US701721A - Calculating-machine. - Google Patents

Calculating-machine. Download PDF

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US701721A
US701721A US7027401A US1901070274A US701721A US 701721 A US701721 A US 701721A US 7027401 A US7027401 A US 7027401A US 1901070274 A US1901070274 A US 1901070274A US 701721 A US701721 A US 701721A
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wheels
shaft
wheel
numeral
series
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US7027401A
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George F Harrison
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George F Harrison
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C7/00Input mechanisms
    • G06C7/02Keyboards
    • G06C7/06Keyboards with one set of keys for each denomination

Description

No. 70I,72|. Patented June 3, |902.
G. F. HARRISON.
GALCULATING MACHINE.
(Application filed July 30, 1901.)
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-$heet I.
'I' Zig i' 1` 36 i f', /20 3722*' l 253 27 E I* ,l f1 l il r l f E z 261 1* U` 30"` l 1 l /l/ 1 l i! 33 2l] @4' (D l 1- Fi* v @2 No. 70|,72|. Patented June V3, |902. G. F. HARRISON. CALCULATING MACHINE. (Application filed July 30, 1901.) (No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 2,
20u MJ. lllu s. 2 2 gli @o 2 :gh ./p o .m., V 1, r a, W Qdu f Patented lune 3, |902.
G. F. HARRISON.
GALCULATING MACHINE.
(Appicaton led July 30, 1901.)
3 Sheets-Sheet 3,
(No Model.)
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
GEORGE F. HARRISON, OF KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE.
CALCULATlNG-MACHINE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 701,721, dated June 3, 1902.
Application filed July 30, 1901.
To @ZZ whom t may oo/Lccrn:
Be it known that I, GEORGE F. l-IARnIsoN, a resident of Knoxville, Tennessee, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Oalculating- Machines, which invention is fullyset forth in the following specification.
My object is to provide a calculating-machine of simple, durable, and compact construction which will be positive and accurate in operation and which may be sold at a low price.
In calculating-machines heretofore devised having a series of rotatable numeral wheels or disks each representing a different order it has been common to separately move each wheel forward for the purpose of registering thereon, the wheels upon which no registry is being made remaining at rest.
The principal feature of my present invention resides in Ineans whereby instead of operating upon this old principle I employ practically the reverse thereof-that is to say, the wheel upon which registryis to be made is held immovable, while the other wheels are moved backward together through a number of spaces directly corresponding to the number to be registered on the immovable wheel, then all of the wheels (including the one which was held immovable and upon which registry is to be made) are moved forward together through the same number of spaces as on the backward movement, the final result being a change` in the position of the wheel which wasat first held immovable corresponding to the number registered. By operating upon this new principleI am enabled to employ much Ysimpler actuating mechanism thanis commonly used in vmachines operating upon said old principle.
My invention also embraces mechanism for carrying tens from each wheel to the wheel representing the next highest order, as well as many other features of construction, all of which will be best understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, illu strating several of the many possible embodiments of my invention.
In said drawings, Figure lis a vertical sectional view on line da, Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a top plan View with part of the keyboard broken away and omitted to show the interior mech.- anism. Fig. 3 is a front elevation, part of Serial No. 70,274. (N0 model.)
the casing being omitted to expose the interior mechanism. Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view through the series of numeralwheels on line c c of Fig. 5. Figs. 5 and 6 are detail sectional views on line b l) of Fig. 4, the parts being shown in different positions vin the two views. Fig. 7 is a detail View illus- 'trative of the operation of the resetting mechanism for bringing the wheels to Zero position. Fig. 7 is a detail view of the means for rotating shaft 26. Fig. 8 is aperspective view of a smaller modified form of machine. Fig. 9 is a transverse sectional view of the same. Fig. lO is a bottom plan view with the cover on the under side omitted, and Fig. 11 is a longitudinal sectional view. Fig. 12 is a detail view illustrating modified pawland-ratchet mechanism.
l is a suitable casing havinga sight-opening 2, closed by a glass plate, through which the figures on the numeral-Wheels are visible to the operator. Shaft 3, journaled at opposite ends in the sides of the casing, carries loosely mounted thereon a series of numeralwheels 4, on the peripheries of which are inscribed a cipher and the digits 1 to 9, inclusive, suitably spaced. Ratchet-wheels 5, splined on shaft 3 between the several wheels, are engaged by pawls 6, pivoted to the left-hand sides of the wheels, respectively. Springs 7, also secured to the wheels, press the pawls into engagement withthe ratchetwheels 5 with sufficient friction to carry the numeral-wheels with the ratchet-wheels during the backward rotation of shaft 3, unless said wheels or any one of them are or is positively heldragainst such movement. Gearwheels 8 and 9 are splined on shaft 3 at its opposite ends. (See Fig. 4.) There is also splined on said shaft between gear-wheel 9 and the units numeral-wheel a disk 10, from which a rod 1l extends radially and then in a direction parallel to shaft 3 across the peripheries of all of the numeral-wheels to the outer endof an arm 12 on gear 8, to which arm it is secured. A series of ten equallyspaced pins 12 project from the right-hand sides of each numeral-wheel and are adapted to be engaged by pawls 13, pivoted at 14 to the left-hand sides, respectively, of the'several wheels 4. The wheel representing the highest order has no such. pawl. The pawls ward movement as soon as one of the keys is operated to depress bar 30 and move pin 44 away from incline 45.
The operation of the means for rotating the numeral -wheels shaft and the means for locking the appropriate numeral-wheel against backward rotation in registering three hundred, for example,- is as follows: Depression of the 3 key in the third or hundreds row of keys 20 moves the corresponding bar 30 downward a distance corresponding to three spaces on the numeral-wheels. The preliminary movement of bar 30 before numeralwheels shaft 3 begins to rotate carries pin 49 off of the incline 45 of locking-arm 41, permitting spring 4G to move the latter to the dotted-line position in Fig. 1, with its lower extremity 42 in the path of pins 12 on the hundreds numeral-wheel, thus locking the latter against backward movement with the shaft 3. In its backward rotation shaft 3 carries with it all of the numeral-wheels except the hundreds-wheel, the pawl 6 on the latter rotating over three ratchet-teeth on its correspondin g ratchetwheel 5. The key being now released by the operator, spring 35 at once returns bar 30 to its normal position, returning arm 41 to its full-line position, Fig. 1, and springs 27, acting through shaft 2G, elevate arms 31 to their full-line position, Fig. 1. The upward movement of toothed segment 32 imparts a forward rotation to shaft 3, and consequently moves all of the numeral-wheels forward three spaces, the result being that the numeral 3 on the hundreds-wheel and the zeros on all of the other wheels are exposed at the sight-opening. Any other number or numbers may then be registered on the wheels in the same manner, the su m-total being finally exhibited at the sight-opening.
In order to return all of the numeral-wheels to their Zero positions after registry has been made thereon, I provide the following means: One of the pins 12 is provided with a radial extension or projection GO adjacent to the right-hand face of the numeral-wheel, but so positioned as not to interfere with the engagement of paw/113 on the adjacent numeralwheel with the outer end of said pin, as clearly shown in Fig. 7. A rod 6l, journaled in the sides of the casing and extending through the interior thereof above the numeral-wheels and just beneath plate 44, has thereon a series of lugs 62, one for each numeral-wheel. A weighted operating-lever G3 on the end of rod 61 outside of the casing acts to normally hold said rod in such position as to elevate lugs G2 out of the path of the projection GO on pin 12, as clearly shown in Fig. 1. Then it is desired to reset the numeral-wheels to their zero positions, the operator manipulates arm 63 to lowerlugs 62 to the position shown in Fig. 7 in the path of projections (JO. Key 64, Fig. 2, is now depressed to give arms 31 a full downward stroke, and thus rotate shaft 3 through nine spaces. The result is that the numeral-wheels will rotate backwardly with the shaft until they are stopped by the projections GO on one of the pins 12 thereof coming in contact with its corresponding lug 62. All of the numeral-wheels will thus be brought into alinement, so that upon the forward movement of the shaft the zeros on all the wheels will be exposed at the sight-opening.
lt may be found desirable to prevent overrotation of the several numeral-wheels on the forward movement of the shaft 3. For this purpose l provide the following mechanism: is a shaftjournaled in the sides of the casing beneath the numeral-wheels. From this shaft a series of stop-arms 71, one for each numeral-wheel, having their outer extremities bent upwardly and adapted when the arms are elevated to project into the path of pins 12 on the numeral-wheels respectively, as shown in Fig. 1. A spring 72, secured at one end to the casing and at the other end to shaft 70, normally holds the stop-arms 71 in their lowermost position out of the path of pins 12. A depending arm 73 on gear-wheel 8 engages a lug 74 on shaft 70 when the shaft 3 reaches the limit of its forward movement and rotates shaft 70 to elevate the stop-arms to the position shown in Fig. 1, thus arresting the numeral-wheels at their proper positions and preventing them from moving forward after rotation of shaft 3 has ceased.
Figs. S to 11 illustrate an embodiment of my invention in a machine of small size, which may be readily transported from place to place. SO is a cylindrical casing having a plurality of sight-openings 81, one for each numeral-wheel. 2 is the numeral-wheel shaft, journaled at one end in a circular plate 83, which closes one end of the casing, and at its other end in a plate 84, extending across the other end of the casing. S5 is a gear-wheel on the end of shaft S2 outside of the casing adjacent to the plate 83. 86 is a-frame adapted to slide backward and forward on two screws S7, the shanks of which pass through an elongated slot 8S in said frame and into plate 83. The lower edge of frame S6 is provided with a series of gear-teeth engaging the pinion S5, so that shaft 82 is rotated by backward-and-forward movement of the frame. A plate S9, secured to the upper edge of the frame 86, bears along its outer edge in a row a O and the digits l to 9, arranged at equal intervals. A O and the digits 1 to 9 are likewise disposed in a row along the inner edge of said plate, but in the reverse order. 90 represents a series of keys, the stems of which pass through a flange 91, depending from plate 89, and into openings through the upper edge of plate 8G. A coiled spring 97, secured at one end to the stem of the key and at its other end bearing against frame S6, acts to hold the keys in the position shown in full lines in Fig. 11. The keys are adapted, however, to be pushed into the position indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 11, thereby compressing springs 97 and causing the inner ends of their stems IOO IIO
to project into alinement with a stop-pin 02 on plate 83, thereby limiting the movement of frame 86 in one direction. 100 represents the numeral-wheels, loosely mounted on shaft 82 and having a series of ten pins 101 projecting from the right-hand face thereof. Ratchetwheels 102 are secured to the shaft 82 between the numeral-wheels. 103 represents pawls, Fig. 12, one pivoted to each numeral-wheel at 104 and having a tooth 105 pressed into engagement with the teeth of ratchet-wheel 102 by the action of a spring 10G. The tooth 107 on the end of ratchet 103 is adapted to be pressed outwardly into engagement with one of the pins 101 of the numeral-wheel by the action of enlarged tooth 10S on ratchet-wheel 102 for the purpose of carrying tens from one numeral-wheel to the next in a manner which will be readily understood from the foregoing description of the carrying mechanism shown in Figs. 1 to 7. 110 is a spring secured at one end to shaft 32 and at its other end to a pin 111 on plate 84 and adapted to be wound up upon movement of frame SG in the direction indicated by the arrow in Fig. S, so that when said frameis released by the operator shaft 82 will be rotated in the reverse direction,returning the frame to the position shown in said ligure. A plate 112 on shaft S2 adjacent to spring 110 acts to hold the latter in position as it is wound up. 120 represents a series of keys, one for each numeral-wheel, each key consisting of a fiat spring` secured at one end to the casing 80 and at its free end carrying a pin 121, projecting through a small opening in casing 80 and adapted when pressed inwardly against the tension of the spring` to engage one of a series of ten openings 122, arranged equidistant about the periphery of the corresponding numeral-wheel. Any numeral-wheel upon which registry is to be made may be thus held at rest during the backward movement of the shaft S2 and the other numeral-wheels through anumber of spaces determined by the particular key 90 which is at the same time pressed in by the operator. When frame 86 has been moved forward (rotating shaft S2 and the numeral-wheels backward) until the stem of the depressed key 90 strikes pin 92, the operator releases key 120, so that upon the return movement and the corresponding forward movement of the shaft S2 all of the numeral-wheels will move forward through the same number of spaces.
To prevent overrotation of the numeralwheels upon their forward movement, I provide means similar to those already described with reference to Figs. 1 to 7. 130 is a shaft journaled in lugs 131 on the lower side of casing 80 and having stop-arms 132, one foreach wheel, the outer ends of which project upwardly through openings in the casing. A bent arm 133 on shaft 130 extends upwardly through an opening in casing 30, and a pin 134, projectingfrom adisk 135, bears against arm 133 to elevate stop-arms 132 into the path of the pins on the numeral-wheels as soon as tomar frame S6 and shaft 32 reach their starting positions.
For resetting all of the numeral-wheels at zero position each numeral-wheel has a pin 140 projecting from its periphery at proper position. 141, Fig. 11, is a plate adapted to be moved into the path of said pins through a slot in the under side of casing S0 by pressure upon a knob 142 and against the tension of springs 143, which act to normally hold said plate in the position shown in Fig. 11. By pressing upon knob 142 and giving frame 86 a full movementin the direction of arrow, Fig. S, all of the wheels will be rotated until their pins 140 strike plate 141, bringing them all into alinement, so that upon their :forward movement they will be brought to position to exhibit 0s at the right openings.
150 is a cover secured to casing SO over shaft S0, plate 11-1, and other parts.
Vhat I claim is- 1. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels, means for collectively rotating said wheels in one direction and then in a reverse direction said means requiring all of the wheels to always move the same distance in one direction, and means for holding any wheel at rest while the others are rotating in the other direction.
2. In ia calculator or analogous machine, two or more numeral-wheels, means for rotating said wheels together in one direction and then in a reverse direction said means requiring both wheels to always move the same distance in one direction, and means for holding either of said wheels at rest While the other is rotating in the other direction.
3. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels adapted to be collectively but not separately or singly rotated in one direction and any one or more of which may be held at rest while the others are rotated in the opposite direction, means for r0- tating the wheels in opposite directions, and means requiring all of the wheels to always move the same distance in one direction, and means for holding any wheel at rest while the others are rotated in the other direction.
In a calculator or analogous machine, two or more numeral-wheels, means for rotating said wheels together in one direction and then in a reverse direction, means for holding the wheel representing the lower order at rest while the other wheel is rotating in one of said directions, and automatically-operating means for carrying tens from one wheel to the other.
5. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels, means for collectively rotating said Wheels in one direction and then in a reverse direction, means for holding any wheel at rest while the others are rotating in one of said directions, and automatically-operating means for carrying tens from each wheel to that representing the next higher order.
0. In a calculator or analogous machine,
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other, and automatically-operating means during the rotation of the shaft in one direcseries of nu meral-wheels, a rotatable shaft on which said wheels are loosely mounted, connections between each wheel and the shaft requiring all of the wheels to move with the shaft when the latter is rotated in one direction but permitting any wheel to be held at rest while the shaft and other Wheels are rotated in the reverse direction, means under control of the operator for rotating the shaft a desired distance in opposite directions and for holding any Wheel at rest while the other or others are rotated in one of said directions.
7. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels, a rotatable shaft on which the wheels are loosely mounted, pawland-ratchet connections between each Wheel and the shaft requiring all of the wheels to move with the shaft when the latter is rotated in one direction but permitting any wheel to beheld at rest while the shaft and other wheels are rotated in the reverse direction, means under control of the operator for rotating the shaft a desired distance in opposite directions and for holding any wheel at rest while the other or others are rotated with the shaft in one of said directions.
8. In a calculator or analogous machine, two numeral-wheels, means under control of the operator for rotating said Wheels together in one direction and for holding one wheel while the other is rotated in the opposite direction, pins on one wheel, a pawl on the for throwing the pawl into engagement with said pins to carry tens from one wheel to the other'.
9. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of nu meral-wheels, a shaft upon which said wheels are loosely mounted, pawl-andratchet connections between each wheel and the shaft, means under control of the operator for rotating the shaft in opposite directions and for holding any wheel at rest during the rotation of the shaft in one direction, a series of pins projecting from each wheel, a pawl on each Wheel adapted to engage the pin of an adjacent wheel, and automatically-operating means for throwing the pawls into engagement with the pins for carrying tens.
10. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels, a shaft upon which said wheels are loosely mounted, pawl-and ratchet connections between each wheel and the shaft, means under control of the operator for rotating the shaft in opposite directions and for holding` any wheel at rest tion, a series of pins projecting from each wheel, a pawl on each wheel adapted to engage the pins of an adjacent wheel and having a part projecting beyond the periphery of its wheel, a rod rigidly secured to the shaft and extending across the peripheries of the wheels and adapted by engagement with the projecting parts of the pawls to move the latter into engagement with the pins and automatically carry tens from each wheel to that of the next higher order.
ll. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels, a rotatable shaft upon which said wheels are loosely mounted, means for locking each wheel to the shaft as the latter rotates in one direction but permitting it to be held at rest while the shaft rotates in the other direction, means under control of the operator for rotating the shaft in opposite directions and for holding any wheel at rest while the shaft and other wheels rotate in said other direction, and means for resetting all of the wheels to a predetermined position.
l2. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels, a rotatable shaft upon which said wheels are loosely mounted, means for locking each wheel to the shaft in the forward rotation of the latter but permitting it to be held at rest during the baclc ward rotation of the shaft, means under control of the operator for rotating the shaft in opposite directions and for holding any wheel at rest during the backward rotation, and means under control of the operator for ar resting all of the wheels in like positions on said backward rotation, whereby they are all reset at zero or other desired position.
13. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels, a shaft upon which they are loosely mounted, means locking each wheel to the shaft as the latter rotates in one direction but permitting it to be held at rest while the shaft rotates in the other direction, means under control of the operator for rotating the shaft in opposite directions any desired distance corresponding to the number to be registered on any wheel and for holding any wheel upon which registry is to be made at rest while the shaft and other wheels are rotated in said other direction.
ll. In a calculator or analogous machine, a series of numeral-wheels, a shaft upon which they are loosely mounted, means locking each wheel to the shaft as the latter rotates in one direction but permitting it to be held at rest while the shaft rotates in the other direction, a series of keys for each wheel the several lreys of each series being movable different distances corresponding to the number to be registered thereby on the numeral-wheel of its series, means actuated by the movement of any lhey for imparting a corresponding backward-and-forward rotation to the shaft, and means actuated by the movement of any key of a series to hold the numeralnwheel of that series at rest while the shaft rotates in said other direction.
In testimony whereof I have signed this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
GEO. F. HARRISON. lVitnesses:
H. M. McCAMMoN, JOHN M. Lnnt.
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US7027401A 1901-07-30 1901-07-30 Calculating-machine. Expired - Lifetime US701721A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3118309A (en) * 1964-01-21 Mechanical positioning mechanism

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3118309A (en) * 1964-01-21 Mechanical positioning mechanism

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