US661944A - Apparatus for removing moisture from air. - Google Patents

Apparatus for removing moisture from air. Download PDF

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US661944A
US661944A US887000A US1900008870A US661944A US 661944 A US661944 A US 661944A US 887000 A US887000 A US 887000A US 1900008870 A US1900008870 A US 1900008870A US 661944 A US661944 A US 661944A
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pipes
air
hoods
water
cooling
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US887000A
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Edgar S Belden
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F25D21/00Defrosting; Preventing frosting; Removing condensed or defrost water
    • F25D21/14Collecting or removing condensed and defrost water; Drip trays

Definitions

  • cooling-pipes are conlthe headers as in Figs. 9 and 10, showing Nrrirn STATES ATENT OFFICE.
  • My invention relates to apparatus for removing moisture from air; and the objects of my invention are, rst, to provide means for precipitating the moisture by cooling the air; second, to provide means for quickly removing the precipitated liquid, and, third, to provide the otherdetails hereinafter set forth.
  • - Figure 1 is a plan view of the apparatus,the walls of the inclosing chamber being shown in section to reveal the parts within. Said figure shows the supply and return pipes lying outside of the chamber and the coolingcoils, headers, and hoods within said cham- Fig. 2 is a transverse'wertical section of the apparatus upon a scale somewhat larger than the scale used in Fig. 1..
  • Fig. 3 is a top view of a series of' hoods', showing their relative positions one
  • Fig. 4 is a side View of a portion of a cooling-pipe, showing the drips or fins attached thereto.
  • Fig. 5 is a transverse section of a pipe anddripV or fins as shown in Fig. 4.
  • Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view of a group of cooling-pipes, showing an alternative form of hood.
  • Fig. '7 is a transverse sectional view of an alternative form Fig.
  • Fig. 8 is alongitndinal vertical section of the apparatus, taken on the line 7 7 and.looking in the direction of the The arrangement of the cooling-pipes and hoods is herein shown.
  • Fig. 9 is a detail view from ,the side, partly in section, of, the headers which form the returnnected and also form the supports for said pipes and for the hoods.
  • Fig. 10 is a detail view of the headers looking in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 8.
  • Fig.,11 is a top view of also a portion of a coling-pipe and roof in,
  • Fig. 12 is a viewin elevation of an auxiliarystandard or rack forsupporting the cooling-pipes and roofs at points between the headers.
  • Fig. 13 shows a central vertical sec? tion of the auxiliary standards as in Fig. 12.
  • the cooling-chamber A consists of an inclosed vessel constructed of sheet metal or other suitable material and has leading thereto the pipe a for suppl yingthe air from which the moisture is to be removed.
  • the discharge-pipe a serves to convey the air away from said chamber after the moisture has been removed.
  • the pipes b b through which the brine, ammonia, or other cooling uid circulates, extend transversely within the chamber A and are connected at their extremities to the headers B B.
  • Said headers consist, preferably, of cast metal and are provided with an inclosed chamber b', which affords a continuous passage through which fluid may pass from one to another of said pipes. I prefer to form said chambers b' with a sweeping curve in the manner shown in Fig. 8 in order to avoid the deposit of sediment therein when brine is used as the cooling fluid.
  • the headers B are preferably constructed in the form of rectangular right prisms and are designed to rest one upon another in a vertical series, thus forming a column or support to which the pipes b are connected.
  • each of said headers is provided with a lug b2 at one extremity, which lits into a correspending socket b3 in the extremity .of the header next adjacent.
  • the vertical series or rows of headers are so arranged at opposite sides of the chamber A that by means of the passages b in said headers'any specified one of the pipes b is connectedat one extremity with the next adjacent pipe above and at the other extremity with the next adjacent pipe below.
  • a vertical row of pipes in conjunction with the connected headers constitutes a separate coil with a continuous passage throughout its length.
  • the head- IOO e ers B have the cored chambers b4 extending "'trnsversely through them. With the exception of the ones occupying the highest and lowest positions in any vertical row the head- 5 ers B are universal, or, in other words, are of such symmetry that a single pattern may be used for aV coil or set of coils composed of any ⁇ number of pipes.
  • the bases C C at the bottom of the chamber A form the supports ro for said headers B.
  • each coil the uppermost one of the pipes bis connected with the exterior supply-pipe D by means of a pipe d, provided with a valve d'.
  • the header c at the top of the row of headers B, adjacent to t 5 said supply-pipe D, is ,so constructed as to -form a direct connection between said piped and the uppermost one f the pipes b.
  • the lowesaone of the pipes b in each coil is connected with the exterior return-pipe E zo by means of the header' c' and pipe e, said pipe being provided with the valve e.
  • hoods or roofs consist, preferably, of sheet metal and are so formedas to protectthose of thei pipes b lying beneath from water dropping from above. It is preferable that said hoods be so 3o constructed as to have adouble slope from a point above the center of the pipes b, with a pitch of about forty-five degrees and a span somewhat greater than the diameter of said pipes b.
  • the cross-sectional outline .of the hoods may be varied, however, and an alternative form of hoodj is shown in Fig.
  • hood f being curved and convex from above.
  • the hoods are serrated-that is, are provided at their lateral 4o edges with a series of points or projections 2 '2. It is well known that the amount of water in a drop varies with the configuration of the object from which the water falls. For example, the quantity of 4water which will fall las a single globule or drop from a needle or other pointed object standing vertically is smaller than the amount which will fall from a horizontal plane surface.
  • said hoods are so arranged vertically that one offsaid points f2 does not lie directly above the points upon the adjacent hoods be- 6o low.
  • said points'f are staggered or oset with respect to a vertical line, so that a drop falling from one of said points may pass one -or more of said hoods below without coming into contact therewith.
  • the racks or standards G form auxiliary supports to prevent the sagging of the pipes b and hoods f when the same are of great length.
  • Said racks are provided with the apertures g, wherein said pipes b rest, and also with lugs g', to which said hoods f are attached.
  • Said hoods are secured to said lugs g' and also to the lugs F on the headers B by riveting or in any other suitable manner.
  • said drips have a serrated appearance, being provided with a series of points h h, which serve to collect the waterformed-on'said pipes and permit the rompt fall of said water in small drops in t e manner described in connection with the drip-points f2 of the) hoods f.
  • the temperature' desired decrease in temperature As 'the pipes b are arranged the temperature' desired decrease in temperature. ⁇ This is imat its lower portion a pointed or wedge-shaped soon as a body of water sufficient to make a small drop, is thus collected a drop is formed and falls onto the hood f next below. In a similar manner the water dropping onto said hoods is collected and falls in small drops from the dri p-points f2 thereon. y As said points f 2 are vertically out of line, the water falling therefrom will to a great extent miss the points upon the hoods below and will be collected at the bottom of the chamber A in the pan J, from which it may be drawn .olf through the drain j.
  • any one of the vertical rows of pipes b may be cut out of the circuit of the cooling iiuid. Therefore if by accident any one of said rows becomes coated with ice the latter may be removed by shutting the valves d' and e' communicating with said row, thus preventing the entrance of the cooling fluid and allowing the ice to be melted by contact with the air passing through the chamber A.
  • pipes b are cylindrical, pipesv ⁇ having other cross-sections may be used.
  • Fig. 7 is shown an alternative form of pipe B', which has a cylindrical upper pgrtion, butbhas cross-section.
  • the functionlof the tapering lower edge B2 of said pipe B is similar to that of the drips or iins H, attached to the pipes b.
  • Said pipes B have a certain advantage over the circular pipes b in that the cooling fluid within may cool the entire surface of said pipes B', but cannot gain access to and so perfectly cool the .drips or fins H upon the pipes b. y
  • stationary liquid-shedding parts separate from said pipes, but vertically adjacent thereto for ⁇ preventing the liquid precipitated from said gas, by reason of the cooling thereof, from coming into contact with pipes other than those on which said liquid is first collected or precipitatedi 2.
  • the combination o f pipes for cooling said air, and hoods for preventing the water discharged from said air by reason' of the cooling thereof, from coming into contact with pipes other than the ones whereon said water is first collected.

Description

W0. 66|,944. Patented Nov. 20, |900. E. S. BELDEN.
APPARATUS FQR REMUVING MOISTURE FRU AIR. (Application Bled EN'. 18, 1900..
(Nc' Model.) 2 Sheets-Shout I.A
No. 6s|,944. Patented nov. 2o. |900. E. s. nemen.
APPARATUS FOR REMOVINE M0|STUBE FBUM AIR.
' (Applicltcn med Hm'. 18, 1900.|
(No Model.)
v I2 Sheets-Shut 2.
; @dde/f above another.
.ber.
' of cooling-pipe'.
` arrows, Fig. 2.
ibends whereby the cooling-pipes are conlthe headers as in Figs. 9 and 10, showing Nrrirn STATES ATENT OFFICE.
EDGAR S. HELDEN, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
APPARATUS FOR REMOVING MOISTURE l-'ROM AIR.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Leners Patent No. 661,944, dated November 2o, 1900.
Application filed March 16, 1900l To all whom t may concern:
Beit known that I, EDGAR S. BELDEN, a citizen of the United States, residing in the city of Chicago, county of Cook, and State of Illinois, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Apparatus for Removing Moisture from Air, of which the-following is a specification.
My invention relates to apparatus for removing moisture from air; and the objects of my invention are, rst, to provide means for precipitating the moisture by cooling the air; second, to provide means for quickly removing the precipitated liquid, and, third, to provide the otherdetails hereinafter set forth. I attain these objects by the mechanism illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a plan view of the apparatus,the walls of the inclosing chamber being shown in section to reveal the parts within. Said figure shows the supply and return pipes lying outside of the chamber and the coolingcoils, headers, and hoods within said cham- Fig. 2 is a transverse'wertical section of the apparatus upon a scale somewhat larger than the scale used in Fig. 1.. The hoods or roofs are removed in order to show the coils of pipe. Fig. 3 is a top view of a series of' hoods', showing their relative positions one Fig. 4 is a side View of a portion of a cooling-pipe, showing the drips or fins attached thereto. Fig. 5 is a transverse section of a pipe anddripV or fins as shown in Fig. 4.' Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view of a group of cooling-pipes, showing an alternative form of hood. Fig. '7 is a transverse sectional view of an alternative form Fig. 8 is alongitndinal vertical section of the apparatus, taken on the line 7 7 and.looking in the direction of the The arrangement of the cooling-pipes and hoods is herein shown. Fig. 9 is a detail view from ,the side, partly in section, of, the headers which form the returnnected and also form the supports for said pipes and for the hoods. Fig. 10 is a detail view of the headers looking in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 8. Fig.,11 is a top view of also a portion of a coling-pipe and roof in,
serial No. 8,870. (No model.)
position. Fig. 12 is a viewin elevation of an auxiliarystandard or rack forsupporting the cooling-pipes and roofs at points between the headers. Fig. 13 shows a central vertical sec? tion of the auxiliary standards as in Fig. 12.
Similar letters refer to similar parts th roughout the several views.
The cooling-chamber A consists of an inclosed vessel constructed of sheet metal or other suitable material and has leading thereto the pipe a for suppl yingthe air from which the moisture is to be removed. The discharge-pipe a serves to convey the air away from said chamber after the moisture has been removed. p
' The pipes b b, through which the brine, ammonia, or other cooling uid circulates, extend transversely within the chamber A and are connected at their extremities to the headers B B. Said headers consist, preferably, of cast metal and are provided with an inclosed chamber b', which affords a continuous passage through which fluid may pass from one to another of said pipes. I prefer to form said chambers b' with a sweeping curve in the manner shown in Fig. 8 in order to avoid the deposit of sediment therein when brine is used as the cooling fluid.
The headers B are preferably constructed in the form of rectangular right prisms and are designed to rest one upon another in a vertical series, thus forming a column or support to which the pipes b are connected. In order to. increase their security of position, each of said headers is provided with a lug b2 at one extremity, which lits into a correspending socket b3 in the extremity .of the header next adjacent.
The vertical series or rows of headers are so arranged at opposite sides of the chamber A that by means of the passages b in said headers'any specified one of the pipes b is connectedat one extremity with the next adjacent pipe above and at the other extremity with the next adjacent pipe below. By'this construction a vertical row of pipes in conjunction with the connected headers constitutes a separate coil with a continuous passage throughout its length.
For the purpose of avoiding the use of unnecessary material and at the same time retaining the desired prismatic form the head- IOO e ers B have the cored chambers b4 extending "'trnsversely through them. With the exception of the ones occupying the highest and lowest positions in any vertical row the head- 5 ers B are universal, or, in other words, are of such symmetry that a single pattern may be used for aV coil or set of coils composed of any`number of pipes. The bases C C at the bottom of the chamber A form the supports ro for said headers B. In each coil the uppermost one of the pipes bis connected with the exterior supply-pipe D by means of a pipe d, provided with a valve d'.- The header c at the top of the row of headers B, adjacent to t 5 said supply-pipe D, is ,so constructed as to -form a direct connection between said piped and the uppermost one f the pipes b. Similarly the lowesaone of the pipes b in each coil is connected with the exterior return-pipe E zo by means of the header' c' and pipe e, said pipe being provided with the valve e. y Upon the headers B, a slight distance above yeach of the points of connection with the pipes b, are formed the lugs F F,.which support the hoods or roofs ff. Said hoods or roofs consist, preferably, of sheet metal and are so formedas to protectthose of thei pipes b lying beneath from water dropping from above. It is preferable that said hoods be so 3o constructed as to have adouble slope from a point above the center of the pipes b, with a pitch of about forty-five degrees and a span somewhat greater than the diameter of said pipes b. The cross-sectional outline .of the hoods may be varied, however, and an alternative form of hoodj is shown in Fig. 6 of the drawings, said hood f being curved and convex from above. `The hoods are serrated-that is, are provided at their lateral 4o edges with a series of points or projections 2 '2. It is well known that the amount of water in a drop varies with the configuration of the object from which the water falls. For example, the quantity of 4water which will fall las a single globule or drop from a needle or other pointed object standing vertically is smaller than the amount which will fall from a horizontal plane surface. Whenl the apparatus is in operation, said hoods become cov- 5o ered with water, as will hereinafter appear, and'as said points f2 are the lowest portions of said hoods the water tends to collect at said points and when thus collected falls in the form of small drops.V
In order to prevent the water from dropping from one hood to another one next be.- low, said hoods are so arranged vertically that one offsaid points f2 does not lie directly above the points upon the adjacent hoods be- 6o low. In other words, said points'f are staggered or oset with respect to a vertical line, so that a drop falling from one of said points may pass one -or more of said hoods below without coming into contact therewith. By
` this construction and arrangement of the hoods f the water does not remain thereon any great length of time, for said water gravitates toward said points f2, and as soon as a small quantity is there collected a drop is formed which in falling clears the pipes b and also many, if not all, of the hoodsf below. The racks or standards G form auxiliary supports to prevent the sagging of the pipes b and hoods f when the same are of great length. Said racks are provided with the apertures g, wherein said pipes b rest, and also with lugs g', to which said hoods f are attached. Said hoods are secured to said lugs g' and also to the lugs F on the headers B by riveting or in any other suitable manner.
Upon the lower portions of the pipes b are secured the drips or fins H H. (Shown in detai-l in Figs. 4 and 5.) Said drips coliform to the lower surface of said pipes'arid are appoximately triangular or wedge-shaped in cross-section. Whenviewed from the side,
said drips have a serrated appearance, being provided with a series of points h h, which serve to collect the waterformed-on'said pipes and permit the rompt fall of said water in small drops in t e manner described in connection with the drip-points f2 of the) hoods f.
At the bott'om of the chamber A is the pan J, into w 'ch the water from the pipes b and hoods f drops. From said pan the water is removed by way of the drain-pi pe j, which is provided with the valve j'. The operation of my apparatus is as follows:
Itis well understood that air at high temperatur'l will hold in suspension more' water in thejlform of vapor than will air at a lower' `temperature and alsothat if air saturated withlmoisture is cooled the surplus moisture is precipitated iu the form of water. advantage of this-principle, the pipes b, are reduced to a low temperature by causing brine, ammonia,
or other cooling fluid to flow from' IOO the inlet or supply pipe D into-said pipes b.V
Said cooling fluid circulates pipes b and headers B and finally passes out through said l Ito into the return-pipe E. The flowth rough the.'
individual coils of pipes is regulated by means of the valves d and e'. Air from which the moisture is to be removed is then caused to flow from the inlet a, into the cooling-chamlber A, where the air comes'into contact with the air is-thus cooled the cold pipes b. l As the moisture suspended therein is 4precipiy tated upon said pipes in the vvform of water and the cooled air from which said moisture has been removed passes out by way of the discharge a'. transversely to the direction ofthe flow of air and are arrangedl at diterent heights and as the hoods f also cause a deflection of the air-current, the air comes thoroughly into contact with saidpipes, thereby insuring the portant, for if the air is saturated the amount of water contained in uthe discharged air will be directly proportional to thereof. The water precipitated upon the pipes b runs down onto the dns or drips H and is collected at the point-s h thereon. As4
As 'the pipes b are arranged the temperature' desired decrease in temperature. `This is imat its lower portion a pointed or wedge-shaped soon as a body of water sufficient to make a small drop, is thus collected a drop is formed and falls onto the hood f next below. In a similar manner the water dropping onto said hoods is collected and falls in small drops from the dri p-points f2 thereon. y As said points f 2 are vertically out of line, the water falling therefrom will to a great extent miss the points upon the hoods below and will be collected at the bottom of the chamber A in the pan J, from which it may be drawn .olf through the drain j. It i's thus apparent that as soon as water of precipitation is formed in the coolingchamber A it quickly falls to the bottom pan J and does not long remain upon either the pipes b or hoods f. Herein lies an important feature of my invention, for if the temperature of the cooling-pipes b is below the freezing-point of water, as is frequently desirable, the water, if allowed to remain a considerable time upon said pipes or until large drops are formed, and if after falling down from one pipe the water strikes other pipes below said water yis apt to be cooled below the freezing-point and be deposited upon insulating eEect of the water itself is lessened,
and my device is therefore much more eective as a cooling apparatus than if the water or ice were allowed to remain upon the cool,-
ing-pipes. In addition, by removing the water from the presence of the air or other gas passing through the chamber A the danger of reabsorption of the water by the gas is di minished. A
By means of the valves d' and e any one of the vertical rows of pipes b may be cut out of the circuit of the cooling iiuid. Therefore if by accident any one of said rows becomes coated with ice the latter may be removed by shutting the valves d' and e' communicating with said row, thus preventing the entrance of the cooling fluid and allowing the ice to be melted by contact with the air passing through the chamber A.
Although the pipes b are cylindrical, pipesv `having other cross-sections may be used. In
Fig. 7 is shown an alternative form of pipe B', which has a cylindrical upper pgrtion, butbhas cross-section. The functionlof the tapering lower edge B2 of said pipe B is similar to that of the drips or iins H, attached to the pipes b. Said pipes B have a certain advantage over the circular pipes b in that the cooling fluid within may cool the entire surface of said pipes B', but cannot gain access to and so perfectly cool the .drips or fins H upon the pipes b. y
It is evident that many other details of my apparatusfor example, the construction of What I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Paten t, is-
1. In a gas-cooling apparatus having arplurality of cooling-pipes, stationary liquid-shedding parts separate from said pipes, but vertically adjacent thereto for `preventing the liquid precipitated from said gas, by reason of the cooling thereof, from coming into contact with pipes other than those on which said liquid is first collected or precipitatedi 2. In a cooling apparatus, the combination of cooling-pipes for extracting the moisture from air; and stationary plates located ver-v tically adjacent .to each of said pipes for c arrying oi the precipitated liquid previously existing in a gaseous form suspended in said ai r.
3. In an apparatus for removing moisture from air and other gases, the combination o f pipes for cooling said air, and hoods for preventing the water discharged from said air by reason' of the cooling thereof, from coming into contact with pipes other than the ones whereon said water is first collected.
so arranged that certain of said points lie in the same vertical plane, but lie in different planes when reference is had to vertical planes from air, the combination of cooling-pipes,
plates fixed adjacently to said pipes for carrying off the precipitated water falling from .t above, and drips or fins upon said pipes for collecting the water precipitated upon the pipes by which said drips or fins are carried.
7. In an apparatus for removing moisture from air, the combination of pipes for conveying a cooling fluid and precipitating upon their outer surfaces the moisture-'contained in said air, stationary plates'located vertically adjacent to said pipesfor carrying off the water precipitated from said air, thereby preventing said water of precipitation from coming into contact with pipes other than those upon which the moisture is precipitated, and a structure inclosing said pipes and plates, said structure constituting a coolingchamber. A
8. In an apparatus for removing moisture IOO IOS
IIO
from air, the combination, of a cooling-chamber; air-ducts leading to and from said chamber; cooling-pipes suitably supported and connected withinv said chamber, said pipes serving to precipitate moisture suspended in said air; hoods oversaid pipes for carrying oi the water of precipitation and protecting the respective pipes beneathsaid hoodsfrom said water of precipitation dropping from from air, tl1e combination of cooling-pipes,l
wa rshedding hoods oyer said pipes; headers aordingconuections for said pipes, said headers also constituting the end supports of .said pipes and hoods; and racks formipg auxiliary supports for said pipes and hoods.
11. In an apparatus for removing moisture from air, the combination of a cooling-cham- L ber; cooling-pipes and headers within said ing a series of coils; water-shedding hoods over said pipes and means for regulating in each of said coils separatelyV the flow of a cooling fluid.- .s
12. In an apparatus forremoving moisture from air, the combination of a cooling-chamber; air-ducts leading to and from said chamber; cooling-pipes suitably supported and connected within said chamber; hoods over so arranged as to lie vertically out of line.
13. In an apparatus for removing moisture from'air, the combination of a cooling-chamber; air-ducts leading to and from said chamber; cooliugpipes within said chamber; headers connecting and supporting said pipes; hoods over said pipes; drip-points upon said ns upon said pipes, and means for controlling the supply of the cooling iiuid' through said pipes and headers. l
. EDGAR S: BELDEN.
"Witnesses:
ELI BRANDT, ARTHURaM. Cox.
chamber,` said pipes and headers cnstitut =hoods 'lying vertically out of line; drips or said pipes, anddrip-points upon said hoods
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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2761292A (en) * 1952-04-18 1956-09-04 Coanda Henri Device for obtaining fresh drinkable water
US2998228A (en) * 1956-11-23 1961-08-29 Huet Andre Surface heat exchangers
US4277453A (en) * 1979-06-04 1981-07-07 United States Steel Corporation Waste gas purification reactor and method
US4732585A (en) * 1984-01-09 1988-03-22 Lerner Bernard J Fluid treating for removal of components or for transfer of heat, momentum-apparatus and method
USRE33444E (en) * 1984-01-09 1990-11-20 Fluid treating for removal of components or for transfer of heat, momentum-apparatus and method
US5813451A (en) * 1996-08-16 1998-09-29 Caldyn, Inc. Apparatus for heat transfer from dust laden gases to fluids
US6419422B1 (en) 2000-02-14 2002-07-16 International Water & Energy Savers, Ltd. Underground irrigation method and system
US6709198B2 (en) 2000-02-14 2004-03-23 International Water & Energy Savers, Ltd. Irrigation system and method

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2761292A (en) * 1952-04-18 1956-09-04 Coanda Henri Device for obtaining fresh drinkable water
US2998228A (en) * 1956-11-23 1961-08-29 Huet Andre Surface heat exchangers
US4277453A (en) * 1979-06-04 1981-07-07 United States Steel Corporation Waste gas purification reactor and method
US4732585A (en) * 1984-01-09 1988-03-22 Lerner Bernard J Fluid treating for removal of components or for transfer of heat, momentum-apparatus and method
USRE33444E (en) * 1984-01-09 1990-11-20 Fluid treating for removal of components or for transfer of heat, momentum-apparatus and method
US5813451A (en) * 1996-08-16 1998-09-29 Caldyn, Inc. Apparatus for heat transfer from dust laden gases to fluids
US6419422B1 (en) 2000-02-14 2002-07-16 International Water & Energy Savers, Ltd. Underground irrigation method and system
US6709198B2 (en) 2000-02-14 2004-03-23 International Water & Energy Savers, Ltd. Irrigation system and method

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