US743331A - Means for removing sleet, &c., from electrical conductors. - Google Patents

Means for removing sleet, &c., from electrical conductors. Download PDF

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US743331A
US743331A US1903171886A US743331A US 743331 A US743331 A US 743331A US 1903171886 A US1903171886 A US 1903171886A US 743331 A US743331 A US 743331A
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heating
circuits
rails
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Elias E Ries
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Elias E Ries
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L5/00Current collectors for power supply lines of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L5/04Current collectors for power supply lines of electrically-propelled vehicles using rollers or sliding shoes in contact with trolley wire
    • B60L5/10Devices preventing the collector from jumping off
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2200/00Type of vehicles
    • B60L2200/26Rail vehicles

Description

lATENTED NOV. 3, 1903..

E'. E. RIBS.

MEANS FOR REMOVING SLEET, &u., FROM ELECTRICAL GONDUGTORS.

l I l l APPLICATION FILED SEYT. 4. 1903.

SHEETS-SHEET l.

,331. PATENTED NGV. 3, 1903.

E. E. RIES. MEANS FOR REMOVING SLEET, &G.,VFR0M ELECTRICAL CONDUGTORS. APPLIUATION FILED SEPT. 4. 1903.

. z sums-SHEET 2.

No MODEL.

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thereon.

UNITEDv STATES Patented November 3, 1903.

ELIAS E. RIES, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.

MEANS FOR REMOVlNG SLEET, do., FROM LECTRlCAL CONDUCTORS.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters 'atent No. "243,331, dated November 3, 1903.

Application filed September il, 1903... Serial No. 171.886. (No model.)

To a/ZZ whom t may concern:

Be it known that l, ELrAs E. Rius, a citizen of the United States, and a resident ot' New York, in the county of New York and Sltate of New York, have invented certain new and useful Means for Removing Sleet, Idre., from Electrical Conductors, of which the following is a specification.

My invention has for its object the removal of sleet, snow, ice, &c., from railway-tracks, more particularly from the contact-rails or supply-conductors that are usually employed on electric railways for supplying energy to the motors on the cars or trains traveling Stich contact-rails or supply-con ductors are ordinarily located overhead in the form oft-rolley-wires, or underground in the case of underground-conduit electric railways, or they are located along the road-hed itself either between or at one or both sides of the track-rails, as in the case of third-rail electricrailway systems, whether the same bo located on the surface or )n elevated structr res. In all such cases these contact or su pply conductors being necessarily naked or ux-.insulated in order to permit of electrical contact being made therewith by the trolleys,

shoes, brushes, or other current-collecting' de rices with 'which the motor cars or trains are equipped are more or less exposed tothe cle nen-ts.

I 1 the winter season it has been found in ground-conduit, and third-railv electric railway s that the exposed contact-surfaces of the supply-conductors when subjected to moisture at times hen the surrounding'atmosphert is even a few degrees below the freezing-point would cause a condensation of such moisture thereon in the form of sleet, which It is also found that after a fall of rain, hail, or snow the moisture necessarily deposited upon the exposed line conductors would freeze and incase the same with a crust of ice and dependent icicles, which prevent electrical contact of the shoes or other curvrent-collectors with the supply-conductors, since such coating acts not onlyas a fairly goodinsulator, but also serves to prevent mechanical Contact of the collecting-shoes 'with the contact-rails, thusserionsly interfering with the running ot' cars and in many cases tying up all traic on the road. p

Itis my aim to maintain the efficiency of an electric system, and particularly of an electric-railway system, by preventing the accumulation on such an exposed conductor of ice, sleet, snow, the., or by removing the same after a partial accumulation of such substance. I'accomplish this result by heating the exposed conductor to a suitable ternn perature for melting and evaporating any rain, ice, snow, &c., which may fall or accumulate on the conductor. The desired ele- Yration of temperature is obtained by passing therefore, is the provision of two paths orcir cuits for current flowing in the system, one of these paths being the regular circuit through which the working current flows,

while the other path is a circuit through which a current of dierent character is passed, this current being preferably of large heating capacity, usually an alternating' current of 10W potential and large volume or amperage. As the exposed conductor forms part'of the regular or working circuit, it will be evident that in order to be heated-up by another current of different character it should also form part of the circuit through which such heatingcurrent liows, and in my present system the two principal electric circuits have a common conductor formed by the exposed conductor or third'rail of the system, this exposed conductor usually constituting one side of each circuit and permitting the simultaneous transmission therethrough .ot two currents of entirely different characters, one'of which is the regular or working current for supplying the translating devices or motors of the system, while the other is a current of entirely difter- IOQ I I' returned through the trahie-rails.

dividing the'same into local heating-circuitsent character capableof heatingthe exposed conductor to the proper point for preventing or v removing accumulations of sleet, snow, die., without in any'way interfering with the transmission of the main electric current or with the proper operation of the'translating devices supplied by such current.

In applying my invention to an electricrailway system I have found that it is feasible to eliminate the traffic-rails as a factor from the heating-circuit, since these can be kept sufficiently cleared from deposits of sleet, ice, and snow by the regular trac over the line, assisted in lthe case of a heavy 'fall of snow by/lhe ordinary mechanical appliances now generally used for clearing the road-bed of such accumulations. In accordance with my present invention, therefore, I utilize only thecontact-rails in my heating circuit or circuits, and I do this in such a manner as will permit of the transmission of the low-tension heating-currents preferably employed by me over the satnewithout -in any wise interferf'ering with the simultaneous transmission through the same of the regular propellingcurrents that are fed by said contact-conductors into the motor-circuits and are thence I am furthermore enabled by my invention to produce the necessary heating-currents with, comparatively speaking, a very small fraction of the total electrical energy that would be otherwise required. This latter feature, as will hereinafter more fully appear, I accom- .plish by cross-connecting the two su pply-cond-uctors or`contactrails of, say, a doubletrack` road at certain intervals, and thus subof comparatively short lengths or sections. In order to stillfurther reduce the consumption of electrical energy-tliat is to say, in

order to prevent the placing of too great a.

load upon the generators at the power station or stations of the line-I preferably provide means, as will subsequently appear, for heating different sections or groups'of sections successively instead of simultaneously. I also provide other novel features of construction and arrangement, as well as operation, by means of which additional advantages and economies are gained and whereby my improved system may be readily and economically installed.

1n the drawings accompanying this specification. and forming part of the present applitrain having on the car a traveling heating'- circuit-one sideof which is a portionof the third rail included in the working circuit. 7o Fig. ltis a diagrammatic View similar to Fig. 1v, illustrating a' pieferred construction for heating'an exposed conductor or third rail, the entire heating-circuit in this View being divided into a plurality of sections each'of 75 which has a separate source of current for economically heating the different sections. Fig. 5 'is a plan of a modification of my in vention, illustrating the manner in which three third rails may beconn'ected-and heat- 8o ing-current supplied thereto. Figm is-adiagrammatic View illustrating third rails divided into sections heated by transformers connected in parallel and arranged in groups adapted to be energized separately.' Fig. 7 85 is a detail illustrating diagram matically means for supplying polyphase currents for heating exposed conductors. Fig. 8 is a detail illustrating automatic means for controlling the supply of the heating-current. Fig; 9o 9 is adetail illustrating aswitch and a counter-electromotive-force device for controlling thecurrentsupplied toaheating-transformer. Fig. 10 is a cross-sectional detail of the traflic-rails and third rail of a third-rail system. Fig. 1l is a detail illustrating a current-cot lecting shoe for making. contact with the third rail.

Similar characters designate like parts in all the figures of the drawings,

My invention may be embodied in anylelectrical system in'which it is `desired to heat one of the conductors of an electric circuit, whether for the purpose of removing a light coating of dew, rain, sleet', or snow or a heav- 105 ier coating of ice, die., and it may be appliedto any system 'in which such conductor is exposed to the elemen ts,- although its principal use will be found to be in connection with the exposed or, working conductors of an 1ro electric railway system. It is peculiarly 'adapted for use in third-railsystetns, because of the greatsurface exposed tothe elements by -sucha conductor and the consequent necessity for removing such a non-conducting and contact-preventing medium as sleet or thick ice from the exposed working conductor.

Inthecase ofasingle-track system the third rail will of course'be connected in a suitable heating-circuit, while at the same time con- 12o stituting-part ofthe regular working circuit; but as it is usual in third-rail installations to provide two or more tracks with corresponding working conductors or third rails I prefer to form aheating-circuitcommon to both tracks by connecting the third rltils of the two tracks by cross-conductors and to provide at a point on or close to the track structure or line of way means for supplying a suitable electric current directly to the heating-circuit. 13o

In Fig. l I have illustrated a simple type of electrical system for supplying a working or motive current to the main circuit and for IOO supplying, preferably simultaneously there with, a current of diderent character, preferably of low potential', high amperage, and large heating capacity to an auxiliary or heating circuit. In this view 2 designates a source of energy for supplying single or polyphase alternating current, this being the .primary current on many electric railways, and 3 and 4 designate the usual mains or feed-wires. Three subst-ations are also shown as supplied with power from the main power-station, and at these substations suitable electrical apparatus is employed for supplying the diierent sections of the 'road with the. working' current and forl also supplying heating-current to the exposed Working. conductors or third rails. The two tracks shown are designated by 5 and 6, respectively, and the third rails corresponding thereto are indicated at 7 and 8. In the construction vshown in this view these third rails aredivided into sections of any desired length-f sayabout two thousand feeteach sec`tion 'of-the road preferably having n the oppositethird rails thereof direct-ly connected at at least one end thereof by a hea vy cross-conductor, such-as the cable 9. In Fig. 1 the ends of thesesections opposite the crossconductor 9 are connected in various ways to indicate the dilerent` means which may be readily used with existing types of third-rail systems. In the first section of this view the system is so organized that the same source )f energy'may supply the working current to the motive circuit and also the heating-current to the auxiliary or heating circuit. In this embodiment, howeyer, which is intended toillustrate merely an emergency application of my invention, the current is turned off from the working circuit when it is desired to pass current through the heating-circuit.

. include the track-rails,

This current is the usual direct or continuous current, delivered by a substation rotary converter 10, connected to thefeed-Wires 3 and 4, fed by the alternating-current generator 2. lThe wires 11 and 12, leading from this converter, pass to the two-way switch 1.3, the arms of which coperate with three terterminals,to which are connected three heavy bus-wires 14, 15, and 16, the first of which is connected to a cross-conductor or cable 17 vtor bonding the ends ofthe wires ofthe two tracks nearest the substation, while the lbus-wires 15 and 16 are connecteddirectly to the third rails 7 and 8 of the rst section. According to the positions of the switch 13, as indicated in dotted and full lines, current is passed either through the two workingcircuits,which or through an auxiliary heating-circuit only, which includes the third rails of the working rircuits, but excludes the track-rails thereof and the motors on the vehicles controlled by such working` current. t

In the second section (shown in Fig. 1') a substation rotary converter 18 is connected to the feed-wires 3 and 4 by means of conductors 19 and 20, and the heavy conductors 21 and 22 ofthe secondary circuit are connected, respectively, to the trackrails 5 and.

to the second section of the third rail 8, conti nuous current of relatively high tension being suppiied by this converter to the working circuits `of the second section ot' the system. In this second section` the heating ef- `transforms a portion of the alternating line current into a direct-current of lower potential, high ainpernge, and large heating capacity and feeds such low-tension current directly into the heating-circuit to the exclu- .sion of the track-rails oi the Working circuit.

The primary -ot this rotary converter, which is designated by 23, is connected by suitahle conductors to the 'main working circuit, connection being made herein to the conductors 19 and 20, and the secondary o the converter is connected by heavy conductors or buswire's 24 and 25 to the second sections of the third rails 7 and 8, at the ends thereof opposite the cross-conductor or bond-cable 9. The switch 26 is preferably placed. in the main circuit to saidconverteriu order that current may be turnedV off from the converter, except at such times as it may be necessary to heat up the rails 7 and 3 toprevent or remove accumulation of .sleet or other substance thereon. This mode of heating the working conductors or third rails is preferable .to that shown in the first section, as it is more economical and does not involve the turning off of the current from the working circuit or circuits.

In the third section of Fig. l a substationconverter 27 is connected to the mains 3 and 4 by conductors 28 and 29 and is connected in the working circuit of the third section in the same manner as the substation-couverte; 18. The heating-current in 'this case, however, is obtained from a static transformer 30, the primary of which vis connected to the mainsupply-circuit and is controiiod by switch 31, while the secondary of the IIO former is connected to the third rails 7 and 8 l at the beginning ofthe third section.' hy conductors 32 and 33. The efficiency oi' this 4inode ofheating the third rails is approximately the same as that of the second section.

It is desirable to subdivide the heating-cnrent in all cases in order that the necessary heating eect may be obtained withoutmah'- ing too sudden and heavy a demand von they source of energy. This subdivision may he madein various Ways, one of which is illustrated in Fig. 2. Here the track-rails are designated by 5' and the working conductor or third rail by 7'. lengths of the track-rails andthe tli'ird rail conductors, such as 35, 36, and 37 and 38, 39, and 40, are connected thereto. Asource of direct current, such as thegenerator-2". is connected At diderent points in the v tolles-'bars il and ft2, the conductors 35., 37 being connected to the fermer ci these barsmhilea conductors-3 rnayconn'ect the el l of the third rail 7 nearest the generator the bus-bar through a normally open switch its, which maybe closed when it is desired to permit the passage of the current through the third rail for heating it. The feeders 38, 39, .and a@ are all normally con nccted in circuit with thence-bar l2 through switches 45, 46, and 47. PWhenit is desired to pass a heating-current through the third rait'Qthe switch 44 is closed and the switches 45, 46., and 4J] are yall opened, thereby coin'- pelling the entire return-current to' pacs through the third rail and heat the same Without passing through the feeders 38, 39, and 40. When this is to be done, the generator 2 may be speeded up to compensate for the drop in potential dus to the resistance of the long third rail. Traveling connection with the third rail is made through the usual our rent-collector or shoe 50, with one or more of which shoes each motor-car is customarily provided. l

'In Fig. 3 l have villustrated modification of my invention in which the track-rails are designated by 5" and the Working conductor or third rail by 7". in this vier;r the auxiliary' or heating circuit instead of being a Axed section or block oi"` the whole system is a travcling circuit, which is carried on and mores with the vehicle or train which. is propelled by the Working current. .For the purpose of converting the high-tension. direct current of the working circuit into a Icurrent suitable for use in the heating-circuit a rotary converter, such as 23",l is placed on the vehicle and connected to receive current from the Working circuit through the current-collector or shoe 50 in the usual manner. A short local or heating,r circuit may be formed byconnec-ting; the secondary of this converter in circuit with said shoe and with another shoe at the rear ci the car or train, such as the shoe 50", from which a conductorl passes to the other terminal ci the secondary of the converter, the shoe 50' being in circuit with one of said terminals. A part of this local travcling heating-circuit .is of course common to the main Working circuit, as in the systems previously described, and a very economical heating of the third rail is possible with this apparatus, as by its use the length of the conductor to be heated at any one time is reduced. to a minimum. This short heating-circuit may be used to advantage on pilot or construction trains. For nearly all purposes, however, prefer toheat `the exposed conductor or third rail substantially in the manner illustrated in Figs. 4, 5, and 6, in which three variations of the same general system are shown. In Fig. el, 5 and 6designate the down-track and lip-track of a two-track third-rail` system, and 7" and 8 represent the corresponding third rails. These third rails are preferably connected throughout, se

that each forms a ccnt'nucrs condnctcr., and tryo third rails c .as-bonded, ce hy means of heavy 9', at suitable inter vais. Theseintervals .d not necessarily he be equal, theirl ngthe may he determined by the general of the system at a given `point or on a given section, sections close to stations or ccmtrrlninc,` upgrades, curves, or switches being: preferably shorter than those on level stretches of the road in order that the exposed conductor et euch sections may be cleared quickly bythe higher degree of heat automatically developed. in these sections. ln the construction shown in Fig. is the Work ing circuit is supplied with direct current from a substation rotary converter 10"', which is fed with alternating: current from an alternating generator 52 through feedwvires 53 and 5t. The secondary of this rotary converter is connected by' means of conductor 55 to the rails 5H and 6"" of the tivo tracks and by means o conductor 56 to the cross hond or cable 9'", that connects the two'th'l'd rails 7" and 8'. lit the ends ythereof shown in the drawings the system has a closed trackcircuit through the heavy bond-wirel7"' lt will be observed that by this arrangement all the track-rails bonded or connected together, so as to forni one side ofthe Working, or railway circuit, While all the third rails of the system are lilrewiseelectrlcally connected together, so as to forni the other side ofA the Working circuit, as is new the usual practice in thirdrail systems. The alternating current transmitted overthe crains or feed-wires 53 and t is of high potential and in the Wol-hing circuit orf the railway system is transformed by rotary corn verter 10 into a direct current .also haring a relatively high potential. ,in the laars-tinl;n circuit, however, this alternating current is transformed into an alternating current of lower potential and high 'amperage having great (heating capacity by means et ete,L down static transoruiers, such as 30",of any suitable type, the primaries of these transformera being connected, as by means ci conductors '57 and 58, to the feed-wires or mains 53 and 54, While the sccondarics are connected directly to the exposed. conductors or third rails 7 and 8. @neef 'the most important features of my system with respect to economy of operation the inode of supplying heating-current to i.h'eheatingcirc uit,includ ing' the third rails. This l prefer toaccomplish by feeding directly into such exposed conn ductors a transformed current ot' low poten-- tial and large heating capacity at such points in the system as will result in a miniuiuin. drop of potential owing to the relatively low resistance of each branch of the heating-circuit. Preferably each closed circuit formed by sections of the third rails 7" andS'", connccted by cr0ss-l onds 9"', is divided into at least two parallel branches in order to redu'ce the resistance, and thehcatingcurrent is fed directly into each branch-as, for example,

rig

branches of the current flowing from and to the secondary ot' each .of these transformers are indicated clearly bythe arrows iu Fig. 4.

In most cases the length of each section or block of the heating-circuit may be, say,two thousand feet on straight and level sections, so that each of the branch circuits fed by their common transformer will beabouta thousand feetin lengthordinarily,which will result in a great saving as com pared with such a section of the heating circuit lfed from one end thereof and not subdivided into parallel branches. When the sections or blocks of the heatingcircuitare made shorter than this-say one half or one-fourth the length of the ordinary section, as will preferably be'the case on up grades, at starting-points, &c., for reasons that will hereinafter appear-it is apparent that the heating eect will be produced much more quickly than on a long section. The extent to which it is necessary to heat these exposed conductors or third rails depends chiefly upon the temperature of the surrcund.

ing atmosphere; but ordinarily it will not be necessary to raise the temperature of these cond uctorsmore than 10 Fahrenheit, as sleet and ice are the principal substances to be ref moved from the. exposed conductors, and these ordinarily form when the temperature is buta few degrees below the freezing-point.

A temperature elevation of about 6 Fahrenheit will usually be su'ihcient, and this temperature elevation can be obtained by the expenditure of about thirty-ive-horse power of electrical enegy per minute for a block containing four thousand feet of the ordinary third rail, which weighs approximately one hundred pounds per yard and has a crosssectional area of about 9.8 square inches, with a conductivity approximately one-seventh of that of a bar of copper of equal area, and can be maintained by about one-sixtieth part of the energy required to produce such an initial rise in temperature owing to the capacity of the rail for storing or retaining' the heat produced therein.

The greatest economy and the greatest practicable distribution of the extra load on the generator result from the use of such a system as that illustrated in Fig. i, with the` lengths of the sect-ions properly proportioned to the gradients, .starting-points, dac., and from the application of heating-current to such sections separately'or successively in such a manner with regard to the degreel of elevation of temperature developed therein as to heat up the more important short secitious first and in a relatively short time and the longer sections afterward somewhat more slowly, and such currents may with advau; tage be applied intermittently or in regular succession instead of continuously to the several sections, so as to still further reduce `or distribute the load on the power-station..

It will be evident that by this method and by the proper utilization of the heatstorage capacity of the third rails themselves the extra or emergency current consumed in the heating-circuit is distributed over a longer time interval in that it is only used for short periods of time on-each section and that the snm of these periods represents not only a moderate expenditure ofenergy, but the requisite power for removing the sleet, che., is developed without imposing too great or sudden a load on the generating or transforming station, as might be the case if it were attempted to clear the entire line simultaneously and within abriefintervalof ti m ea procedure that I have found is as unnecessary aait is uneconomical.

In Fig. 5 l have illustrated a modification of the invention adapted for use in connection with three main circuits or track-circuits, the exposed conductors or third rails only being shown, together with means. for supplying current thereto, as in other respects'the system is substantially the same as that shown in Fig. 4. In this view, Fig. 5, the third rails 7 and 8a of the downltrack and 'the 11p-track have between them a thirdrail 60, which is the working conductor of the circuit for acenter track, .such as is ordinarily used for express-trains onlan' elevated or underground third-rail system. These third rails are connected by cross-bonds 9 to form two closed parallel heating-circuits divided iuto corresponding vclosed sections. Current may be suppliedto these sections in any suitable way before described; but preferably a transformed alternating' current of low potential, high Van'iperage, and largeheat` ing capacity is supplied to the various'sections, the diderent branches of each section either having separate transformers connectyed directlyin each branch, as at 30, or a singie' transformer having a divided secondary being connected at the terminals of the secondary to the two outer rails and divided at the center of the secondary for connection to the center rail to divide the current translated by the secondary between the two branchesy ofthe section.

In Fig. 6 I-have illustrated another modification in which the heating-circuit is divided into sections by the cross-bonds 9, which sections are fed with heatingLcurrent by transformers 30 similar to Ithose shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The primaries of these transformers instead of being connected in a single circuit are connected in groups in parallel in diierent circuits, any one of which may be closed as desired, while the others remain open. ln this View one wire 6l of each primary is conuected to a common'conductor 52, while the other wires of the primaries are connected in pairs or groups to different conductors, the conductors 63 being connected to the cond u c or 64, the conductors 65 to the'conductor t6, and the cond uctors. 67 to the conductor rro5 primary ci the transformer..

d8, euch group being in parallel to reduce the ronistnnce, 'and' each of the conductors 64, @6, and 58 coing separately connectihle in circuit with the source of energy, euch as the alternating generator 52, by means of switch 70, movahle onto any one of the contacto 7], 72, 73, and 7e may he desired. l regard this method of connecting sections in circuit separately as the most economical, 'because not only is the resistance oi each section reduced to the minimum hy the proper proportioning of the length of each section iu accordance with the grade and other conditions and by the division of each section into two parallel branches of equlil resistance fed hy a divided heating-circuit, hut the extra load on the generator is kept down as much as possible by heating different groups of sections oi the road at `didi-went times, and thus distributing the extra demand for energy overa considerable period oi time. To re 'move a thick coating of ice or other substance quick/ly, an alternating` heating-current of relatively high frequency may be employed, the skin effect of which will cause the surface of the railto beheated first, which will result in the removal of practically all such ccatingploefore the body of vthe rail is heated 'up to any considerable extent.

in Fig. 7 l have .illustrated at 75 a polyphasegenerator of the star type having separate switches Z6, 77, and 78 for three con duciors 79, 80, Sl leadingl therefrom, over which the currents or" diierent phase may be transmitted for heating different exposed conductors or third rails.

ln Fig. 8 i have illustrated how the primary of a heating-transformer, such as 30d, may be autcinatically'connected in circuit with an alternating generator, such asA 52d, by means of an autornaticsvritch 82., operated in this case hya solenoid-magnet 83, controlled in any suitable manner and from any desired point.

in Fig. 9 l have illustrated how the current 'from an alternating generator, such as 52e,

may he passed either in series or divided and passed in parallel through the divided prin mary ci" a transformer, such as 30e, a switch 84 f or changing the connections of the primary sections 85 and 86 of the transformer from series to parallel, or vice versa, an ind uotive resistance 87 being also connected in circuit with said switch and the 'This arrangenient of divided primary Winding for the transformers is useful in places where itis desirable in emergencies to produce a more rapid clearingof the third-rail s'et'iou (hy connecting the primary coils in parallel) than would be effected 'oy the normal or series connection alone. lt may also he employed for rapidly elevating the rail to the requisite initial temperature, after which the radiation losses may he taken care of and the rail ruaintained at the desired temperature by restoring the serien connection. lt will he observed illustrated in Fig. l0. 'It will also be obvious that my invention may he applied equally well for the removal ot sloot, clac.. from over head wires and for the purpose ci' evaporating moisture from, and thus improving the insulation of, exposed conductors Whether the saine he used for electric-railway or other purposes.

Although the problem of removing ico, snow, die., from exposed conductors, such as those of a third-rail system, may appear at irst sight to call for the expenditure of such an amount of electrical encre;1 as to interfere With the proper operation of the system, it will oe evident that when such removal is made in the manner described herein there will never he anyahnorinal load on the powerhouse due to the use oi' an abnormal amount of current for heating purposes, because by dividing the system into sections of different lengths, heating those sections in the order of their importance either separatclyor in groups, varying the period during which the heating-current is turned into the rails of a section, according as it is more or less impor tant to vclean that section quickly or thoroughly, and by utilizing the heat-storage capacity of the rails, which admits of a rapid heating of the section in a very shorttimo and a gradual radiation of the heat stored, which radiation will extend over a comparatively long period of time, my improved sysn tem may ce employed with the expenditure of a very small percentage of additional energy over that required for traction purposes and without materially increasing the load on the powerhouse. lihat l claim isc l. The combination with a pair of electric circuits having a common. conductor, or" means for supplying to said circuits electric currents ci different characters one of which currents of large healing capacity.

2. in electric-railWaysystem, the combi ,nation with a pai r of electric circuits having a IXO IIS

guapo;

electric currents of dierent. characters one of which currents is of` large heating capacity.

5. The combination with a pair of electric circuits havingacommon conductor, of means for supplying to said circuitselectric currents of different. characters one of which is analternating current of low potential and highv amperage and large heating capacity.

6. The combination with a pair of electric circuits having a common conductor, of means for simultaneously supplying to said circuits. electric curre-ntshol diierent characters one of which is an alternating current of low potential and high amperage and large heating capacity.

7. The combination with a pair of electric circuits havinga common conductor, of means forsupplying to one of said circuits a continuous electric current of high potentialand to the other ofsaid'circuits an alternating current of low potential.

8. The combination with a pair of electric circuits havinga common conductor, of means for supplying to one of said circuits a continuous electric current of high potential and tc the other of said circuits an alternating current ot low potential and high amperage and large heating capacity.

9. The combination with a pair of electric circuits having acommon conductor, of translating devices connected in parallel in 'one of said circuirsand in traveling electrical connection with said common conductor, and means for supplying to the circuit containing said translating devices an electric current vcapable of translation by said devices and to the other of said circuits a current of dierent character.

10.v The combination with a pair of electric circuits having a common conductor and with translating devices connected invparallel in one of said circuits, of means for supplying to -the circuit containing said translating devices an electric cu rrent capable of translation by said devices and to the other of said circuits a different current of large heating capacity.

11. The combination with apair of electric 'circuits havinga common conductor, of translating devices connected in parallel in one of said circuits and in traveling electrical connection with said common conductor, and means for supplying tothe circuit containing the translating devices an electric current capable or" translation by said devices and to the other of said circuits adiiferent currentl of large heating capacity.

12. The combination with a pair of electric circuits havingacommon conductor, of translating devices connected in parallel in one of said circuits and in traveling `electrical con nection with said common conductor, and

means for supplying to the circuit containing said translating devices an electric current capable of translation by said devices and for simultaneously supplying to the other of said circuits a different current of large heating capacity. v

13. The combination with a pair ofelectric circuits one of which is relatively short as compared with the 'other and has a conductor common to the other, ofmeans for supplying to said circuits electric currents of differentcharacters.

14. The combination with a pair of electric circuits one of which is relatively short as compared `with the other and has a conductor common to the othelgof meansforsupplying to said circuits electric currents of different characters the current supplied to the shorter of said circuits beingof large heating capacity.

15. The combination with a main electric circuit, of a plurality of auxiliary electric cir cuits each shorter than said main circuit and each having a cond uctor com mon to a portion Lof the main circuit, means for supplying elec tric current to said main circuit, and means for supplying to said auxiliary circuits elecn tric current of a different character from that supplied to the main circuit. i

16. The combination with a main electric circuit, of a pluralityo auxiliary electric circuits each shorter than said main circuit and each having a conductor common to a portion of the main circuit, means for supplying elec tric current to said main circuit, and means for supplying to at least one of said auxiln iary circuits simultaneously with the supply of the main current an'electric current of dif ferent character and large heating capacity.

17. The combination with a main electric circuit, of a plurality of auxiliary electric circuits each shorter than said main circuit and each having a conductor common toa portion of the main circuit, means for supplying electric current to said main circuit, and means for supplying to said auxiliary circuits separately but simultaneously withthe supply of the main current electric currentof different character from, the maincurrentand of large heating capacity.

18. The combination with a main electric circuit, of a second circuit divided into a series of successive auxiliar-y or block circuits each of which has a conductor common to a portion of the main circuit, means for supplying electric current to said main circuit, and means for supplying to said auxiliary circuits electric current of a diereut character from that supplied to the main circuit.

19. The combination with a main electric circuit, of a second circuit divided into a series of successive auxiliary or block circuits each of which has a conductor common to a portion of the main circuit, means for supplying electric current to said main circuit, and means for supplying to said auxiliary' circuits in any desired order but simultaneously with the supply of the main current` ICO 'teaser bodying a third rail, of two other circuits conn nected in parallel and formed by connecting` said third rails, means for supplying to said first three circuits electric current of one character, and a converter having a divided secondary connected with both of said last two circuits for supplying thereto a trans-` 36. The combination witha pair of electric circuits havinga common conductor, of means for supplying electric current to one of said circuits and for simultaneously but intermittently supplying to the other of said circ-nits electric current of different character and large heating capacity.

87. In anielectricirailway system, the combination with a pair of electric circuits embodying a common third rail, of means for supplying to one of said circuits an electric current of one characterand for rapidly supplying to said other circuit at intervals a current of large heating capacity for quickly heating up the Whole body of said third rail to a relatively high temperature.

38. In an electric-railway system, the conrbination with the traihc-rails thereof, of Working conductors, and a source of current for heating the Working conductors or portions of the same independently of the trado-rails.

39. In an electricuailway system,I the com bination with tramo-rails forming one side of the Working circuit, of one or more supplyconductors forming the other side oil said oircuit, and a source of current for heating the supply conductor or conductors or portions thereof independently of the tra'ieraiis.

40. In an electric-railway system, the conibination Witlrthe traiiic-rails thereof, of a supply-conductor. therefor, and means for heating successive portions or sections ci said supply-cond uctor independently of the traflicrails. i

In an electric-railway system, a system et apply-conductors divided into closed electric circuits, and means for. intermittently heating the said circuits separately from a common scurce of current-supply.

42. In a system of removing sleet, ice and other deposits from electric-railway conductors, a railway having a track provided with a Working cond noter electrically divided into sections of unequal lengths according to the relative importance of the track-sections to oe cleaned, and current-supplying means connected and adapted to raise the respective temperatures of the conducting-surfaces to be cleaned to such a point that the several sections will be freed from sait; tposits in prearranged order in accordance with their relative importance or the requirements of trai'lic.

43. A system or" removing sleet, ice and other vaporous deposits from electric supplyconductors, such as third rails of electric rail- Ways, comprising a source of electrical energy, a series of local circuits into which the said supply-condnctorsaredivided,and means for passing heating-currents through said local circuits separately and intermittently or at recurring time intervals whereby the conducting sections under treatment are caused to absorb or store part of the heat generated therein and to continue to give out a portion of the same for the purpose of removal ot' the deposit during the intervals between successive applications et the heatingcurrent thereto, and whereby the total load at anyone time upon the source of energy is reduced and the total load distributed overa longer time interval.

Signed at New Yorlr, in the countyof New York, and State of New York, this 24th day ot August, A. D. 1903.

ELIAS Il. RIES.

Witnesses:

Encan A. FELLews, i). s. CHAMPION.

US1903171886 1903-09-04 1903-09-04 Means for removing sleet, &c., from electrical conductors. Expired - Lifetime US743331A (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2662156A (en) * 1953-05-15 1953-12-08 John H Potter Automatic deicer for electrical transmission lines
US2870311A (en) * 1955-12-19 1959-01-20 Kaiser Aluminium Chem Corp Electrical conductor and system
US2981818A (en) * 1958-12-17 1961-04-25 Electric Pipe Line Inc Type metal transportation system
US3195725A (en) * 1961-08-02 1965-07-20 F R Hannon & Sons Inc Electrically heated screen construction and method
WO2010074998A1 (en) 2008-12-16 2010-07-01 Qualcomm Incorporated System and methods to facilitate connections to access networks
US20120067850A1 (en) * 2010-04-19 2012-03-22 Alstom Transport Sa. Method for deicing a power supply line for railway vehicles
US9874190B2 (en) 2016-01-26 2018-01-23 Cummins Power Generation Ip, Inc. Crank only exercise mode
US10008965B2 (en) 2016-01-26 2018-06-26 Cummins Power Generation Ip, Inc. Genset remote start control

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2662156A (en) * 1953-05-15 1953-12-08 John H Potter Automatic deicer for electrical transmission lines
US2870311A (en) * 1955-12-19 1959-01-20 Kaiser Aluminium Chem Corp Electrical conductor and system
US2981818A (en) * 1958-12-17 1961-04-25 Electric Pipe Line Inc Type metal transportation system
US3195725A (en) * 1961-08-02 1965-07-20 F R Hannon & Sons Inc Electrically heated screen construction and method
WO2010074998A1 (en) 2008-12-16 2010-07-01 Qualcomm Incorporated System and methods to facilitate connections to access networks
US20120067850A1 (en) * 2010-04-19 2012-03-22 Alstom Transport Sa. Method for deicing a power supply line for railway vehicles
US8907255B2 (en) * 2010-04-19 2014-12-09 Alstom Transport Sa Method for deicing a power supply line for railway vehicles
US9874190B2 (en) 2016-01-26 2018-01-23 Cummins Power Generation Ip, Inc. Crank only exercise mode
US10008965B2 (en) 2016-01-26 2018-06-26 Cummins Power Generation Ip, Inc. Genset remote start control
US10298161B2 (en) 2016-01-26 2019-05-21 Cummins Power Generation Ip, Inc. Genset remote start control

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