US8080A - Improved process for the artificial production of ice - Google PatentsImproved process for the artificial production of ice Download PDF
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- US8080A US8080A US8080DA US8080A US 8080 A US8080 A US 8080A US 8080D A US8080D A US 8080DA US 8080 A US8080 A US 8080A
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- F—MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
- F25—REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
- F25C—PRODUCING, WORKING OR HANDLING ICE
- F25C1/00—Producing ice
J. GORRIB' 1GB MACHINE.
' 8 Sheets-Sheet 1.
No. 8,080. 4 Patented May 6, 1851.
8 Sheets-Sheet 2.
J. GORRIE. ICE MACHINE. No. 8,080. Patented May 6, 1851.
1 k 1 n I I i I} F I 7V" T 8 Sheets-Sheet 3.
J. GORRIE. ICE MACHINE.
No. 8,080. Patented May 6, 1851.
8 Sheets-Sheet 4.
J. GORRIE. IGE MACHINE.
No. 8,080. I Patented May 6, 1851.
8 Sheets-Sheet 5.
J. GORRIE. 10E MACHINE.
Patented May 6, 1851 s Sheets-Sheet a. J. GORRI-E.
10B MACHINE. No. 8,080. Patented May 6, 1851.
8 She'ets sheet 7. J. GORRIE. 1GB MACHINE.
Patented May 6, 1851.
lllllnulvll'lllllll lnll lllllllrl J. GORRIE. ICE MAGHINE.
8 Sheets-Sheet 8.
No. 8,080. Patente'd May 6, 1851.
-.['0 all whom it Jim, concern EUINILTED STATES PATENT OFF CE.
JOHN GORRIE, OF NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA.
IM PRO E-o; PRoos ss-ro'R TH E ARTI Fl CIAL-PRO DUCTI on 0 F- IC'E.
r Specification forming part of Letters Patent'No. 8.080, dated May 6, 1851.
Be iteiinownflthat I, JOHN GORRIE, of the city of-Ncw Orleans, in the parish of Orleans and State of Louisiana, have invented anew and useiulidachine for the Artificial Produc tion of '-Ice and for General Refrigeratory Pu rposes, ot' which theiollowing is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the annexed drawings of the same, making part of this specification, in which-- Figure l aperspectivc view of the machine. hig. 2 is a verticallongitudinal section, taken through the condensing-pump and expanding-engine, for the purpose ofshowing more clearly-their internal structure and arrangements. Fig. 3 is a vertical transverse sec- .t-ion through the expanding-engine and its ap pendages, showing, also, the 'sectiono'f the reservoir. Fig. 4isasi n ilarsectiointaken through the condensing-pump. 'Fig. 41' is a perspective view of the vessel. ingwhich the ice is formed, removed from the refrigerating-chamber; Fig. 5 is a top view of theapparatus. Fig. 6 is a vertical longitudinal section of the machine modified in the structure and arrange ment of some of its parts; and Figs. 7 and 8 are, respectively, vertical transverse sections of the same through the expanding-engine and condensing-pump. V
The same letters indicate the same parts in all the figures.
It is a well-known law ofnature that the con-; densation of air by compression is accompanied by the development of heat, while the absorption of heat from surrounding bodies, or the manifestation of the sensible eflect, commonly called cold, uniformly attends the.expansion of air, and this is particularly marked when it is liberated from compression.
The nature of my invention consists in taking advantage of this law to convert water into ice artificially by absorbing its heatof liquefaction with expanding air. To obtain this eiTect in the mostadvantageous manner it is necessary to compress atmospheric air into a reservoir by means of a force-pump, to oneeighth, one-tenth, or other convenlent and suitable proportion of its ordinary volume. The power thus consumed incondensmg the airis, to a considerable extent, recovered at the same time that the desired frigorific efiect is produced by allowing the airto act with its expansive force upon the piston of an engine. which, by a connection with a beam or other contrivanee common to both, helps to work the condensing-pump. This engine is constructed and arranged in the mannerof a highpressure steam-engine having out oil's and working the steam expausivcly. \Vhen the air, cooled by its expansion, escapes from the engine, it is made to pass round a vessel containing the water to be converted into ice, or through a pipe for effecting refrigeration otherwise, the air while expanding in the engine being supplied with an nncongealable liquid whose heat it will absorb, and which can in turn be used to absorb heat from water to be congealed. By this arrangement I accomplish my object with theleast possible expenditure of mechanical force,- and produce artificial refrigeration in greater quantity from. atmospheric air than can be done by any known means.
The apparatus for producing the refrigeratory eii'ects before stat-ed consists, essentially, of a large douple-acting force-pump, A, with its jet-pump 1), Figs. 1 and 4, condensing-tub R, and worm l, as represented in the drawing No. 4, a reservoir, B, made of such metal in the manner of a steam-boiler, a double-acting expanding-engine, 0, provided with cut-ofls, a jet-pump, E, a tub, I, and worm H, for cooling water, the engine C and the chamber G above it being incloscd in an insulating-box, F, which box, together with the worm and tub H, are inclosed in a second insulating room or chamber, K. The pumps, engine, and other moving parts are provided with the necessary mechanical appliances for putting and keeping them in motion and connecting them with the prime mover, which may be either a steam engine or other available power.
it is believed that the precise nature of my invention and discovery, and the manner in which the refrigerating effects are produced, can be more clearly and fully set forth by describing-the construction and operation of the apparatus in connection. Ishall therefore adopt that plan in the remainder of the specication.
In the apparatus'reprcsented in Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 the piston-rods of the pump A and engine Care attached to-cross-heads d (I, which are connected by rods 0 c c c with the cranks f f of a revolving shaft, 1). This main shaft inward, and after -compressing it co-the dein the proportion I have. represented in the apparatus is made upon a large scale, to reb is divided into two parts, which are connected by the flanges e, secured to-their adjacent ends and bolted together in such a manner that the cranks on that section of the shaft which drives the pump may be placed at any angle of inclination to those which are at tached to the opposite section of the shaft and worked by the engine. This angle of inclination should be such that the maximum force of the engine 0 may be-exerted about the same time that the maximum resistance is ofiered by the pump A-or, in other words, that the engine, supposing. that-it works under a tension of eight atmospheres, may commence its stroke about the same time that the pump has completed six'sevenths -of its stroke. The
power of the prime mover is applied to the crank f by a" connecting-rod, m, Fig. 1, and the motion is regulated by fly-wheels r r..
The pump A is constructed like the ordinary double-acting force-pump for air or water. It receivesatmosphericairthroughvalves N N, placed in its opposite ends, which open gree required forces it through the eductionvalves 0 9, which open outward into a pipe, P, through which it passes into the, reservoir B. A part of the-pipe P is bent into aworm, which is immersed in a tub of cold water, R, to cool the air as it passes through the same. Air, while being compressed, evolves-sew sible heat, which, if not absorbed or extinguished as fast as given out, will increase its elastic force greatly beyond what is due to the degree of its compression, thus requiring a greater degree of mechanical power than is absolutely necessary to compressit in the reservoir.- To obviate this diificulty as far as practicable, I immerse the pump in a'cistern of cold water and inject into its interior a jet of water, also cold, and-in a finely-divided or other state, by means of a small pump, D, which bears a suitable relation in its size to the pump A, being in the machine I have built drawings, and capable-of discharging twentyeight cubic inches of water for every cubic foot of air compressed by. the latter. The pump D is double-acting, receives its motion from the eccentric h on the shaft b, and forces the water through tubes and perforated plates inserted in the lids of the pump-A, into the body of air in the cylinder A. This pump D is so constructed and arranged as to force the jet into the pump A at the beginning, and con tinue it to the end .of the stroke of its piston,- so as to meet and absorb theheat as fast as evolved.
It is contemplated, particularly when the turn the water of injection through the pump D under the pressure of the air in the reservoir, so as to recover some of the power consumed in making the injection, and also to supersede the necessity of employing a greater quantity of water than is required to insure a I proper temperature. In this use of the .in-- jection-water it is obvious that the valves of. the pump D cannot be-self-acting, but must be operated mechanically. Air, being a bad conductorof heat, cools very slowly when in large. masses, and as it is essential to the success of this process that most of the heat set free from the air by compression should be absorbed as soon as possible after it is given out, and as the immersion of the cylinder and the injection of the jet of cold water have proved inadequate to effect this result, I have superadded a' worm, I, immersed in a tub of water, B, through which the air in its transit from the pump A tothe reservoir B must pass, and ghis effectually absorbs the remainder of the eat;
Instead of the worm, some other form of re' frigerating apparaths may be used.
. The reservoir B is made of twenty or thirty times the capacity of the condensingpump A, and is provided with a stop-cook, S, inserted into itsnnder side, through which the water of the injection, precipitated from the air, may be discharged. It is also furnished with a gage for measuring with precision the pressure of the airwithin it. This .consists of a glass tube, closed at the upper end, filled-with dry to cut off the supply of dense air from the rear" .ervoir when the cylinder has received a quantity whichjs equal to the quantity condensed by one stroke of the pump A. This air received into the engine tends to dilate witha force corresponding to the degree of its compression, which force acts alternately upon the opposite sides of the piston, communicating to its. reciprocating motion which aids in working the condensing-pump, andthus apart of the force expended in condensing the air is herereclaimed.
The refrigeratory effects of air dilating from the removal of pressure can be rendered available to the fullest extent only when the expansion is gradual, because time is required to enable it to absorb heat, and therefore the employment of the compressed air as a-me- .chanic agent retards its expansion sufficiently to allow it to absorb the greatest amount 0 heat from the liquidof the jet and the walls 0. the cylinder, thus being an advantage to the freezing process.
The jet for the engine 0 is furnished by the pump E. The capacity of this pump bears the same relation to'that of "the engine that g It is ar the pump D does to the pump A. ranged and operated in precisely the same manner as the pump D', except that its supply of liquid is obtained through the pipes X from the cistern \V, into which, after it has performed the ofiice of intermixture with the expanding'air in the cylindergit is returned ash, &c.
through the eduction-valves Z. As the tern 'perature of the engine '0, the cistc'rn which surrounds it, and the expanding air must .be kept considerably below thefreezing-point of water to make ice advantageously, it follows that the liquid which fills the cistern \V must be uncongealable at the low tempeiature'at which this portion of the apparatus. is re} quired to be kept. 1 As the waste of thisliquid.
in a proper]y-construeted' machine is onlythat which arises from evaporation, and as this latter is small at the low temperature ni'ai'n'j.-'
tained, its first-cost is not a consideration of much importancejso that any liquid uncongealable at the low temperature required may be employedas-p'root spirit a solution of common salt, or of thehitrate or carbonate of pot- As the air when expanded. in the engine C is at a much lowertcmperature than that at whichit is received into the pump A,and as its volume is directly-as its temperature, it follows that thecapacity of the engine C must be less than that of the pump A,'in 01'( or that the engine may be filled with air ,fu ly expanded at a tension-not less than the atmospheric, or that it may not be consumed faster than it is compressed into the reservoir. The ditference between'the capacity of the pump A and the engine 0 should be directly proportioned to the'intensity of cold required to be produced, and hence the mechanical force applied by the engine will in all cases be less than that consumed by the pump, in the-proportion that the heat of the air escaping from the engine is less than that entering the pump.
This excess in the'consumption of force by the pump over its production bythe engine, to-
jection at the eduction-valves' Z, and through tubes connected therewith into the cistern \V',
which is filled with fluid nearly to the top of the vessels J, containing the water to be converted into ice. In this way the mass of fluid in the cistern is constantlyhaving its heat absorbed by the expanding air and cooled fluid of the jet, while at the same time it is constant] y absorbing the heat of liquefaction from the water in the vessels J, which is thereby congealed. It will thus be seen that the uncongealable liquid of the cistern \V merely acts as a medium to transmit the heat of the water to be congealed to the expanding air in the engine.
Experience has shown that if the vessels J be filled with water previous to the commencement of the processof refrigeration, the operation will'be greatly retarded by the formation of an insulating coating of ice on its surface and on the interior of the sides and bottom of the vessels. This diificulty has, however, been obviated by furnishing the water in a small stream, and only as fast as it is frozen, by means of a flexible tube, 1., from the cistern I. The
congelation is further hastened by rocking. or jarring the vessels slightly by connecting them with some of the moving parts of the machincry. Ice is specifically lighter than water, and
fwill therefore float on it; hence it follows that if water he admitted into the vessels J so grad- 'ually asto'be frozen in films, as every film is formed it must be displaced by a film of water,
wll'icll, iii virtue of its superior gravity, passes lunder ih'to be in like manner frozen to the underside of the first film of ice, and thus by ,tlieblock,bygraduallyascendinginto'thelarger partof the vessel, keeps a passage open arou m1, it, through which the water to be frozen runs" down to the bottom. In this manner the importanhadvantage is gained of freezing water from its under surface instead of its upper, thereby exposing every particle of it to the frigoriiic action of the cistern-liquid without subjecting it to the intervention of. an insulating coating of ice.
To further facilitate the removal of the ice from the vessels J, they are not only made a little smaller at the bottom than at thetop, but are lubricated with athin coating' of oil or grease by means of a sponge.
The cover of the refrigerating-chamber ,G is removable for the purpose'of introducing and withdrawing the freezing-vessels J, which are suffered t'oremain in it such length of time as experience may determine is most advantageous. These vessels should be made of good conductors of heat, and may be of anysuitable and convenient size.
In order that the capacity of the expanded air for the absorption of heat may be rendered more fully available, and also for the purpose of more effectually separating from it the liquid of the jet, it is conducted from the chamber G through the pipe H, \vhich is bent into the form of a worm and surrounded by water in the tub I. The air in its passage through this pipe deprives the water in the tub of a portion of its heat. andas this cistern-water is the source of supply for the freezing-vessels J, its incidentalrefrigeration by the escaping air is so much gain to the process.
In the modified form of the apparatus (represented in Figs. 6, 7, and S) the force-pump Aand expanding-engine- C are connected with the opposite ends of a lever-beam, H, by means of links, jointed to their respective pistonrods L and U;- This connection insures uniformity of action between the pump and engine, and enables the'lat-ter to act directly up- As an inon the pump, to aid in working it. spection of the drawing of this modified arrangement will render it fully understood, if
made in connection with the description of the process as performed by the machine, (repre- 4 V s.oso
sented in Fig.1, 2, 3, 4, and 5,) I have deemed an explanation of the same in detail to be unnecessary.
The several parts of the foregoing apparatus may be made of such materials as it may be deemed advisable by the constructor to employ in reference to the efficiency of the machine,- economy in itscost, or otherconsiderations that may influence him, and the form and arrangement of the several parts may be varied indefinitely without essentially changing the character of the invention.
It will have been. seen that a great object aimed at in the construction of the machine isshown in what way the force required to in-'- ject the water for receiving the heat of the condensed air may be, in a great measure, derived from the pressure of the air in the reservoi'r. It is evident that a mechanical appa ratus admitting of such a system of compensations must operate, in theory at least, without the consumption of any power-other than that required to overcome its friction, and to supply the loss arising from the diflerence of temperature, and consequently of bulk, between the air as it exists before cdndensation and after expansion; and, practically, the working of the machine is found not todifier materially from this result, and thus it presents by far the most comprehensive application of natural laws to the economical production of cold that it is believed has ever been devised.
Having thus .fully made known my improved process of manufacturing ice and ex plained and exemplified suitable machinery for carrying the same practically int-o operation, I wish it to be understood that I do not claim as my invention any of the several parts of the apparatus'in themselves; but
- \Vhat I doclaim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is--- 1. The employment of a liquid uncongealable at the low temperature at which it is required to keep the engine, 'to receive the heat oi: the water to becongealed and give it out to the expanding air.
2. The employment of an engine for the purpose of rendering the expansion of the condensed air gradual, in order to'obtainits full refrigeratory efl'ects', and atthe same time render available the mechanical force with which it tends to dilate, to aid in working the condensing-pump irrespective of the manner in which theseveral parts are made, arranged, and operated,
3. Supplying the water gradually and slowly to-the freezing-vessels and congealing it by abstracting the heat from its'under surface,
substantially as herein set forth.
4. The process of cooling or freezing liquids by compressing air into a reservoir, abstracting the heat evolved in the compression by means of a jet of water, allowing the compressed air to expand in an engine surrounded by a cistern of an unfreezable liquid,which is continually injected into the engine and re turned to the cistern, and which serves as a medium to absorb the heat from the liquid to be cooled or frozen and give it out to the expanding air.
JOHN GORRIE, Witnesses:
JOHN (En-Roan, J. R. Po'r'rs.
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|US8080A true US8080A (en)||1851-05-06|
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|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|US8080D Expired - Lifetime US8080A (en)||Improved process for the artificial production of ice|
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|US (1)||US8080A (en)|
- US US8080D patent/US8080A/en not_active Expired - Lifetime
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