CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
This application claims priority from U.S. provisional application 60/640,041, filed Dec. 30, 2004.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to radio-controlled motorized toy vehicles capable of operation on surfaces of all orientations, e.g., walls and ceilings as well as floors.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Radio-controlled motorized toy vehicles, that is, vehicles driven by motors and steered responsive to commands transmitted remotely, are of course well-known. Toy vehicles that are very sophisticated in terms of their suspension and steering systems are available and are very popular. A toy vehicle that operated other than on essentially horizontal surfaces, e.g., which could operate on a vertical wall, or inverted on a ceiling, and which could be made and sold at a competitive price, would be very desirable.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,014,803 to Urakami shows a device for “suction-adhering” to a wall and moving along the wall, e.g. for cleaning the interiors of tanks and the like. The Urakami device relies on a relative vacuum; that is, air is drawn by a vacuum pump out from a sealed volume formed between the interior of the device and the wall, so that air pressure on the outer surface of the device forces it against the wall. This necessitates that an essentially air-tight seal be formed around the periphery of the device. Forming an air-tight seal between a moving device and a fixed surface is not a simple problem, and the Urakami patent is directed primarily to such seals. The obvious problems to be overcome are friction between the sealing member and the wall, which impedes motion of the device and causes wear of the sealing members, loss of vacuum at irregularities in the surface, and the large amount of power required to form an effective vacuum. This approach is not satisfactory for a toy vehicle that must be durable when operated by children and be able to be operated for a sufficiently long time with a limited amount of battery capacity to not frustrate the user.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides a motorized toy vehicle that is capable of operating on vertical and inverted horizontal surfaces such as walls and ceilings, while being manufacturable at reasonable cost and operable on batteries having sufficient lifetime as to be enjoyable. The vehicle of the invention, referred to hereinafter as the Wall Racer, employs a freely-flowing stream of air between the surface-abutting periphery of the interior volume of the vehicle to create a pressure differential with respect to the surrounding air, so that the pressure of the surrounding air urges the Wall Racer against the surface.
More specifically, one or more battery-powered fans draw air from around all or defined portions of the periphery of the chassis of the Wall Racer through a carefully-shaped duct formed between the undersurface of the chassis and a juxtaposed surface, so that the air in the portion of the duct immediately adjacent the surface flows at high velocity. According to Bernouilli's Principle, this high-velocity air stream is of low pressure; the differential between this low-pressure air stream and the relatively greater pressure of the surrounding air urges the vehicle against the surface, allowing it to adhere to vertical surfaces, such as walls, or be operated inverted on horizontal surfaces, such as ceilings. The differential pressure thus urging the vehicle against the surface is referred to hereinafter, as in the automotive industry, as “downforce”. Because the air stream must be freely flowing to attain high velocity, seals such as required for wall-climbing vehicles employing a vacuum (and which make it very difficult to provide workable vehicles, as above) are unnecessary. Indeed, entry of the air into the duct formed between the undersurface of the chassis and the juxtaposed surface is essential, and is controlled carefully to ensure stable, and insofar as possible non-turbulent flow.
It would be of self-evident amusement interest, or “toy value”, to provide a radio-controlled vehicle capable of making the transition between operation on a floor to climbing a wall, and the Wall Racer in certain embodiments can do so. In order that the vehicle can make the transition, the fan(s) driving the air stream are actuated only when the vehicle begins to climb the wall.
Other inventive aspects of the Wall Racer will appear as the discussion below proceeds.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The invention will be better understood if reference is made to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 show respectively a perspective view and an elevation in partial cross-section of a first embodiment of the Wall Racer;
FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 show respectively a perspective view and an elevation in partial cross-section of a second embodiment of the Wall Racer;
FIGS. 5, 6, and 7 show views of a gear train employed in the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4;
FIG. 8 and FIG. 9 show respectively a perspective view and an elevation in partial cross-section of a third embodiment of the Wall Racer;
FIG. 10 and FIG. 11 show respectively a perspective view and an elevation in partial cross-section of a fourth embodiment of the Wall Racer;
FIG. 12 shows a detailed diagram of one successful shape for the duct employed to form the high-velocity air stream, e.g., as employed in the second embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4;
FIG. 13 shows a cross-sectional view of a switch employed to actuate the fans when the Wall Racer transitions from floor to wall operation, and which prevents its operation inverted on a ceiling, for safety reasons, while FIG. 13A shows a typical circuit in which it may be used; and
FIGS. 14, 15, and 16 show respectively a perspective view, an elevation in partial cross-section, and an enlarged cross-section of a caster used in several of the embodiments of the Wall Racer, while FIG. 14A shows a partial view corresponding to FIG. 14, illustrating a optional variation.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
It will be apparent that one type of Wall Racer toy vehicle that would be desirably offered is one resembling an automobile, for example a race car, while other sorts of vehicles, such as trucks or military vehicles, e.g., armored tanks, might also be of interest. The first, second and fourth embodiments of the Wall Racer discussed herein are of generally elongated shape, so as to be fitted with model automobile bodies not otherwise contributing to the operation of the Wall Racer, while the third embodiment is circular and might be made to resemble a “flying saucer” type of space vehicle. All of these embodiments operate similarly, with differences as occasioned by the differing body shapes.
For example, FIGS. 1 and 2 show respectively a perspective and an elevation in partial cross-section of a first embodiment of the Wall Racer, which as noted is generally elongated and could readily be fitted with a model race car or other vehicle body (not shown). As mentioned above, in order that downforce urging the Wall Racer against an abutting surface W (hereinafter simply “the wall”) can be developed, a high velocity stream of air is induced to flow in an underbody venturi duct formed between the undersurface of the chassis of the Wall Racer and the wall W. According to Bernouilli's Principle, as above, such a high velocity stream of air will be of reduced pressure with respect to the ambient air. The differential between this reduced pressure and the surrounding atmospheric pressure generates a resultant force D, termed “downforce” where, as here, its direction is such as to urge the vehicle “downwardly” toward the wall W. The amount of downforce D developed is proportional to the area over which the low pressure is created, and to the differential in pressure per unit area, so this area and the differential pressure must be adequate for the purpose.
Thus, as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, a fan 10 is mounted in a fan duct extending through the chassis 12, and is driven by a battery-powered motor 11 so as to draw a high-velocity stream of air in from around at least a portion of the periphery of chassis 12. The stream of air flows through an underbody venturi duct 15 formed between the underside of chassis 12 and the juxtaposed surface of wall W, and is exhausted on the “upper” side of chassis 12, that is, on the side away from the abutting wall W. Downforce D is created as noted due to the differential in pressure between the low pressure of the high-velocity air stream in the underbody venturi duct and the ambient air; as noted, the total amount of downforce is proportional to the area over which the low pressure is developed, and to the differential in pressure at each point.
To maximize the area of low pressure by avoiding air being drawn in along the edges 12 a of the chassis 12, that is, to ensure that the air stream is principally drawn in at the ends 12 b of the chassis 12, flexible skirts 14 extend from the chassis 12 toward wall W and form a partial seal therebetween, limiting “short-cutting” of air from the sides of the chassis juxtaposed to the fan duct. The skirts thus define one or more, in this case two, sections of the periphery of the underbody of the chassis at which air is drawn into an entry portion of the underbody venturi duct, which directs airflow into the fan duct. Accordingly, air is drawn in primarily at the ends 12 b, which are provided with a broad radius to ensure smooth and insofar as possible non-turbulent airflow; for similar reasons, the undersurface 12 c of the chassis 12 is smooth. Thus the high-velocity air stream extends for a substantial portion of the overall length of the chassis, ensuring that adequate downforce is developed.
By comparison, in the generally circular third embodiment of the Wall Racer shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 (discussed further below) a substantial distance exists between all points on the outer periphery of the undersurface of its chassis and the centrally-located exhaust duct, so that the airflow in this embodiment is radially inwardly from all directions, the downforce is developed uniformly around the chassis, and no skirts need to be fitted.
As noted, the differential in pressure and thus the downforce developed is a function of the air velocity, which up to a point can be increased by reducing the cross-sectional area of the duct formed between the underside of the chassis and the wall W, that is, by reducing the ground clearance of the Wall Racer. However, if the cross-sectional area is reduced too much, turbulence will impede flow and reduce the desired effect; reducing the ground clearance would also increase the Wall Racer's sensitivity to surface irregularities and the like. No detailed theoretical calculations have as yet been carried out which would allow optimization of the effect sought. For example, by optimizing the duct design the current draw of the motor powering the fan inducing the flow could perhaps be reduced, increasing operating time per battery charge. Detailed specifications of the duct and other components employed in a successfully-tested embodiment of the Wall Racer are provided below.
Returning to discussion of the first embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2, as illustrated the chassis 12 is supported by two opposed drive wheels 16 and 18, spaced transversely from one another on either side of the chassis near the midpoint thereof, and by opposed casters 20 (that is, devices comprising freely-rotating wheels mounted for pivoting about an axis perpendicular to their axis of rotation) at either end of the chassis 12. As indicated schematically by belt drives 22, the opposed drive wheels 16 and 18 are separately powered by motors 24 that are supplied with current by a battery pack 28 in response to control signals provided by radio-controlled receiver 26. The overall construction and operation of these components is conventional except as noted and will not be discussed in detail herein. Thus, if both motors are controlled to drive wheels 16 and 18 in the same direction, the Wall Racer moves in that direction, while turning is accomplished by driving the wheels 16 and 18 in differing directions or at differing rates. Casters 20 are unpowered, mounted on the longitudinal centerline of chassis 12, and simply serve to maintain the correct spacing between undersurface 12 c of chassis 12 and wall W; preferred locations and design of casters 20 are discussed below.
The “differential” drive scheme shown is preferred over, for example, a conventional four-wheel chassis, with one pair of wheels powered and one pair steering, for the following reasons. In order that a vehicle can climb a vertical wall, sufficient downforce must be exerted, urging the vehicle toward the wall, not only to support the vehicle against the force of gravity but also to provide sufficient traction to propel the vehicle vertically against gravity. (By comparison, providing a vehicle that operates inverted on a ceiling is simplified, since it need only support itself and need not also climb vertically.) Ensuring good traction thus becomes paramount. So as to maximize the traction provided by the downforce available, the drive wheels are located centrally, at the center of the pressure exerted by the downforce, so that essentially all of the downforce is transmitted directly to the drive wheels, maximizing traction.
The casters 20 are preferably mounted so that both do not simultaneously touch a flat surface, so that a three-point support is always available, with the drive wheels 16 and 18 forming two of the three contact points. The motion thus provided, whereby the vehicle can rock slightly back and forth about the axis of the drive wheels 16 and 18, as one or the other of casters 20 touches the wall W, is referred to as “teeter” herein. Thus the downforce is balanced over the central drive axle, which maximizes traction, while allowing the vehicle to be steered by differential driving of the opposed drive wheels 16 and 18.
By comparison, if a four-wheel drive arrangement were employed, i.e., with four driven wheels at the corners of a rectangular chassis, the total traction provided for a given amount of downforce would be equal to that obtained with the Wall Racer as shown, but the four-wheel arrangement would be much more sensitive to any irregularities in the surface. Further, such a vehicle, involving steering of at least two wheels and drive to all four, would be much more complicated, heavy, and expensive. Finally, such an arrangement would involve resistance to turning due to “tire scrub”, that is, frictional resistance caused by the different effective turning radii of the “contact patch” across the tread of each tire. To limit tire scrub in the Wall Racer drive arrangement shown, relatively narrow tires are fitted to drive wheels 16 and 18. To improve appearance, and to allow operation on thick carpets and the like, wider supplemental tires of slightly lesser diameter and formed of a lightweight foam or the like (not shown) can be assembled to the outer surfaces of drive wheels 16 and 18.
FIGS. 3 and 4 show a second embodiment of the Wall Racer; this embodiment appears likely to correspond to the earliest production version of the Wall Racer. FIG. 12 provides detailed dimensional information concerning this embodiment, and preproduction specifications are provided below as well.
As shown by FIG. 3, in this embodiment two exhaust fans 38 are provided, spaced laterally from another on the transverse centerline of the chassis 40, and each fan being driven by a motor 39 with the fan mounted directly on the motor shaft. Six drive wheels 42 are provided, three on either side of the chassis 40, with the three wheels 42 on either side of the chassis being geared (or belt-driven) to one another so as to be driven in common by two separately radio-controlled motors. The radio control receiver and battery are not shown, as being generally within the skill of the art. FIGS. 5, 6, and 7 (discussed below) show a preferred gear train and motor arrangement. Thus, as in the FIG. 1 embodiment, steering is accomplished by differentially driving the wheels on either side of the chassis 40. As shown, skirts 44 are again provided, so as to ensure that the airflow is primarily from the ends of the chassis to the fan exhaust duct 46, in turn to ensure that an adequate area of high-velocity, low-pressure air flow is provided to generate adequate downforce. As illustrated by FIG. 4, the center pair of wheels are slightly lower in the chassis than the end pairs, so as to provide “teeter” and ensure that the center pair of drive wheels are always in good contact with the wall W.
The pairs of wheels 42 at each end of the chassis are slightly proud of (i.e., extend slightly beyond) the respective ends of the chassis, so that as the vehicle approaches a wall while operating on a floor, the wheels contact the wall first. Thus providing the six-wheel arrangement of this embodiment allows the Wall Racer to make the transition from floor to wall in either direction. So that downforce urging the Wall Racer toward the floor does not prevent the Wall Racer from initially climbing the wall, the fans 38 are only energized when the chassis 40 reaches a predetermined inclination with respect to the horizontal. FIG. 13 shows a preferred switch, and FIG. 13A a circuit, for controlling the fans accordingly.
As indicated above, FIGS. 5, 6, and 7 show a preferred arrangement of the two drive motors and corresponding gear trains for differentially driving the six wheels of the Wall Racer in its FIGS. 3 and 4 embodiment. FIG. 5 shows a plan view, and FIGS. 6 and 7 cross-sectional views along lines 6-6 and 7-7 respectively. Thus, assuming the Wall Racer is traveling toward the right in FIG. 5, so that the upper side of the drawing is the “left”, and the lower the “right”, there are provided left-side and right-side drive motors 150 and 152 respectively. Motors 150 and 152 each drive reduction gear trains, 154 and 156 respectively; the gears of each are idlers, that is, spin freely on shafts 158, so that gears from both trains can be supported on the same shafts 158 while turning independently of one another. The output gears of train 154 and 156 drive gears 160, 162 respectively, which are fixed with respect to sleeve axles 164, 166 respectively, riding on a fixed axle 168, and thence to gears 170, 172 respectively. Gears 170, 172 are fixed to corresponding drive wheels 174, 176, and also drive further gear trains 178, 180, which drive central drive gears 182, 184, which are fixed to central drive wheels 186, 188. Central drive gears 182, 184 also drive further gear trains 190, 192; these in turn drive gears 194, 196, to which are fixed wheels 198, 200. Implementation of this drive arrangement is within the skill of the art; while the gear trains and axles are shown as mounted on a metallic frame 202, in production this chassis will typically comprise molded components.
As mentioned, FIG. 12 shows a detailed view of the underbody venturi duct 50 formed between the undersurface of chassis 40 and a juxtaposed surface, such as a wall W. This embodiment of the underbody was employed in one successfully-tested version of the second embodiment of the Wall Racer of the invention, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. FIG. 12 further provides reference to dimensional details of the chassis 40. In this version, the overall chassis length H is 11.828″, with six wheels of 2.524″ diameter; the wheelbase F of the outer pairs of wheels is 9.50″, so that the wheels are proud of the chassis, i.e., extend slightly beyond the end of the chassis 40, in order to engage a vertical surface and thus enable the Wall Racer to climb a wall from the floor. The center axle is 0.050″ closer to the wall W than the end pairs of wheels, so that the desired “teeter” is provided.
The underbody venturi duct 50 is longitudinally symmetric about a centerline J, with one end only shown in detail by FIG. 12. As shown in detail by FIG. 12, each “half” of the underbody duct 50 formed between the undersurface of the chassis 40 and the wall W comprises an entry portion 50 a, a transition portion 50 b, and an exit portion 50 c, which makes a smooth transition into a fan duct 46, also of venturi shape, in which the fan(s) are located. Air enters each half of the underbody venturi duct at an inlet opening at the periphery of the chassis 40, defined by the entry portion 50 a of underbody venturi duct 50. Entry portion 50 a is defined by a radius R formed on the end of the chassis; in the version shown, this radius is 1.164″. The axles of the front and rear pairs of wheels lie on the center of this radius, and are slightly larger in radius, so that each tire's rolling surface is somewhat proud of the chassis end, as noted. Entry portion 50 a is faired into and connects smoothly with an extended flat transition portion 50 b formed by a flat surface on the underside of the chassis; since the duct 50 formed between the underside of chassis 40 and the wall is of minimum cross-sectional area in this region, the maximum air flow velocity, and accordingly the maximum downforce per unit area, are developed here.
The goal in designing the underbody venturi duct 50 is to maximize the extent of the region of minimum cross-sectional area, while optimizing its cross-sectional dimension, so as to provide smooth, preferably non-turbulent flow into and out of this region, all in order to maximize flow velocity. To ensure smooth flow, the section of the undersurface of chassis 40 defining the upper bound of entry portion 50 a is radiused, and the corresponding section defining the upper bound of exit portion 50 c describes a portion of an ellipse. In the successfully-tested version depicted, this elliptical contour was drawn using a 2″×4″ ellipse as found on a draftsman's “30-degree” template; that is, dimensions D and C are 1″ and 2″, respectively. As illustrated, then, the extent E of flat portion 50 b is 2.25″ long, forming a “tunnel flat”. With the vehicle balanced on the center pair of wheels, so that the flat portion 50 b is parallel to the wall, the ground clearance G therebetween is 0.098″. Flat portion 50 b makes a smooth transition to exit portion 50 c, which as noted is 2.00″ long and elliptical in longitudinal cross-section. Exit portion 50 c in turn makes a smooth transition to a central venturi section 46 a of fan duct 46, in which the fan(s) are located. In the two-fan embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4 and detailed in FIG. 12, the longitudinal dimension B of the narrowest portion of this venturi section 46 a is 1.00″; section 46 a extends across the chassis 50 so as to form a transverse “mail slot”. As it extends away from the wall, the mail slot section 46 a then broadens out gradually in the longitudinal direction and is divided along the longitudinal centerline to form two circular-section ducts 46 b in which the fans 38 are located; their diameter, dimension A, is 1.625″.
The following are the principal specifications of a successfully-tested version of the Wall Racer, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 and dimensioned as in FIG. 12:
Wheelbase (dimension F) 9.5″ (front to rear axle)
Track width 5.8″ (centerline to centerline, at contact points)
Underbody duct width 4.9″ (between skirts)
Chassis weight 584 g.
Body weight 29 g.
Total weight 613 g.
Weight distribution (without body, center axle unsupported):
- Front axle 260 g (44.5%)
- Rear axle 324 g (55.5%)
Ground clearance (dimension G) 0.098″
Motor voltage 6 v. nominal (five 1.2 v. 1000 mah NiMH cells)
Downforce fans current draw 4 amperes total
Ducted fans (two)—1.625″ diameter, 3 blades
Total net downforce 1280 g.
Teeter (center axle offset) 0.050″
Fan RPM 30,000
The chassis itself can be molded of a lightweight foam material, having its undersurface shaped to define the venturi duct 50 in cooperation with the surface of the wall W. It is convenient to mount the components, such as bearings for the axles carrying the wheels, drive motors and gear or belt drive components, radio control receiver, batteries, and motor and fan assemblies, in recesses molded into the foam of the chassis. In particular, the fan assemblies may alternatively comprise hard plastic molded ducts within which the fan and drive motor are retained; the exit portion of the underbody venturi duct is then shaped to mate smoothly therewith.
In a sucessfully-tested prototype, the skirts 44 (FIG. 3) were formed of “Tyvek” envelope material sized and located so as to curve outwardly at a nominal 45 degrees when in contact with the wall; a stiffening strip of plastic glued to the lower edge of the Tyvek skirts, but spaced slightly therefrom, may be desirable to prevent local buckling.
Given the above detailed disclosure of the invention, those of skill in the art would have no difficulty in its practice. In particular, it will be appreciated that batteries (exemplary specifications being provided above) must be provided to power the fans and the drive wheels, that the drive wheels, three on each side in the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4, must be linked to one another and to the respective drive motor by gears, as illustrated in FIGS. 5, 6, and 7, or by belts or other means, and that the motors must be individually controllable by signals provided by an operator by way of a radio transmitter and receiver pair. These aspects of the implementation of the invention are within the skill of the art. It is also within the scope of the invention to drive each of the six wheels individually, that is, to eliminate the gear or belt arrangement in favor of separate motors for each wheel, but this alternative is considered undesirable as it would involve a weight penalty.
FIGS. 8 and 9 show as mentioned a third version of the Wall Racer, in this case with a circular chassis 60 to provide a “flying saucer” appearance. In this version, two drive wheels 62 and 64 are provided on diametrically opposed points on the chassis 60, with casters 66 on opposite sides, along a line perpendicular to the axis of the drive wheels 62 and 64. The casters may be raised slightly from a plane including both drive wheels and the casters, to provide “teeter” as above. (It will be apparent that this version of the Wall Racer cannot negotiate the transition between floor and wall.) Downforce is provided by a centrally-located fan 68 disposed in a venturi duct 70 and driven by a motor 72. Drive wheels 62 and 64 are individually driven by motors 74 and 76 responsive to control signals from a radio-control receiver 78 and powered by battery 80.
In this version, as mentioned above, the exhaust duct 70 is equidistant from all points on the periphery of chassis 60, so that the inward air flow path is of equal length at all points around the chassis 60. Hence there is no need for skirts, and the air flow is radially inward all around the periphery. Again, a radius is provided around the periphery of the lower edge of chassis 60, as illustrated at 60 b, so that the inlet opening of the underbody venturi duct extends cicumferentially around the chassis, and a large-radius or elliptical transition portion 60 c is provided where the underbody duct 82 meets the exhaust duct 70, to ensure smooth and substantially non-turbulent airflow. The transistion portion of the underbody duct 82 formed between the underside 60 a of chassis 60 and the wall is preferably of shallow conical shape in section, as illustrated, so that the cross-sectional area of the duct 82 stays constant as its radius from the center of exhaust duct 70 varies; in this way the velocity of the inward-flowing air stream and the differential pressure exerted thereby are both substantially constant, so that the downforce is exerted evenly at substantially all points on the chassis 60, that is, outside of duct 70.
FIGS. 10 and 11 show a further version of the Wall Racer, again having an elongated chassis 90 suitable for mounting of a model race car body or the like. In this embodiment, a single fan 92 is located centrally on the chassis, is driven by a motor 94, and is disposed within an exhaust duct 96 communicating with an underbody venturi duct 98 formed between the underside of chassis 90 and the wall W. The underbody duct 98 is designed generally as discussed above with respect to FIG. 12.
In this embodiment, a single drive wheel 100 driven by a motor powered by a battery and responsive to control signals provided by a radio control receiver (none of the unnumbered components being shown) is located on the vehicle's longitudinal centerline, near the center of effort of the downforce, but disposed toward one end of the chassis so as not to interfere with the exhaust duct 96. Two casters 102 and 104 are mounted at the opposite end of the chassis 90. Caster 102 is free to pivot about an axis perpendicular to wall W, while caster 104 is also pivoted about a similarly perpendicular axis, but only between angular limits (see FIG. 14A, below).
Thus, chassis 90 rests on a tripod comprising drive wheel 100 and casters 102 and 104. If drive wheel 100 is driven so as to propel the vehicle toward the direction of the end of the chassis on which drive wheel 100 is disposed, that is, rightwardly in FIG. 11, the casters trail behind, and the vehicle travels in a straight line; if drive wheel 100 is driven in the opposite direction (counterclockwise in FIG. 11), the caster 104 provided with angular stops rotates about the axis perpendicular to wall W until its pivoting is stopped at one or the other of its angular limits, so the vehicle turns in one direction until the direction of travel is reversed. Hence directional control of the Wall Racer in this embodiment is substantially constrained; being greatly simplified, this embodiment might be best suited to a low-cost version of the invention.
As mentioned, FIGS. 14-16 show respectively a perspective view, a cross-section, and an enlarged partial cross-section of a caster 102 used in several of the embodiments of the Wall Racer, while FIG. 14A shows a partial view corresponding to FIG. 14, illustrating a optional variation. In these views, the caster 102 is shown inverted, that is, with its face which would be juxtaposed to wall W oriented “up” in the drawings. A roller 110, which contacts wall W, is carried by an axle 112 that is mounted for rotation in a rotating plate 114; plate 114 rotates about an axis A perpendicular to but offset from that defined by axle 112. In the embodiment shown, rotating plate 114 in turn rides on a number of balls 116, which bear against a closure ring 118; closure ring 118 is secured to a frame 120, which can be mounted to the chassis. Thus, roller 110 engages the wall, and rotates about axle 112 as the vehicle is maneuvered; the assembly of roller 110, axle 122 and plate 114 can rotate with respect to frame 120 and thus with respect to the vehicle chassis, as the latter is steered. The axle 112 is offset with respect to the axis A about which plate 114 rotates, so that as the vehicle is steered, plate 114 rotates and roller 110 trails the axis A of rotation of plate 114.
If it is desired to restrict the rotation of plate 114, e.g., as discussed above with respect to the version of the Wall Racer shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, so as to provide some turning, albeit not precisely controlled, this can be accomplished as shown, for example, in FIG. 14A. As illustrated, a pin 122 extends through and is retained in the upper flange of frame 120 and fits within an angular recess 114 a formed in the upper surface of rotating plate 114, limiting the degree of rotation about axis A that is permitted to plate 114.
Finally, as mentioned, in the embodiments of the Wall Racer in which it is capable of operation on a floor and climbing onto a wall (that is, the embodiment of FIGS. 3-7), it is desired to provide a switch that actuates the exhaust fan(s) only when the Wall Racer reaches a desired angle, typically between 30 and 60 degrees with respect to the horizontal, so that downforce does not prevent the vehicle from beginning to climb the wall as the wheels engage the wall's surface. FIG. 13 shows a switch 128 for so doing, and which also de-energizes the fan if the Wall Racer is placed upside-down, against a ceiling; this may be preferred for safety reasons, so that the Wall Racer cannot fall on anyone. FIG. 13A shows a typical circuit in which switch 128 may be used.
Switch 128 comprises a conductive metal ball 130 disposed within a hollow switch body 132. Body 132 is symmetrical about a vertical axis, and defines a generally frusto-conical lower portion 132 a, in which ball 130 rests when the vehicle is on the floor, as shown in full, a disc-shaped central portion 132 b, into which the ball falls, as indicated in dotted lines, when the vehicle begins to be oriented vertically, as when it begins to climb a wall, and a generally frusto-conical upper portion 132 c, in which ball 130 falls if the Wall Racer is placed inverted against a ceiling. Conductive contacts 134 are disposed on the inner surfaces of lower portion 132 a and upper portion 132 c, so that when ball 130 is disposed in either the upper or the lower portions, it connects the contacts 134.
As shown in FIG. 13A, contacts 134 (two of which are connected in common) are wired in series with a normally-open relay 140 and battery 28, which controls a circuit including battery 28 and fan motor 39. Thus, with switch 128 closed, that is, with the Wall Racer essentially horizontal, and ball 130 making the connection between contacts 134, relay 140 is closed, as shown; when the Wall Racer leaves the horizontal sufficiently that ball 130 falls out of lower section 132 a, into upper section 132 b, relay 140 opens, closing the motor circuit and energizing motor 39, so as to drive fan 38. In this embodiment, if the Wall Racer is placed inverted against a ceiling, ball 130 falls into upper portion 132 c, similarly connecting contacts 134, and preventing operation of fan motor 39.
While several preferred embodiments of the invention have been disclosed herein in detail, the invention is not to be limited by the disclosed embodiments, which are exemplary only.