US814488A  Computing device  Google Patents
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 US814488A US814488A US814488DA US814488A US 814488 A US814488 A US 814488A US 814488D A US814488D A US 814488DA US 814488 A US814488 A US 814488A
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 G—PHYSICS
 G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING OR COUNTING
 G06G—ANALOGUE COMPUTERS
 G06G1/00—Hand manipulated computing devices
 G06G1/02—Devices in which computing is effected by adding, subtracting, or comparing lengths of parallel or concentric graduated scales
 G06G1/04—Devices in which computing is effected by adding, subtracting, or comparing lengths of parallel or concentric graduated scales characterised by construction
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 miltly invention hasfor its object to rovide a convenient device by means of whic averaes and proportions may be computed rapand Without figurlng.
 Ihe device is especiallyr adaptedl for use where it is desired to strike an, average between two numbers or where it is desired to find the avera e .between two numbers one of which ⁇ is to e given a greater weight than the otheras, for instance, where a teacher has to compute a scholar marks and desires to give the mark on the daily recitations three times the weight which it is desired to giveto the mark obtained by the pu il upon the examination. If, for instance, t e pupil has obtained a ⁇ mark for the recitations of 84 and a mark for the examination of 96 and it is desired to give recitations three times the Weight of theexamination it is found that the desired average is 87.
 Figure l is a plan view of a device embodyi my invention.
 Fig. 2 is a side elevation t ereof.
 Fig. 3 is a plan view of the fixed card.
 Fig. 4 is a plan view of the movable card.
 rindicated a card which for convenience I have called thefixed card, and which may be made of any convenient substanceas, for instance, cardboard or celluloid.
 U on this card is ivoted at its center a movalile card li is circular in shape and is somewhat smaller than the fixed card A. It is necessa that the cards A and B be movable each wit relation to the other; but I have designated them by the terms fixed and movable to distinguish them.
 the movable card B is provided with a handle C, by means of which It may be rotated about the central pivot D. Slots E, F, Gr, and H are cut in the said movable card B'to ermit the user to see certain figures on the ed card, as Awill be later described.
 the circumference of the movable card B is similarly divided into arcs, which I denominate the lesserweight Scales.
 Each of these scales which are indicated by the lreference characters J, K,' L, and M, are divided into equal spaces numbered from thirty to one hundred, in the same manner as has been described in connection with the geaterWeight scale I on the fixed card A.
 he lesserweight scales have a length proportionate to the length of the greaterweight scale and to the relative Weights to 'be given to the numbers to be averaged.
 the scale K is onehalf the length of the scale J, the numbers to be averaged by the use of this scale being given the comparative weight of one to two.
 the length of the lesserweight Scale L is onethir the length of the materweight scale I, and the length lof the esserweig t Scale M is onefourth ofl the len rth of the greaterweight scale I, thesesca es being used for yproportions of one to three and, one to four.
 the arc occupied bv the scales J, K, L, and M contains, respectively, one hundred and seventytwo and fourif the, 'eightysix and twofifths, fiftyseven and IOO so long as t threefifths, and fortythree and oneiifthdegrees.
 Concentric with the greaterweight scale I and nearer to the center of the iixed cardA are arranged what I denominate resultscales, one for each of the different proportions on the basis of which the averages are to be computed.
 These resultscales are indicated by the reference characters N, O, P, and Q, res ectively, and correspond to the lesserwei t scales J, K, L, and M, respectively. liach of these resultscales has a length in de rees equal to the length of the reaterWeigt scale plus the length of the esserweight scale to which the resultscale corresponds.
 the resultscale N has a length equal to the length of the greater Weight scale I plus the length of the lesserweight scale K, to which the resultscaleV N corresponds
 the resultscale Q has a length e ual to the greaterwei ht scale I plus the ength of the lesserweig t scale M, to which the resultscale Q corres onds.
 the resultscales N, O, P, an Q are located at radial distances from the centen of the iixed card A equal to the radial distances of the holes or slots E, F, G, and H, so that when the movable card B is revolved about its'pivot certain of thefi ures and divisionlines of the sets of scales O, P, and Q appear and are visible through their respective slots E, F, G, and H.
 I provide each of the said slots or holes E, F, G, and H with indicating marks or pointers R, S, T, and U, re' spectively, each of the said pointers being located in the middle of the lesserweight scale to which it ap lies.
 the scale K is used instead of the scale J, the divisionline marked 84 on that scale being placed in registration with the divisionline corres ondin to 96 on the greaterweight sca eI. he readin is then made by means of the pointer S, which is provided for the lesserweight scale K. The desired result, 92, may be seen through the slot F. In the same manner otheraverages may be obtained.
 a general rule for the operation of my improved averaging device may be stated as ollows: Find the number to be 'ven the least weight on the lesserweight sca emarked with the proportion desired, turn the movable card until the number found coincides with the divisionline of the greaterWeightv scale on the fixed card corres ondi to the other number. Then read t e num er indicated by the pointer for the lesserweight scale HWhere the first number was found.
 a computing device of the character the combination with a fixed and movable card of a eaterwe' ht scale anda series of resultsca es on the ed card, the said resultscales having a length e ual to that of the said greaterweight scale p us the len th 'of a corresponding lesserweight sca e, lesserweight scales on the said movable card having lengths proportionate to the length of the said greaterweight scale and the relative weights to be given the two numbers to be averaged, and a ointer for each ofthe said lesserweight sca es.
 the said resultscales having a length e ual to that of the said greaterweight scale us the length of a corres onding lesserweig t scale, lesserweight scaies arranged aboutthe eirl cumferenceof the said movable cardhaving len ths proportionate to the length of the saifI4 greaterweight scale and the relative Weights to be given to the numbers t'o b e averaged and a ointer on the median line of each of the said esserWeight scales.
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Description
. UNITED STATES PATENT torsion.
specincation of Letters Patent.
Patented March 6, 1906.
Application llod Augnlt 18, 1905.` Serial No. 274,691.
To all whom it may concern:
' Be it known that' I, WILLIAM H. WATSON, a citizenof the United States, residing at Danvers, county of Essex, State of Massachusetts,
 have invented a certain new and useful Im.
 provement in ComputingDevices, of which the following is a specification,
reference being had therein to the accompanying draws. miltly invention hasfor its object to rovide a convenient device by means of whic averaes and proportions may be computed rapand Without figurlng.
Ihe device is especiallyr adaptedl for use where it is desired to strike an, average between two numbers or where it is desired to find the avera e .between two numbers one of which `is to e given a greater weight than the otheras, for instance, where a teacher has to compute a scholars marks and desires to give the mark on the daily recitations three times the weight which it is desired to giveto the mark obtained by the pu il upon the examination. If, for instance, t e pupil has obtained a` mark for the recitations of 84 and a mark for the examination of 96 and it is desired to give recitations three times the Weight of theexamination it is found that the desired average is 87.
B,whic
M invention will be fully understood from the ollowing'description, taken in connection with the accom .anying drawings, and the novel features t ereof are pointed out andv clearly defined in the claims at the close of this s ecification.
Re erring now to the drawings, Figure lis a plan view of a device embodyi my invention. Fig. 2 is a side elevation t ereof. Fig. 3 is a plan view of the fixed card. Fig. 4 is a plan view of the movable card.
Referring now to the drawings, at A is rindicated a card, which for convenience I have called thefixed card, and which may be made of any convenient substanceas, for instance, cardboard or celluloid. U on this card is ivoted at its center a movalile card li is circular in shape and is somewhat smaller than the fixed card A. It is necessa that the cards A and B be movable each wit relation to the other; but I have designated them by the terms fixed and movable to distinguish them. The movable card B is provided with a handle C, by means of which It may be rotated about the central pivot D. Slots E, F, Gr, and H are cut in the said movable card B'to ermit the user to see certain figures on the ed card, as Awill be later described.
In the drawings I have shown Iny device as adapted especially for use in averaging percentages, and as the percentages below thirty are ordinarily neghrihle in the work. for which my computing evice `is intended and as the comparative weights to be given to the numbers to be averaged are usually one toone, one to two, one to three', and one to four I have shown in thedrawings a computing device ada ted for this particular work; but it isto e understood, of course, that the invention may be embodied in other forms arranged for use where other propere tions or sets of numbers are required.
Upon 'the fixed card A and at a distance from its center about equal to the radius of the movable card B, I divide a convenient arc of a circle into equal spaces, numbered from 30 to 100, as indicated at I. For convenience I have denominated this are the greaterweight Scale.
The circumference of the movable card B is similarly divided into arcs, which I denominate the lesserweight Scales. Each of these scales, which are indicated by the lreference characters J, K,' L, and M, are divided into equal spaces numbered from thirty to one hundred, in the same manner as has been described in connection with the geaterWeight scale I on the fixed card A. he lesserweight scales have a length proportionate to the length of the greaterweight scale and to the relative Weights to 'be given to the numbers to be averaged. 'lhus the scale K is onehalf the length of the scale J, the numbers to be averaged by the use of this scale being given the comparative weight of one to two. The length of the lesserweight Scale L is onethir the length of the materweight scale I, and the length lof the esserweig t Scale M is onefourth ofl the len rth of the greaterweight scale I, thesesca es being used for yproportions of one to three and, one to four. By choosing a right length for the are occupied by the scale I and using the proportions mentioned the lengths of the four lesserweight scales occupy the entire circumference ofthe .movable card B. It will thus be seen that the arc occupied bv the scales J, K, L, and M contains, respectively, one hundred and seventytwo and fourif the, 'eightysix and twofifths, fiftyseven and IOO so long as t threefifths, and fortythree and oneiifthdegrees.
Concentric with the greaterweight scale I and nearer to the center of the iixed cardA are arranged what I denominate resultscales, one for each of the different proportions on the basis of which the averages are to be computed. These resultscales are indicated by the reference characters N, O, P, and Q, res ectively, and correspond to the lesserwei t scales J, K, L, and M, respectively. liach of these resultscales has a length in de rees equal to the length of the reaterWeigt scale plus the length of the esserweight scale to which the resultscale corresponds. Thus the resultscale N has a length equal to the length of the greater Weight scale I plus the length of the lesserweight scale K, to which the resultscaleV N corresponds, and the resultscale Q has a length e ual to the greaterwei ht scale I plus the ength of the lesserweig t scale M, to which the resultscale Q corres onds.
The resultscales N, O, P, an Q are located at radial distances from the centen of the iixed card A equal to the radial distances of the holes or slots E, F, G, and H, so that when the movable card B is revolved about its'pivot certain of thefi ures and divisionlines of the sets of scales O, P, and Q appear and are visible through their respective slots E, F, G, and H. I provide each of the said slots or holes E, F, G, and H with indicating marks or pointers R, S, T, and U, re' spectively, each of the said pointers being located in the middle of the lesserweight scale to which it ap lies.
I find it convenient to locate the resultscales symmetricall of the median line 4 4 of the greaterWeig t scale and to place the ointers on the movable card on the median ines of the arcs of the lesserweight scales to which their7 apply; but this is not necessary e pointer on the movable card bears the same relation to the position of the lesserWeightfscale as the resultscale does to the position ofthe greaterweight scale.
It is to be noted that fthe divisions'.y on the fixed card A from thirt to one hundred are numbered clockwise, W 'le the divisions on the movable card B are numbered counterclockwise. It is further to be noted that in this s eciiication I have referred to the lengt of the various scalesfi By this is to be understood the len th measured in degrees without regard to t e radius of the are which forms the scale referred to.
Having now described the manner in which I la out my improved computing device, I wil explain the mode of operation by means of WhichI am able to obtain the averages and proportions.
Let it be su posedthat'it is desired toobtain the simp e average of the two numbers 84 and 96. The divisionline indicating'the number "84 on the lesserweight scale J of the movable card B is placed to coincide with the divisionline corresponding to the number 96 on the greaterweight scale I on the fixed card. The pointer R will then be seen to point to the divisionline corresponding to the number 90 of the resultscale N, this ii ure being seen throu h the slot or aperture corresponding to theesser Weight scale which is usedviz., that marked l to 1. If it is desired that the number 96 be given twice the Weight of the number 84, the scale K is used instead of the scale J, the divisionline marked 84 on that scale being placed in registration with the divisionline corres ondin to 96 on the greaterweight sca eI. he readin is then made by means of the pointer S, which is provided for the lesserweight scale K. The desired result, 92, may be seen through the slot F. In the same manner otheraverages may be obtained.
A general rule for the operation of my improved averaging device may be stated as ollows: Find the number to be 'ven the least weight on the lesserweight sca emarked with the proportion desired, turn the movable card until the number found coincides with the divisionline of the greaterWeightv scale on the fixed card corres ondi to the other number. Then read t e num er indicated by the pointer for the lesserweight scale HWhere the first number was found.
Whena simple'avera e isto be found, either number may be foun on the fixed card or' on IOO suitscale havin alength equal to that of.v
the greaterweig t scale plus the length `of a` lesserweight scale, a lesserweightscale on the said movable card having a length proportionate to the length of the greaterWeight scale and the relative weight to be given to the two numbers tobe averaged, anda pointer for the said lesserweight scale to indicate divisions of said resultscale.
2. In a computing device of the character described the combination with a fixed and movable card of a eaterwe' ht scale anda series of resultsca es on the ed card, the said resultscales having a length e ual to that of the said greaterweight scale p us the len th 'of a corresponding lesserweight sca e, lesserweight scales on the said movable card having lengths proportionate to the length of the said greaterweight scale and the relative weights to be given the two numbers to be averaged, and a ointer for each ofthe said lesserweight sca es.
3. In a computing device of the character described, 'the combination with a fixed and lne movable card, of a reaterwei ht scale and a series of resultsca es on the ed card, the said resultscales having a length e ual to that of the said greaterweight scale us the length of a corres onding lesserweig t scale, lesserweight scaies arranged aboutthe eirl cumferenceof the said movable cardhaving len ths proportionate to the length of the saifI4 greaterweight scale and the relative Weights to be given to the numbers t'o b e averaged and a ointer on the median line of each of the said esserWeight scales.
4. In a computing device'of the character described, the combination with a fixed V,and a movable card, of a greaterweight scale and resultscales arranged on the fixed card conccntricall with relation to. each other, the said resu tscales havin a length equal to that of the greaterWelght scale lus the length of a correspondin lesserWeig t scale, a lesserweight scale on te said movable card having a length proportionate to the len th of the greaterweight scale and the relative Weight to be given to the two numbers to be scale are visible, and 4a divislons ofsald resultsca es. v
avera ed, and a ointer to indicate divisions of sai resultsca es.
5. In a computing device of the character described, the comblnation with a fixed and a movable card, of greaterWeight scale and a resultscale arranged concentrically with relation to each other, the said'resultscale having a. length e ual to that of the greater Weight scale p us the length of a lesser Weight scale, a lesserWeight scale on the said movable card having Va length proportionate to the length ofthe greaterwelght scale and the relative Weight to be given to `the two numbers to be avera ed, slots in the said movable card for eac lesserWeight `scale through which the divisions of the resultonter to indicate In 'testimony whereof I aHiX my signature in presence of two witnesses.
` WILLIAM H. WATSON. yWitnesses z' BEssIE G. MoRRrs, GEORGE P. DIKEH
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Cited By (2)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US2550458A (en) *  19491214  19510424  Robert J Dresher  Tonnage calculator 
US3082948A (en) *  19600715  19630326  Simini Joseph Peter  Trigonometric calculator 

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 US US814488D patent/US814488A/en not_active Expired  Lifetime
Cited By (2)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US2550458A (en) *  19491214  19510424  Robert J Dresher  Tonnage calculator 
US3082948A (en) *  19600715  19630326  Simini Joseph Peter  Trigonometric calculator 
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