US778966A - Loom for weaving pile fabrics. - Google Patents

Loom for weaving pile fabrics. Download PDF

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Publication number
US778966A
US778966A US19459604A US1904194596A US778966A US 778966 A US778966 A US 778966A US 19459604 A US19459604 A US 19459604A US 1904194596 A US1904194596 A US 1904194596A US 778966 A US778966 A US 778966A
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pile
wires
wire
over
threads
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US19459604A
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William G Hartley
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HARTLEY LOOP WEAVE Co
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HARTLEY LOOP WEAVE Co
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D03WEAVING
    • D03DWOVEN FABRICS; METHODS OF WEAVING; LOOMS
    • D03D27/00Woven pile fabrics
    • D03D27/02Woven pile fabrics wherein the pile is formed by warp or weft
    • D03D27/06Warp pile fabrics

Description

No. 778,966. PATENTBD JAN.8, 1905. W. G. HARTLEY.
LOOM FOR WEAVING PILE FABRICS.
APPLICATION FILED IEB.20,1904.
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W. G. HARTLEY.
LOOM FOR WEAVING PILE FABRICS.
APPLICATION FILED FEB. 20. 1904.
3SHBETS-SHEBT 2.
No. 778,966. PATENTED'JAN. 3, 1905. W. G. HARTLEY BOOM FOR WEAVING FILE FABRICS.
APPLICATION FILED IEB. 20. 1904.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
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NITED STATES Patented January 3, 1905.
PATENT rricn.
WVILLIAM Gr. HARTLEY, OF AMESBURY, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR, BY
DIRECT AND MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO- HARTLEY LOOP IVEAVE COM- PANY, OF AMESBURY, MASSACHUSETTS.
LOOIVIFOR WEAVING PILE FABRICS.
SPECIFICATION 'forming part of Letters Patent No. 778,966, dated January 3, 1905.
Application fil February 20, 1904. Serial No. 194,596.
To all whmn'it Trwoy concern:
Be it known that I, WILLIAM G. HARTLEY, a resident of Amesbury, in the county of Essex and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Looms for Weaving Pile Fabric; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the fig- IO ures of reference marked thereon, which form a part of this specification.
This invention relates to improvements in looms for weaving pile fabric, and has for its object an improved construction of mechan- I5 ism for forming loops over pile-wires, which mechanism may be used for weaving any pile fabric, but is adapted more particularly for use in weaving fancy figures on carpeting. In this class of looms for weaving pile fabric over pile-wires it has heretofore been impossible to weave fine or fancy figures in the goodsusing avariety of colored threads, as the pile-wires have heretofore been supported at their rear ends bya depending leg or other 2 5 similar means, thus necessitating the pilethreads being carried over the top of the same, first on one side and then back again onto the first side, before it could rest until called .up again. By thus passing the thread 3 twice over the loop-wire in succession two loops ofthe same color were necessarily placed side by side, which combination was not always desired in the pattern. To obviate this difficulty,I have constructed the pile-wire having one end free, so that the pile-thread may pass completely around the end of the wire; In this way I can carry the thread called for over the wire forming the desired loop of the desired color and then if not wanted again at that time I carry it beneath the wire to the opposite side, where it remains in readiness to be called again when desired.
The invention consists of other novel features and parts and combinations of the same,
as will be fully described hereinafter and then pointed out in the appended claims.
A practical embodiment of the invention is represented in the accompanying drawings,
forming a part of this specification, in which similar characters of reference indicate cor- 5 responding parts in all the views.
Figure 1 illustrates a plurality of pilethreads made up of different colors, these threads being operated by jacquard-hooks. The view is a diagrammatic section showing parts of the loom and the relative position of the new device to the usual parts looking in the direction of one end of the loom. Fig.
2 is a front view showing a portion of the loom-frame and arch to which my device is attached and showing the laterally-reciprocating bar which operates the guide-wires as being actuated by a jacquard-hook. Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail of the pile-wire, showing the cutting-knife on the outer end thereof and 5 the bar by which this end is held to support the inner or free'end of said pile-wire. Fig. 4 represents one of the pile-wires as constructed without the knife attachment which is used when it is desired to make carpeting 7 without cutting the pile-loops, also showing means for supporting the pile-wire. Fig. 5 shows electromagnetic bars which engage and support the inner ends of the pile-wires. Fig. 6 is an end View showing bars made in the form of a reed for guiding the pile-threads vertically. Fig. 7 illustrates upright bars on either side of said pile-wire, which is in section, said bars having projections on their faces which extend into the eye of said pile-wire to support the same and at the same time allowing the thread to pass up and down past the same. Fig. 8 is an end view showing the position of the thread below the pile-wire. Fig. 9 is a plan view of the same. Fig. 10 shows the position of the 8 5 thread as having been carried under the pilewire by the guide-wire. Fig. 11 is a plan view of the same. Fig-.12 shows the pilethread as having been raised above the pilewire and in position to be carried over the 9 top of the same. Fig. 13 is a plan view showing the same position. Fig. 14 shows these Fig. 15 is a plan Referring to the drawings, 1 in Fig. 1 is the usual yarn-beam that carries the warpthreads from whichthe ground fabric is woven, and 2 is the beam carrying the filler or stufler used in weaving the ground work in carpeting. On this ground fabric are formed the pile- ]oops, which when left uncut produce the brussels effect and when out they produce the velvet or plush effect, such as formed on the face of carpeting or other pile fabric.
At 3 3 are the heddles or harnesses that control the ground warp-threads, and 1 is the heddle that controls the stuffer-thread.
In Fig. 1 I have shown a plurality of pilethreads 5 led from spools 6 in the rear of the loom. Each thread is of a different color and is used to weave the figures on the face of the fabric, When it is desired to weave these figured goods, the jacquard mechanism illustrated in Fig. 1 is used to control the vertically-reciprocating movement of each individual pile-thread 5. When any particular thread is called, it is drawn up above the pilewire 10, as shown at 7 in Fig. 1, while the other threads 5, including the upper shed of the ground warp-threads, remain just below the offset portion 8 of the guide-wire 9, so that these threads will not be affected by the lateral movement of said guid e-wires. When it is desired to weave plain carpeting, heddles operated by cams, the ordinary jack-lever in a dobby-head, or any other suitable means may be used for controlling these pile-threads.
In Figs. 1 and 3 I show a pile-wire which has its forward or loop end extended and made into the form of a shoe or case 11 to hold or guide the cutter-knife 12. Through this outer end is a bar 13, which holds the pile-wire in place and supports the free or rear end 14:. A portion of the pile-wire 15 that lays on the woven fabric is drawn down to the size of the loops desired to be formed over it. The main arm 10 of this pile-wire may be set on an angle a little greater than that of the upper shed of the ground warp-threads when open. The free end of this arm is rounded over on its end, forming a raised portion or protuberance 14 both above and below the main portion of the arm. This hump or rounded raised portion on the end of the pile-wire catches the pile-thread first as it ascends and descends by said end and prevents the thread from slipping back on the wrong side of the wire as it is being carried past by the jacquard-hooks to form a loop over said wire.
To carry the pile-threads 6 laterally over the pile-wires 10 and back again underneath the same in the formation of loops over said wires, any suitable mechanism may be used; but I preferably employ a series of guidewires 9, one for each thread, which wires are bent so as to have a long offset or crank 8. The upper portion of each Wire 9 is pivotally held in the fixed bar 15, the extreme end being bent back at 16 over the top of this bar to prevent said wire from dropping out. Beneath the bar the wire is carried forward, forming a crank portion 8, which portion engages the pile-threads 6 that have been called by the jacquard. The crank portion or offset 8 extends downward just beyond the lower portion of the rounded end it of the pile-wire, so that it may engage and carry the pilethreads 6 laterally underneath said pile-wire. The wire 9 is then bent back to its pivotingcenter and extends down through the groundwarps and is pivoted at 17 in the plate below. It will be noted that by the extending the shank 9 of these wires down through the ground-warp relatively stationary non-reciprocating guides are provided, by means of which the pile threads are each guided both up and down, thus insuring the return to their proper position when they are called for to be acted upon again as before.
As illustrated in Figs. 8 to 15, inclusive, the lower portion of this crank 8 (see Fig. 8) en gages the pile-thread 6 and carries it laterally underneath the end 14 of the pile-wire to the opposite side thereof, (see Fig. 10,) where it lies until wanted. When the thread is called again, it is raised in the usual way to the position shown in Fig. 12, when it is acted on, not by the same guide-wire, but on its opposite side, by the adjacent wire and carried laterally over the top of the pile-wire, as illustrated in Fig. 1 1. Fig. 3 in a side elevation of the mechanism illustrates the pile-thread 6 in dotted lines below the pile-wire and in position to be carried laterally under the same by the lower portion of the crank, while the dot-dash lines above the pile-wire illustrate said thread as being in position to be carried back over the top of said pile-wire.
The pins 18 of the sliding bar 19 extend back on the under side of a fixed bar 15, to engage the crank portion 8 of the guide-wires, the sliding bar 19 being held in position to slide endwise on said fixed bar by screws 20, which enter the fixed bar through slots 21 in said sliding bar. This bar 19 is moved endwise in one direction by the jacquard-hook 22, to which it is connected by the cord 23 over the pulley 24:, which jacquard-hook is operated in the usual way and. is for the exclusive purpose of drawing this bar in one direction. The spring 25 is for the purpose of returning said bar when released by said jacquard-hook. Although I have shown this sliding bar as being operated by a jacquardhook, it may beoperated by a (lobby-head, cam, or any other suitable mechanism.
In Fig. 3 l have shown a portion of the reed 26 in the position taken when the lay is in its extreme backward stroke. I find in practice that by carrying the pile-threads laterally over the pile-wire when the reed is in this position it serves as a perfect guide for said threads, confining them strictly within the space where they are desired to work.
WVhile the crank which controls the movement of this reed is approaching, going over, and receding from the back center the pile-th reads are carried laterally over the pile-wires and dropped down to the height of the upper warpthreads of the open shed. When all of the threads descend together, said pile-threads remain down until the desired number of binding-picks have passed over them. By operating the threads as above described when the reed is in this back position the guiding of these threads is greatly simplified and successfully avoids the use of extra guide-bars and the like, which I have heretofore been obliged to use to accomplish the same purpose.
As described above, I use the pile-cutting knife supported at the end of the pile-wire for cutting the loops of the woven fabric and by which construction I am enabled to support the back or free end of said pile-wire by the use of the locking-bar 13, which, together with the loops that are tightly drawn over the forming portion of said wire, tend to hold the free end of the same in position without further support; but when I wish to weave the Brussels carpeting or a fabric without cutting the loops I find that it is necessary to have a support for this free end and also a support for the loop-forming end to keep it from being carried forward when the threads are beat up by the reciprocating reed. To support this free or back end, I have shown two constructions, one of which (illustratedin Fig. 5) is arranged to hold the end of the pilewire by an electromagnet, which magnet is demagnetized temporarily to allow the thread to pass by. This device iscomposed of electromagnetic bars 27, which stand upright, supported from below by a bar 28 of conducting material. The upper ends of said bars lie against the free end of the pile-wires 14. At 29 29 are coils, one on either end of said bar 28 for magnetizing the same. At 30 is a circuit-breaking disk. In this disk at 31 31 are insulating-blocks, and 32 32 the contactpieces. The current is supplied from the battery or other source of power 33. In the operation of this device the disk 30 is rotated at the desired speed, and when the current is passing through the coils the upright bars 27 are magnetized and firmly hold and support the free ends 14 of the pile-wires; but when the pile-threads are called up and carried by the end of said pile-wire the disk arrives at the position shown in the drawings and said bars instantly become demagnetized and the thread is allowed to freely pass. By the time the thread has passed this point the disk has revolved enough to carry the insulated piece 31 past the contact-points 32 and the bars are again energized, instantly drawing the pilewires back to their original position. If it is desired to avoid the use of the mechanism for magnetizing the bars intermittently, said bars might be magnetized permanently in a 5 mild way, which would allow the threads to pass by and still have the bars somewhat under the influence of the magnetism continually.
Another simple method of holding or supporting this inner end 14 of the pile-wire is illustrated in Fig. 7 which shows the end of said pile-wire in section and illustrates the shape of the eye 14 through it. Standing on either side of this pile-wire are supporting wires or bars 34, which are rigidly supported from beneath in a manner not shown. Each of these bars 34 has a projecting point 35 rounded over on its end and extending into the eye of the pile-wire. These bars of course are made of spring'y material, and the thread may readily be drawn either up or down past the said points on either side of said pile-wire. The advantage of having one wire on either side is that when the thread is passing down on one side the point 35 is of course drawn out of the eye to a certain extent; but at the same time the end of the pile-wire is crowded over onto the projection on the opposite bar, thus receiving a constant support from either one or the other. One of the wires alone may be used, if desired.
For taking the thrust or force of the blow ofthe lay when beating up I place the bar 36 across in front of the loop end of the pilewires, as shown in Fig. 4, and thus keep them from moving forward. When the lay recedes,
this bar is raised by the cam 37 to allow the loops to pass off of the ends of the pile-wires, and the woven fabric will then move forward and be taken up by the take-up mechanism, (not shown,) which mechanism is timed to operate and draw the cloth forward only when the said bar 36 is in its raised position.
I do not wish to be confined to the exact construction of mechanism shown and described, as it may be varied to suit the various conditions under which my apparatus is operated without departing from the spirit and scope of my invention.
Any number of flattened wires 10 and any number of different-colored pile-threads 5 and corresponding jacquard-hooks may be employed, according to the style of goods desired.
By the use of the pile-wires arranged as above described any desired weave or figure may be obtained in the weaving of carpeting. The loom also may be run at a much higher speed and a much greater width of carpet may be woven than by the old method, and consequently a greater production obtained. This construction also is extremely simple and practical, and by the arrangement ofthe mechanism the parts are made very accessible. This device is not confined to weaving of carpets alone, but may be used in weaving any plain or figured velvet or other pile fabric.
The mechanism for operating all of the different parts is not shown nor described, as they are all well known and no particular way is claimed.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewiresover which loops are formed by the pilethreads, and electromagnetic means for sup porting said pile-wires.
2. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, each of said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the Woven fabric and electromagnetic means for supporting the opposite ends of said pile-wires.
3. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, each of said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, electromagnetic means for supporting the opposite ends of said pile-wires, and means for intermittently deenergizing said electromagnetic means, whereby the pile-threads are allowed to pass.
4. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, and oscillating guide-wires adapted to carry said pile-threads completely around the opposite end of said pile-wire to form loops over the same.
5. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, and oscillating guide-wires adapted to carry said pile-threads over said pile-wires and back beneath the same to form loops thereover.
6. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, each of said pile-wires having one free end, and having its opposite end arranged to rest on the woven fabric, and pivotallyhung guide-wires provided with reciprocating portions adapted to engage the pile-threads, said wires being also provided with non-reciprocating portions forming vertical guides for said pile-threads whereby they may be carried either over or under said pile-wire as desired.
7. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pile' wires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, said wires being arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, means for supporting the opposite ends of said wires, means for intermittently disengaging said supporting means, whereby the pile-threads may be carried laterally over said wires to form a loop, and means for imparting lateral movement to said pile-threads.
8. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, said wires being arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, means for supporting the opposite ends of said wires, and means for intermittently disengaging said supporting means as the pile-threads are carried over said wires.
9. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, bars arranged to engage and support the opposite end of each pile-wire and laterally-movable means for guiding or pressing said pile-threads so that they may be carried over said pile-wires and back beneath the same.
10. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethread's, said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, one or more magnetic bars arranged to engage and support the opposite end of said pile-wire and laterally-movable means for guiding or pressing said pile-threads so that they may be carried over said pile-wires and back beneath the same.
11. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, each of said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, one or more electromagnetic bars arranged to engage and support the rear of said pile-wire, means for deenergizing said bars at predetermined intervals and laterally 4 movable means for guiding or pressing said pile-threads so that they may be carried over said pile-wires and back beneath the same.
12. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, means for supporting its opposite end, laterally-movable means for guiding or pressing said pile-threads so that they may be carried over said pilewires and back beneath the same, and means at the forward end of the pile-wires to take the forward thrust of the same when the lay beats up.
13. In a loom for weaving pile fabric, pilewires over which loops are formed by the pilethreads, said pile-wires arranged to have one end rest on the woven fabric, means for supporting their opposite ends, laterally-movable means for guiding or pressing said pile-threads so that they may be carried over said pilewires and back beneath the same, and means at the forward end of the pile-wires for engaging said pile-wires intermittently to support the same against a forward thrust when the lay beats up.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 13th day of February,A. D. 1904.
WILLIAM G. HARTLEY.
Witnesses:
DELL W. DOLBIER, ROBERT C. CLARK.
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