehicle occupants
JP4604190B2 (en) * 2004-02-17 2010-12-22 国立大学法人静岡大学 Line-of-sight detection device using a distance image sensor
CN100343867C (en) * 2005-06-15 2007-10-17 北京中星微电子有限公司 Method and apparatus for distinguishing direction of visual lines
US9165199B2 (en) * 2007-12-21 2015-10-20 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Controlled human pose estimation from depth image streams
US20090196460A1 (en) * 2008-01-17 2009-08-06 Thomas Jakobs Eye tracking system and method
US7742623B1 (en) * 2008-08-04 2010-06-22 Videomining Corporation Method and system for estimating gaze target, gaze sequence, and gaze map from video

Patent Citations (187)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6181343B2 (en)
US4695953A (en) 1983-08-25 1987-09-22 Blair Preston E TV animation interactively controlled by the viewer
US4630910A (en) 1984-02-16 1986-12-23 Robotic Vision Systems, Inc. Method of measuring in three-dimensions at high speed
US4627620A (en) 1984-12-26 1986-12-09 Yang John P Electronic athlete trainer for improving skills in reflex, speed and accuracy
US4645458A (en) 1985-04-15 1987-02-24 Harald Phillip Athletic evaluation and training apparatus
US4702475A (en) 1985-08-16 1987-10-27 Innovating Training Products, Inc. Sports technique and reaction training system
US4843568A (en) 1986-04-11 1989-06-27 Krueger Myron W Real time perception of and response to the actions of an unencumbered participant/user
US4711543A (en) 1986-04-14 1987-12-08 Blair Preston E TV animation interactively controlled by the viewer
US4796997A (en) 1986-05-27 1989-01-10 Synthetic Vision Systems, Inc. Method and system for high-speed, 3-D imaging of an object at a vision station
US5184295A (en) 1986-05-30 1993-02-02 Mann Ralph V System and method for teaching physical skills
US4751642A (en) 1986-08-29 1988-06-14 Silva John M Interactive sports simulation system with physiological sensing and psychological conditioning
US4809065A (en) 1986-12-01 1989-02-28 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Interactive system and related method for displaying data to produce a three-dimensional image of an object
US4817950A (en) 1987-05-08 1989-04-04 Goo Paul E Video game control unit and attitude sensor
US5016282A (en) 1988-07-14 1991-05-14 Atr Communication Systems Research Laboratories Eye tracking image pickup apparatus for separating noise from feature portions
US5239463A (en) 1988-08-04 1993-08-24 Blair Preston E Method and apparatus for player interaction with animated characters and objects
US5239464A (en) 1988-08-04 1993-08-24 Blair Preston E Interactive video system providing repeated switching of multiple tracks of actions sequences
US4901362A (en) 1988-08-08 1990-02-13 Raytheon Company Method of recognizing patterns
US4893183A (en) 1988-08-11 1990-01-09 Carnegie-Mellon University Robotic vision system
US5288078A (en) 1988-10-14 1994-02-22 David G. Capper Control interface apparatus
US4925189A (en) 1989-01-13 1990-05-15 Braeunig Thomas F Body-mounted video game exercise device
US5229756A (en) 1989-02-07 1993-07-20 Yamaha Corporation Image control apparatus
US5469740A (en) 1989-07-14 1995-11-28 Impulse Technology, Inc. Interactive video testing and training system
US5229754A (en) 1990-02-13 1993-07-20 Yazaki Corporation Automotive reflection type display apparatus
US5101444A (en) 1990-05-18 1992-03-31 Panacea, Inc. Method and apparatus for high speed object location
US5148154A (en) 1990-12-04 1992-09-15 Sony Corporation Of America Multi-dimensional user interface
US5534917A (en) 1991-05-09 1996-07-09 Very Vivid, Inc. Video image based control system
US5295491A (en) 1991-09-26 1994-03-22 Sam Technology, Inc. Non-invasive human neurocognitive performance capability testing method and system
US6054991A (en) 1991-12-02 2000-04-25 Texas Instruments Incorporated Method of modeling player position and movement in a virtual reality system
US5875108A (en) 1991-12-23 1999-02-23 Hoffberg; Steven M. Ergonomic man-machine interface incorporating adaptive pattern recognition based control system
US5417210A (en) 1992-05-27 1995-05-23 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for augmentation of endoscopic surgery
EP0583061A2 (en) 1992-07-10 1994-02-16 The Walt Disney Company Method and apparatus for providing enhanced graphics in a virtual world
US7222078B2 (en) 1992-08-06 2007-05-22 Ferrara Ethereal Llc Methods and systems for gathering information from units of a commodity across a network
US5320538A (en) 1992-09-23 1994-06-14 Hughes Training, Inc. Interactive aircraft training system and method
US5715834A (en) 1992-11-20 1998-02-10 Scuola Superiore Di Studi Universitari & Di Perfezionamento S. Anna Device for monitoring the configuration of a distal physiological unit for use, in particular, as an advanced interface for machine and computers
US5495576A (en) 1993-01-11 1996-02-27 Ritchey; Kurtis J. Panoramic image based virtual reality/telepresence audio-visual system and method
US5690582A (en) 1993-02-02 1997-11-25 Tectrix Fitness Equipment, Inc. Interactive exercise apparatus
US5704837A (en) 1993-03-26 1998-01-06 Namco Ltd. Video game steering system causing translation, rotation and curvilinear motion on the object
US5405152A (en) 1993-06-08 1995-04-11 The Walt Disney Company Method and apparatus for an interactive video game with physical feedback
US5454043A (en) 1993-07-30 1995-09-26 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc. Dynamic and static hand gesture recognition through low-level image analysis
US5423554A (en) 1993-09-24 1995-06-13 Metamedia Ventures, Inc. Virtual reality game method and apparatus
US5980256A (en) 1993-10-29 1999-11-09 Carmein; David E. E. Virtual reality system with enhanced sensory apparatus
US5617312A (en) 1993-11-19 1997-04-01 Hitachi, Ltd. Computer system that enters control information by means of video camera
US5347306A (en) 1993-12-17 1994-09-13 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc. Animated electronic meeting place
US5616078A (en) 1993-12-28 1997-04-01 Konami Co., Ltd. Motion-controlled video entertainment system
US5577981A (en) 1994-01-19 1996-11-26 Jarvik; Robert Virtual reality exercise machine and computer controlled video system
US5580249A (en) 1994-02-14 1996-12-03 Sarcos Group Apparatus for simulating mobility of a human
US5597309A (en) 1994-03-28 1997-01-28 Riess; Thomas Method and apparatus for treatment of gait problems associated with parkinson's disease
US5385519A (en) 1994-04-19 1995-01-31 Hsu; Chi-Hsueh Running machine
US5524637A (en) 1994-06-29 1996-06-11 Erickson; Jon W. Interactive system for measuring physiological exertion
US5563988A (en) 1994-08-01 1996-10-08 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Method and system for facilitating wireless, full-body, real-time user interaction with a digitally represented visual environment
US6714665B1 (en) 1994-09-02 2004-03-30 Sarnoff Corporation Fully automated iris recognition system utilizing wide and narrow fields of view
US5516105A (en) 1994-10-06 1996-05-14 Exergame, Inc. Acceleration activated joystick
US5638300A (en) 1994-12-05 1997-06-10 Johnson; Lee E. Golf swing analysis system
US5703367A (en) 1994-12-09 1997-12-30 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Human occupancy detection method and system for implementing the same
US5594469A (en) 1995-02-21 1997-01-14 Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America Inc. Hand gesture machine control system
US5682229A (en) 1995-04-14 1997-10-28 Schwartz Electro-Optics, Inc. Laser range camera
US5913727A (en) 1995-06-02 1999-06-22 Ahdoot; Ned Interactive movement and contact simulation game
US6229913B1 (en) 1995-06-07 2001-05-08 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Apparatus and methods for determining the three-dimensional shape of an object using active illumination and relative blurring in two-images due to defocus
US5682196A (en) 1995-06-22 1997-10-28 Actv, Inc. Three-dimensional (3D) video presentation system providing interactive 3D presentation with personalized audio responses for multiple viewers
US6066075A (en) 1995-07-26 2000-05-23 Poulton; Craig K. Direct feedback controller for user interaction
US6430997B1 (en) 1995-11-06 2002-08-13 Trazer Technologies, Inc. System and method for tracking and assessing movement skills in multidimensional space
US6765726B2 (en) 1995-11-06 2004-07-20 Impluse Technology Ltd. System and method for tracking and assessing movement skills in multidimensional space
US6308565B1 (en) 1995-11-06 2001-10-30 Impulse Technology Ltd. System and method for tracking and assessing movement skills in multidimensional space
US7038855B2 (en) 1995-11-06 2006-05-02 Impulse Technology Ltd. System and method for tracking and assessing movement skills in multidimensional space
US6876496B2 (en) 1995-11-06 2005-04-05 Impulse Technology Ltd. System and method for tracking and assessing movement skills in multidimensional space
US6073489A (en) 1995-11-06 2000-06-13 French; Barry J. Testing and training system for assessing the ability of a player to complete a task
US6098458A (en) 1995-11-06 2000-08-08 Impulse Technology, Ltd. Testing and training system for assessing movement and agility skills without a confining field
US7359121B2 (en) 1995-11-06 2008-04-15 Impulse Technology Ltd. System and method for tracking and assessing movement skills in multidimensional space
US6283860B1 (en) 1995-11-07 2001-09-04 Philips Electronics North America Corp. Method, system, and program for gesture based option selection
US5933125A (en) 1995-11-27 1999-08-03 Cae Electronics, Ltd. Method and apparatus for reducing instability in the display of a virtual environment
US5641288A (en) 1996-01-11 1997-06-24 Zaenglein, Jr.; William G. Shooting simulating process and training device using a virtual reality display screen
US6152856A (en) 1996-05-08 2000-11-28 Real Vision Corporation Real time simulation using position sensing
US6173066B1 (en) 1996-05-21 2001-01-09 Cybernet Systems Corporation Pose determination and tracking by matching 3D objects to a 2D sensor
US5989157A (en) 1996-08-06 1999-11-23 Walton; Charles A. Exercising system with electronic inertial game playing
US6005548A (en) 1996-08-14 1999-12-21 Latypov; Nurakhmed Nurislamovich Method for tracking and displaying user's spatial position and orientation, a method for representing virtual reality for a user, and systems of embodiment of such methods
US5995649A (en) 1996-09-20 1999-11-30 Nec Corporation Dual-input image processor for recognizing, isolating, and displaying specific objects from the input images
US6128003A (en) 1996-12-20 2000-10-03 Hitachi, Ltd. Hand gesture recognition system and method
US6009210A (en) 1997-03-05 1999-12-28 Digital Equipment Corporation Hands-free interface to a virtual reality environment using head tracking
US6100896A (en) 1997-03-24 2000-08-08 Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc. System for designing graphical multi-participant environments
US5877803A (en) 1997-04-07 1999-03-02 Tritech Mircoelectronics International, Ltd. 3-D image detector
US6215898B1 (en) 1997-04-15 2001-04-10 Interval Research Corporation Data processing system and method
US6226396B1 (en) 1997-07-31 2001-05-01 Nec Corporation Object extraction method and system
US6188777B1 (en) 1997-08-01 2001-02-13 Interval Research Corporation Method and apparatus for personnel detection and tracking
US6289112B1 (en) 1997-08-22 2001-09-11 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for determining block direction in fingerprint images
US7042440B2 (en) 1997-08-22 2006-05-09 Pryor Timothy R Man machine interfaces and applications
US6496598B1 (en) 1997-09-02 2002-12-17 Dynamic Digital Depth Research Pty. Ltd. Image processing method and apparatus
US6215890B1 (en) 1997-09-26 2001-04-10 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Hand gesture recognizing device
US6141463A (en) 1997-10-10 2000-10-31 Electric Planet Interactive Method and system for estimating jointed-figure configurations
US6256033B1 (en) 1997-10-15 2001-07-03 Electric Planet Method and apparatus for real-time gesture recognition
US6101289A (en) 1997-10-15 2000-08-08 Electric Planet, Inc. Method and apparatus for unencumbered capture of an object
US6411744B1 (en) 1997-10-15 2002-06-25 Electric Planet, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing a clean background subtraction
US7184048B2 (en) 1997-10-15 2007-02-27 Electric Planet, Inc. System and method for generating an animatable character
US6384819B1 (en) 1997-10-15 2002-05-07 Electric Planet, Inc. System and method for generating an animatable character
US6130677A (en) 1997-10-15 2000-10-10 Electric Planet, Inc. Interactive computer vision system
USRE42256E1 (en) 1997-10-15 2011-03-29 Elet Systems L.L.C. Method and apparatus for performing a clean background subtraction
US7746345B2 (en) 1997-10-15 2010-06-29 Hunter Kevin L System and method for generating an animatable character
US6072494A (en) 1997-10-15 2000-06-06 Electric Planet, Inc. Method and apparatus for real-time gesture recognition
US6181343B1 (en) 1997-12-23 2001-01-30 Philips Electronics North America Corp. System and method for permitting three-dimensional navigation through a virtual reality environment using camera-based gesture inputs
US6152563A (en) 1998-02-20 2000-11-28 Hutchinson; Thomas E. Eye gaze direction tracker
US6159100A (en) 1998-04-23 2000-12-12 Smith; Michael D. Virtual reality game
US6077201A (en) 1998-06-12 2000-06-20 Cheng; Chau-Yang Exercise bicycle
US6394602B1 (en) 1998-06-16 2002-05-28 Leica Microsystems Ag Eye tracking system
US7460690B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2008-12-02 Cybernet Systems Corporation Gesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications
US7684592B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2010-03-23 Cybernet Systems Corporation Realtime object tracking system
US7121946B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2006-10-17 Cybernet Systems Corporation Real-time head tracking system for computer games and other applications
US6681031B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2004-01-20 Cybernet Systems Corporation Gesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications
US7668340B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2010-02-23 Cybernet Systems Corporation Gesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications
US7036094B1 (en) 1998-08-10 2006-04-25 Cybernet Systems Corporation Behavior recognition system
US6950534B2 (en) 1998-08-10 2005-09-27 Cybernet Systems Corporation Gesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications
US6316934B1 (en) 1998-09-17 2001-11-13 Netmor Ltd. System for three dimensional positioning and tracking
US6256400B1 (en) 1998-09-28 2001-07-03 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Method and device for segmenting hand gestures
US6661918B1 (en) 1998-12-04 2003-12-09 Interval Research Corporation Background estimation and segmentation based on range and color
US6147678A (en) 1998-12-09 2000-11-14 Lucent Technologies Inc. Video hand image-three-dimensional computer interface with multiple degrees of freedom
US7202898B1 (en) 1998-12-16 2007-04-10 3Dv Systems Ltd. Self gating photosurface
US6570555B1 (en) 1998-12-30 2003-05-27 Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. Method and apparatus for embodied conversational characters with multimodal input/output in an interface device
US6363160B1 (en) 1999-01-22 2002-03-26 Intel Corporation Interface using pattern recognition and tracking
US7003134B1 (en) 1999-03-08 2006-02-21 Vulcan Patents Llc Three dimensional object pose estimation which employs dense depth information
US6299308B1 (en) 1999-04-02 2001-10-09 Cybernet Systems Corporation Low-cost non-imaging eye tracker system for computer control
US6503195B1 (en) 1999-05-24 2003-01-07 University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill Methods and systems for real-time structured light depth extraction and endoscope using real-time structured light depth extraction
US6476834B1 (en) 1999-05-28 2002-11-05 International Business Machines Corporation Dynamic creation of selectable items on surfaces
US6873723B1 (en) 1999-06-30 2005-03-29 Intel Corporation Segmenting three-dimensional video images using stereo
US6738066B1 (en) 1999-07-30 2004-05-18 Electric Plant, Inc. System, method and article of manufacture for detecting collisions between video images generated by a camera and an object depicted on a display
US7113918B1 (en) 1999-08-01 2006-09-26 Electric Planet, Inc. Method for video enabled electronic commerce
US7760182B2 (en) 1999-08-01 2010-07-20 Subutai Ahmad Method for video enabled electronic commerce
US7050606B2 (en) 1999-08-10 2006-05-23 Cybernet Systems Corporation Tracking and gesture recognition system particularly suited to vehicular control applications
US6801637B2 (en) 1999-08-10 2004-10-05 Cybernet Systems Corporation Optical body tracker
US7367887B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2008-05-06 Namco Bandai Games Inc. Game apparatus, storage medium, and computer program that adjust level of game difficulty
US6633294B1 (en) 2000-03-09 2003-10-14 Seth Rosenthal Method and apparatus for using captured high density motion for animation
US7060957B2 (en) 2000-04-28 2006-06-13 Csem Centre Suisse D'electronique Et Microtechinique Sa Device and method for spatially resolved photodetection and demodulation of modulated electromagnetic waves
US6640202B1 (en) 2000-05-25 2003-10-28 International Business Machines Corporation Elastic sensor mesh system for 3-dimensional measurement, mapping and kinematics applications
US6731799B1 (en) 2000-06-01 2004-05-04 University Of Washington Object segmentation with background extraction and moving boundary techniques
US6788809B1 (en) 2000-06-30 2004-09-07 Intel Corporation System and method for gesture recognition in three dimensions using stereo imaging and color vision
US7227526B2 (en) 2000-07-24 2007-06-05 Gesturetek, Inc. Video-based image control system
US7898522B2 (en) 2000-07-24 2011-03-01 Gesturetek, Inc. Video-based image control system
US6417950B1 (en) * 2000-08-28 2002-07-09 University Technology Corporation Three-color imaging on each pixel for increased resolution
US7421093B2 (en) 2000-10-03 2008-09-02 Gesturetek, Inc. Multiple camera control system
US7058204B2 (en) 2000-10-03 2006-06-06 Gesturetek, Inc. Multiple camera control system
US7555142B2 (en) 2000-10-03 2009-06-30 Gesturetek, Inc. Multiple camera control system
US7039676B1 (en) 2000-10-31 2006-05-02 International Business Machines Corporation Using video image analysis to automatically transmit gestures over a network in a chat or instant messaging session
US6539931B2 (en) 2001-04-16 2003-04-01 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Ball throwing assistant
US6578962B1 (en) * 2001-04-27 2003-06-17 International Business Machines Corporation Calibration-free eye gaze tracking
US7259747B2 (en) 2001-06-05 2007-08-21 Reactrix Systems, Inc. Interactive video display system
US7834846B1 (en) 2001-06-05 2010-11-16 Matthew Bell Interactive video display system
US7452275B2 (en) 2001-06-29 2008-11-18 Konami Digital Entertainment Co., Ltd. Game device, game controlling method and program
US7680298B2 (en) 2001-09-28 2010-03-16 At&T Intellectual Property I, L. P. Methods, systems, and products for gesture-activated appliances
US6937742B2 (en) 2001-09-28 2005-08-30 Bellsouth Intellectual Property Corporation Gesture activated home appliance
US7607509B2 (en) 2002-04-19 2009-10-27 Iee International Electronics & Engineering S.A. Safety device for a vehicle
US8035614B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2011-10-11 Intellectual Ventures Holding 67 Llc Interactive video window
US8035612B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2011-10-11 Intellectual Ventures Holding 67 Llc Self-contained interactive video display system
US7170492B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2007-01-30 Reactrix Systems, Inc. Interactive video display system
US7710391B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2010-05-04 Matthew Bell Processing an image utilizing a spatially varying pattern
US8035624B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2011-10-11 Intellectual Ventures Holding 67 Llc Computer vision based touch screen
US7348963B2 (en) 2002-05-28 2008-03-25 Reactrix Systems, Inc. Interactive video display system
US7489812B2 (en) 2002-06-07 2009-02-10 Dynamic Digital Depth Research Pty Ltd. Conversion and encoding techniques
US7576727B2 (en) 2002-12-13 2009-08-18 Matthew Bell Interactive directed light/sound system
US7436496B2 (en) 2003-02-03 2008-10-14 National University Corporation Shizuoka University Distance image sensor
US7593552B2 (en) 2003-03-31 2009-09-22 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Gesture recognition apparatus, gesture recognition method, and gesture recognition program
US8072470B2 (en) 2003-05-29 2011-12-06 Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. System and method for providing a real-time three-dimensional interactive environment
US7590262B2 (en) 2003-05-29 2009-09-15 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Visual tracking using depth data
US7620202B2 (en) 2003-06-12 2009-11-17 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Target orientation estimation using depth sensing
US7536032B2 (en) 2003-10-24 2009-05-19 Reactrix Systems, Inc. Method and system for processing captured image information in an interactive video display system
US7809167B2 (en) 2003-10-24 2010-10-05 Matthew Bell Method and system for processing captured image information in an interactive video display system
US7379563B2 (en) 2004-04-15 2008-05-27 Gesturetek, Inc. Tracking bimanual movements
US7308112B2 (en) 2004-05-14 2007-12-11 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Sign based human-machine interaction
US7704135B2 (en) 2004-08-23 2010-04-27 Harrison Jr Shelton E Integrated game system, method, and device
US7702130B2 (en) 2004-12-20 2010-04-20 Electronics And Telecommunications Research Institute User interface apparatus using hand gesture recognition and method thereof
US7574020B2 (en) 2005-01-07 2009-08-11 Gesturetek, Inc. Detecting and tracking objects in images
US7379566B2 (en) 2005-01-07 2008-05-27 Gesturetek, Inc. Optical flow based tilt sensor
US7430312B2 (en) 2005-01-07 2008-09-30 Gesturetek, Inc. Creating 3D images of objects by illuminating with infrared patterns
US7570805B2 (en) 2005-01-07 2009-08-04 Gesturetek, Inc. Creating 3D images of objects by illuminating with infrared patterns
US7598942B2 (en) 2005-02-08 2009-10-06 Oblong Industries, Inc. System and method for gesture based control system
US7317836B2 (en) 2005-03-17 2008-01-08 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Pose estimation based on critical point analysis
US7389591B2 (en) 2005-05-17 2008-06-24 Gesturetek, Inc. Orientation-sensitive signal output
US7560701B2 (en) 2005-08-12 2009-07-14 Mesa Imaging Ag Highly sensitive, fast pixel for use in an image sensor
US20080026838A1 (en) 2005-08-22 2008-01-31 Dunstan James E Multi-player non-role-playing virtual world games: method for two-way interaction between participants and multi-player virtual world games
US7450736B2 (en) 2005-10-28 2008-11-11 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Monocular tracking of 3D human motion with a coordinated mixture of factor analyzers
US7522344B1 (en) 2005-12-14 2009-04-21 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Projection-based head-mounted display with eye-tracking capabilities
US20110109880A1 (en) * 2006-01-26 2011-05-12 Ville Nummela Eye Tracker Device
US7701439B2 (en) 2006-07-13 2010-04-20 Northrop Grumman Corporation Gesture recognition simulation system and method
US7683954B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2010-03-23 Brainvision Inc. Solid-state image sensor
US7412077B2 (en) 2006-12-29 2008-08-12 Motorola, Inc. Apparatus and methods for head pose estimation and head gesture detection
US7729530B2 (en) 2007-03-03 2010-06-01 Sergey Antonov Method and apparatus for 3-D data input to a personal computer with a multimedia oriented operating system
US7852262B2 (en) 2007-08-16 2010-12-14 Cybernet Systems Corporation Wireless mobile indoor/outdoor tracking system
US7618144B2 (en) 2008-01-07 2009-11-17 Optical Physics Company System and method for tracking eye movement
US20110043644A1 (en) * 2008-04-02 2011-02-24 Esight Corp. Apparatus and Method for a Dynamic "Region of Interest" in a Display System
CN101254344B (en) 2008-04-18 2010-06-16 李刚 Game device of field orientation corresponding with display screen dot array in proportion and method
US20110182472A1 (en) * 2008-07-08 2011-07-28 Dan Witzner Hansen Eye gaze tracking

Non-Patent Citations (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
"Differences in the Infrared Bright Pupil Response of Human Eyes"; Nguyen et al.; IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA, USA; pp. 133-138; published 2002.
"Eye Tracking Methodology Theory and Practice"; Duchowski, Andrew; Chapter 5, pp. 51-59 and Chapter 11, pp. 125-135; Springer-Verlag London Publishers 2007.
"Frame-Rate Pupil Detector and Gaze Tracker"; Morimoto C.H. et al.; IBM Research Center, San Jose, CA., USA; published 1999.
"Simulation and Training", 1994, Division Incorporated, March.
"The Wearable Eyetracker: A Tool for the Study of High-Level Visual Tasks"; Babcock, Jason et al.; Institute of Technology, New York, USA and Naval Research Laboratories, Washington DC; published Feb. 2003.
"Virtual High Anxiety", Tech Update, Aug. 1995, pp. 22.
Aggarwal et al., "Human Motion Analysis: A Review", IEEE Nonrigid and Articulated Motion Workshop, 1997, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
Azarbayejani et al., "Visually Controlled Graphics", Jun. 1993, vol. 15, No. 6, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.
Breen et al., "Interactive Occlusion and Collusion of Real and Virtual Objects in Augmented Reality", Technical Report ECRC-95-02, 1995, European Computer-Industry Research Center GmbH, Munich, Germany, July.
Brogan et al., "Dynamically Simulated Characters in Virtual Environments", Sep./Oct. 1998, pp. 2-13, vol. 18, Issue 5, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications.
Fisher et al., "Virtual Environment Display System", ACM Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics, Oct. 1986, Chapel Hill, NC.
Freeman et al., "Television Control by Hand Gestures", Dec. 1994, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, TR94-24, Caimbridge, MA, July.
Granieri et al., "Simulating Humans in VR", The British Computer Society, Oct. 1994, Academic Press.
Hasegawa et al., "Human-Scale Haptic Interaction with a Reactive Virtual Human in a Real-Time Physics Simulator", Jul. 2006, vol. 4, No. 3, Article 6C, ACM Computers in Entertainment, New York, NY.
He, "Generation of Human Body Models", Apr. 2005, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Hongo et al., "Focus of Attention for Face and Hand Gesture Recognition Using Multiple Cameras", Mar. 2000, pp. 156-161, 4th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, Grenoble, France.
Isard et al., "Condensation-Conditional Density Propagation for Visual Tracking", 1998, pp. 5-28, International Journal of Computer Vision 29(1), Netherlands, April.
Isard et al., "Condensation—Conditional Density Propagation for Visual Tracking", 1998, pp. 5-28, International Journal of Computer Vision 29(1), Netherlands, April.
Kanade et al., "A Stereo Machine for Video-rate Dense Depth Mapping and Its New Applications", IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1996, pp. 196-202,The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.
Kohler, "Special Topics of Gesture Recognition Applied in Intelligent Home Environments", In Proceedings of the Gesture Workshop, 1998, pp. 285-296, Germany.
Kohler, "Technical Details and Ergonomical Aspects of Gesture Recognition applied in Intelligent Home Environments", 1997, Germany, August.
Kohler, "Vision Based Remote Control in Intelligent Home Environments", University of Erlangen-Nuremberg/Germany, 1996, pp. 147-154, Germany, July.
Livingston, "Vision-based Tracking with Dynamic Structured Light for Video See-through Augmented Reality", 1998, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, April.
Miyagawa et al., "CCD-Based Range Finding Sensor", Oct. 1997, pp. 1648-1652, vol. 44 No. 10, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices.
Pavlovic et al., "Visual Interpretation of Hand Gestures for Human-Computer Interaction: A Review", Jul. 1997, pp. 677-695, vol. 19, No. 7, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.
Qian et al., "A Gesture-Driven Multimodal Interactive Dance System", Jun. 2004, pp. 1579-1582, IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Taipei, Taiwan.
Rosenhahn et al., "Automatic Human Model Generation", 2005, pp. 41-48, University of Auckland (CITR), New Zealand.
Shao et al., "An Open System Architecture for a Multimedia and Multimodal User Interface", Aug. 24, 1998, Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities (JSRPD), Japan.
Sheridan et al., "Virtual Reality Check", Technology Review, Oct. 1993, pp. 22-28, vol. 96, No. 7.
Stevens, "Flights into Virtual Reality Treating Real-World Disorders", The Washington Post, Mar. 27, 1995, Science Psychology, 2 pages.
Wren et al., "Pfinder: Real-Time Tracking of the Human Body", MIT Media Laboratory Perceptual Computing Section Technical Report No. 353, Jul. 1997, vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 780-785, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Caimbridge, MA.
Zhao, "Dressed Human Modeling, Detection, and Parts Localization", 2001, The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9164583B2 (en) * 2011-03-18 2015-10-20 Senso-Motoric Instruments Gesellschaft Fur Innovative Sensorik Mbh Method and apparatus for gaze point mapping
US20140003738A1 (en) * 2011-03-18 2014-01-02 Sensomotoric Instruments Gesellschaft Fur Innovative Sensorik Mbh Method and apparatus for gaze point mapping
US9191658B2 (en) * 2011-06-16 2015-11-17 Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd. Head-mounted display and position gap adjustment method
US20130235169A1 (en) * 2011-06-16 2013-09-12 Panasonic Corporation Head-mounted display and position gap adjustment method
US8988519B2 (en) * 2012-03-20 2015-03-24 Cisco Technology, Inc. Automatic magnification of data on display screen based on eye characteristics of user
US20130250086A1 (en) * 2012-03-20 2013-09-26 Cisco Technology, Inc. Automatic magnification of data on display screen based on eye characteristics of user
US20140176327A1 (en) * 2012-12-20 2014-06-26 Nokia Corporation Method and apparatus for determining that medical assistance may be required
US20140184569A1 (en) * 2012-12-28 2014-07-03 Wistron Corporaition Coordinate Transformation Method and Computer System for Interactive System
US9189063B2 (en) * 2012-12-28 2015-11-17 Wistron Corporation Coordinate transformation method and computer system for interactive system
US20140243971A1 (en) * 2013-02-28 2014-08-28 Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc. Electronic ophthalmic lens with eye gaze sensor
US9671619B2 (en) * 2013-02-28 2017-06-06 Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc. Electronic ophthalmic lens with eye gaze sensor
US20160026246A1 (en) * 2014-04-10 2016-01-28 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Eye gaze tracking method and apparatus and computer-readable recording medium
US9798384B2 (en) * 2014-04-10 2017-10-24 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Eye gaze tracking method and apparatus and computer-readable recording medium
US9794542B2 (en) 2014-07-03 2017-10-17 Microsoft Technology Licensing, Llc. Secure wearable computer interface
US20160046295A1 (en) * 2014-08-14 2016-02-18 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method and device for determining a reaction time of a vehicle driver
US9858719B2 (en) 2015-03-30 2018-01-02 Amazon Technologies, Inc. Blended reality systems and methods

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CN102551655A (en) 2012-07-11 application
US20120147328A1 (en) 2012-06-14 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Beymer et al. Eye gaze tracking using an active stereo head
Venkateswarlu Eye gaze estimation from a single image of one eye
US4993826A (en) Topography measuring apparatus
US7428320B2 (en) Iris imaging using reflection from the eye
US6529331B2 (en) Head mounted display with full field of view and high resolution
Ohno et al. A free-head, simple calibration, gaze tracking system that enables gaze-based interaction
US20120294478A1 (en) Systems and methods for identifying gaze tracking scene reference locations
US6890077B2 (en) Method and apparatus for high resolution video image display
US6433760B1 (en) Head mounted display with eyetracking capability
US20130077049A1 (en) Integrated eye tracking and display system
US9033502B2 (en) Optical measuring device and method for capturing at least one parameter of at least one eye wherein an illumination characteristic is adjustable
US6634749B1 (en) Eye tracking system
US20020130961A1 (en) Display device of focal angle and focal distance in iris recognition system
US20130241805A1 (en) Using Convergence Angle to Select Among Different UI Elements
US7369101B2 (en) Calibrating real and virtual views
US5345281A (en) Eye tracking system and method
US7418115B2 (en) Iris imaging using reflection from the eye
US7783077B2 (en) Eye gaze tracker system and method
US20130050833A1 (en) Adjustment of a mixed reality display for inter-pupillary distance alignment
US20130114850A1 (en) Systems and methods for high-resolution gaze tracking
US20140147829A1 (en) Wearable food nutrition feedback system
US20140160157A1 (en) People-triggered holographic reminders
US7572008B2 (en) Method and installation for detecting and following an eye and the gaze direction thereof
US20070279590A1 (en) Sight-Line Detection Method and Device, and Three-Dimensional View-Point Measurement Device
US20110228975A1 (en) Methods and apparatus for estimating point-of-gaze in three dimensions

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: MICROSOFT CORPORATION, WASHINGTON

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:YAHAV, GIORA;REEL/FRAME:025591/0389

Effective date: 20101209

AS Assignment

Owner name: MICROSOFT TECHNOLOGY LICENSING, LLC, WASHINGTON

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MICROSOFT CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:034544/0001

Effective date: 20141014

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4