US623137A - creuzbaur - Google Patents

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US623137A
US623137A US623137DA US623137A US 623137 A US623137 A US 623137A US 623137D A US623137D A US 623137DA US 623137 A US623137 A US 623137A
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chamber
displacer
piston
motor
valve
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02GHOT GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT ENGINE PLANTS; USE OF WASTE HEAT OF COMBUSTION ENGINES; NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F02G1/00Hot gas positive-displacement engine plants
    • F02G1/04Hot gas positive-displacement engine plants of closed-cycle type
    • F02G1/043Hot gas positive-displacement engine plants of closed-cycle type the engine being operated by expansion and contraction of a mass of working gas which is heated and cooled in one of a plurality of constantly communicating expansible chambers, e.g. Stirling cycle type engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03GSPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS; MECHANICAL-POWER PRODUCING DEVICES OR MECHANISMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR OR USING ENERGY SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03G7/00Mechanical-power-producing mechanisms, not otherwise provided for or using energy sources not otherwise provided for
    • F03G7/06Mechanical-power-producing mechanisms, not otherwise provided for or using energy sources not otherwise provided for using expansion or contraction of bodies due to heating, cooling, moistening, drying or the like

Description

Pa'fented Apr. I8, 1899i M0103. (Application ledl'uly 28, 1854.)
(No llode.)
"'10 :e nvenor n4: cams sirens an. immuun-1Q. wAsnmmoN. n. c,
Patented Apr; la,y |899.
B. CREUZBAUB.
MUTUI?.
(Application-L led July 28, 1884.)
2 sham-snaai 2.
(No Model.) A
llNiTn e STATES PATENT OFFICEe ROBERT OREUZBAUR, OF NEV YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO GEORGE H.- FRASER AND R. VALTER CREUZBAUR, TRUSTEES, OF SAME PLACE.
MOTOR.
SPECIFICATION forming' part of Letters Patent NO. 623,1 37', dated April. 18, 189'9`;
Application filed July 28,1884. Serial No. 138.987.4` (No model.)
To @ZZ whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, ROBERT CREUZBAUR, of the city of New York, (Brooklyn,) in the county of Kings and State of New York, have invented certain4 new and useful Improvements in Motors; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it pertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, 'which form part of this specification.
My invention relates to that class of motors in which a constant mass of elastic iiuid is alternately heated and cooled, with consequent increase and decrease of its pressure or volume, or both, during each cycle ot' the working pistons motion, such different pres# sures acting constantly upon such piston,
without intervening valve, no exhaust of such v fluid taking place. The type of such motors is best illustrated by the Stirling air-engine as patented by James Stirling and by Robert Stirling in 1816, 1827, and 1840.
The objects of my improvements in such motors are to provide for, first, a reciprocating displacer, which shifts the fluid from the hot to the cold parts of its surrounding fluidchamber, when such displacer is constructed of two or more hollow sections separated by non-conducting packing, so that the heat in the hot end of the displacer is prevented from wasting into the cold end thereof; sec ond, a reciprocating displacer shaped as a frustum of a cone or tapered on the outside at both ends, with intermediate parallel sides longer than its stroke, with a corresponding shape of its surrounding Huid-chamber for the purpose of increasing the fluid-chamber surfaces which are laid bare by the end motions of the displacer; third, a reciprocating tapered displacer which contains the heat storing and transmitting regenerator; fourth, a reciprocating displacer guided approximately midway by a' stationary packing-ring, which also causes the fluid to pass through the regenerator located in the displacer and prevents its passage along the outside of the displacer; fifth, a pressureregulator which automatically controls and maintains the desired mean pressure within the duid-chamber; sixth, the construction of the main shaft in sections so arranged that the lead of the displacer can be varied in accordance with the more or less rapid action of the elastic duid used as the expansive medium in the motor; seventh, the combination of a pump with such a motor, so that the pump draws its Water through the jacket surrounding the cooling-chamber ofthe motor; eighth, in a single-acting motor driving a pump, the displacer and the pump-piston so arranged with their connections that they move in unison; ninth, in a single-acting motorV the combination, in one vessel, of the heating and cooling chamber on one side of the working piston and the cushion and pump-chamber on the other side of the piston; tenth, in a single-acting motor a cushion-chamber with an automatically-controlled inlet-valve from a source of supply of elastic fluid and an automatically-controlled outlet into the elasticfluid chamber on the opposite side of the piston for the purpose of controlling the pressure in the motor. I attain these objects by the mechanism illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is an elevation of the motor, partly in section, with a pump attached. a vertical central section, cut in a plane at right angles to Fig. l, with some of the central parts in elevation. Fig. 3 is a horizontal section on the line A A, Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a plan of the crank-shaft on a larger scale,partly in section. Fig. 5 is a vertical mid-section looking in the same direction asy Fig. 1 and representing part of the apparatuson a larger scale. Fig. 6 is a cross-section, and Fig. 7 a horizontal cent-ral section, of the valve Le, on the left in Fig. 5, on a larger scale.
Referring to the drawings, B is the base or pedestal.
C O' is the duid-chamber.
I is the displacer.
L is the regenerator, which is arranged within the displacer and moves with it, and N is the working piston.
His a pump arranged at the top of the motor.
The fluid-chamber C C' is formed of a heated Fig. 2 is shell or vessel C3 beneath and a cold shell C4 above, the two being separated by a non-conducting packing C2, of asbestos or other suitable material. The shells C3 and C4 are made with double walls forming jackets. The shell C3 is heated in any suitable way, while the shell C4 is kept cool by radiation or by passing water through its jacket.
The piston N is fixed to a tubular rod n, which passes out through a stuffing-box at the top of the Huid-cham ber and is connected by a forked rod Q to a crank 7 on the crankshaft R R. The displacer I is fixed to a rod K, which passes out (through the tubular rod n) and is connected through the medium of a cross-piece u, Fig. 1, and rods t2 t2 to a cross-piece t', which is connected by pitmen .S S to cranks S S on the shaft R R, these cranks being set in advance of the crank 0 to give the displacer the requisite lead over the piston.
In. general the operation of this motor is the same as that of the said Stirling air-engine. The descent of the displacer forces the ,air, vapor, or other fluid medium in the hot part C of the Huid-chamber to flow up through the regenerator L into the cold part C of said chamber, whereby the air or vapor is cooled and contracts. During the upstroke of the displacer the air or vapor is forced back through the regenerator, from which it reabsorbs the heat it had previously imparted to it into the hot end of the chamber, whereupon it expands. The expansion of the air or vapor beneath the piston forces it upward, thereby giving an impetus to the crank-shaft and flywheel, and the contraction of the air or vapor permits the piston to be returned downward by the momentum of the rotary parts.
I will. nowproceed to describe in detail the construction of my motor.
The shells C3 and C4 are constructed with numerous heat-conducting pegs or cross-bars C5 C5, crossing the jacket between the inner and the outer shell. These pegs C5 serve the quadruple purpose of, first, intercepting and dispersing the heat-conveying medium passing through thejacket; second, receivingheat from or conveying heat to such medium; third, conveying heat from one wall to the other wall, thus giving to the inner face of the fluid-chamber greater capacity to give out heat to or absorb heat from such contained fluid, and, fourth, giving to the vessels C3 C4 greater rigidity and strength. In the heating vessel C3 these pegs C5 convey heat to the inner wall, and in the cooling vessel C4 the pegs carry heat from the inner wall to the outer wall.
The heat pegs or lugs need not necessarily extend into or to the outer walls of the respective jackets, being mere projections from the inner walls and so constructed that they will fulfil the first and second ofthe conditions above stated.
The heating vessel C3 may be heated in va- ,rious ways, either by a grate-fire under it, or
by the heat conveyed from such fire into the vessels jacket, or by a gas or oil llame under it.
The drawings represent the heating-shell C3 as being heated by gas-jets from a circular burner D.
D' is fire-brick surrounding the gas or oil flame, formed with staggered or overlapping top openings, so that the heat and flames are reverberated, thus producing more perfect combustion.
E is a plate supporting the lire-bricks with openings e to admit air. The quantity of air admitted is regulated by a register plate or disk e', having corresponding air-openings, which plate is revolved in order to open or close the openings, as desired. The spent lire-gases either escape at openings F F, Fig.l
l, or collect in the circular channelf, Fig. 5,
and are carried off by a chimney f".
The jacket of the cooling-shell C4 has one or more inlets G G', Fig. I, and one or more outlets g g/, through which when air is the elastic medium used in the motor water ows, entering at G and passing out at g on its way to the pump H, or when less heat is to be thus extracted the water may enter at Gand flow out at G', or it may enter at g and flow out at g. These ports may be duplicated on opposite sides, making four ports G G below and four ports g g above.
When steam is used as the elastic medium in the lnotor, no water is passed through the jacket of cooling-shell O4, as the steam contracts by the loss of the heat which is transformed into the work it does, as well as by the loss of the heat absorbed by shell C4. The better to control the contraction of the steam, so as to avoid undue resistance while the steam isbeing returned to its smaller volume by the return'or down stroke of the working piston N, the ports G G g g/ may be more or less opened, so as to cause a current of air to flow through the jacket of shell C4.
The displacer I is divided transversely into two or more sections, which are insulated from each otherin order to prevent or obstruct the passage of heat from one to another, thereby reducing to the utmost the waste which ensues from the transmission of heat from the hot to the cold end of the displacer. I construct the displacer of three sections fi, t", and 2, the former being the hot section, the latter being the cold section, andthe intermediate one the neutral section. The hot section is always in the heating vessel C3 and the cold section is always in the cooling vessel C4, but the neutral section is' partly in one vessel and partly in the other, being shifted back or forth as the displacer reciprocates. Between the sections are layers of non-conducting packing t3 of any material which is a poor conductor of heat, asbestos being preferred. The three sections are made as hollow shells, the air confined in them contributing to render them nonconductive of heat, or they may be lled with IOO non-conducting material. I make the packing t3 to extend across the hollow spaces, whereby the confined air is divided into three chambers, whereby any circulation of the air from a hot to a cool portion of the displacer is prevented.
I am aware that a piston-shaped displacer has been made of two hollow shells packed with asbestos and separated by metallic packing-rings'and inclosing a single air-space between the two shells. In this construction, however, the two shells are in metallic, and
consequently conductive, connection with each other, so that a considerable leakage of heat must necessarily occur from the hot to the cold shell. To reduce this, the displacer referred to is formed with a water-jacket on its cold side in order that the heat thus conducted to the cold side may be taken up by the water.
My invention renders the water-jacket unnecessary, thereby dispensing with the telescopic pipes, packings, and pump which are necessary to conduct water to and from a moving piston, and consequently greatly simplifying and cheapenin g the apparatus, while maintaining the higher efhciency dueto keeping the displacer hot on its one side and coldv on its other side. 4 The three sections of the displacer are mad of annular form, each of the shells having a cylindrical opening formed through its center. Inside of these openings is placed a tube i", which serves to aline the sections and prevent their lateral displacement. The sections are held together by means of the rod K, which has a shoulder formed on it where it enters the top of the displacer, and 'its lower end screws into a socket formed at the bottom of the section il, as shown in Fig. 5.
The displacer I is guided on the top by its rod K and midway by a packing-ring M,which is split or otherwise grooved, so that condensed steam can trickle through or past it into thehot chamber C. The drawings show the ring M to be axially stationary, whereby the cheaper finish of the part of the displacer sliding upon the ring takes the place of the more costly corresponding finish of the cool section of the shell, which would be necessary if the ring were incorporated in the cool section of the displacer, asin usual piston-packing; but it is evident that the ring maybe applied in either way. The displacer is to have a clearance of from one sixty-fourth to one thirty-second of an inch all around, eX- cept where its middle section i is guided by the said packing-ring M, so that the pressure upon the displacer is balanced all around it. The displacer may be formed of a cool section and a hot section only, omitting a neutral separate intermediate part i', which in such case is incorporated with the cool part t2, so that the parallel part working in contact with the packing-ring will remain at a low temperature.
The regenerator is formed thus: The space L between the rod K and the' tube i4 is lled up with thin metal strips separated by their thickened edges and by longitudinal ridges formed upon them, so that about half such space is filled up with such metal strips throughout the tube t4, leaving the spaces between the strips about one thirty-second of an inch for the passage of the elastic iiuid through the displacer, the upper end of section i2 and the lower end of section i being formed with ports, as indicated bythe arrows. These ports may be formed in loose pieces, held in place by rod K. The motor may be used without a regenerator, particularly when steam or other vapor is the medium applied. In such case the regenerator-space and-the guide and packing-ring M may be omitted and the displacer guided at the bottom, as shown in my Patent No. 210,840, of date December 1 7, 1878. The vapor will then ow around the exterior of the displacer in passing from one chamber C C to the other.
The displacer is formed with its ends tapered, and the chambers C C are correspondingly shaped. Then the displacer is at its eXtreme upstroke, as shown in Figs. 1 and 5, its upper section t2 conforms to and fills the cold chamber C', (up as far as the extreme downstroke ofthe piston,) ,leaving around it only the slight clearance above mentioned of from one sixty-fourth to one thirty-second of an inch. Thus the fluid is as far as possible displaced from the cold chamber, while at the same time the hot chamber beneath is eX- panded to its utmost capacity, there being a wide space all around between the section t' of the displacer and the wall of the chamber, as shown. lVhen the displacer is at extreme downstroke, its lower section completely fills the hot chamber, (excepting only the clearance before specified,) while between its upper section and the wall of the cold cham ber there is a considerable space. Thus in each of the chambers C C the space or clearance around the displacer widens and narrows as the displacer reciprocates, so that the fluid is forced to circulate thoroughly over the entire surface of both chambers. This construction constitutesv an important feature of my invention, resulting in a degree of efficiency in the heating and cooling of the fluid thatv is unattainable in a motor having a cylindrical displacer working in a cylindrical chamber, since in such motors the clearance around the displacer being of unvarying width becomes filled with fluid,which remains comparatively quiescent when fitted with a packing-ring and a central regenerator, land hence the surface covered by such fluid becomes comparatively inert or ineffective. Furthermore, by my construction'the displacer may have a much shorter stroke, since at each reciprocat/ion a heating or cooling surface several times the length of the stroke is laid bare.
The tubular rod n of the working piston N passes out through a stuffing-box n', Fig; 5,
IOO
and is iirmly attached by gland n2 to au outer sleeve P, which carries the Wrist-pins p' p' and serves as a cross-head by sliding upon the stutng-box casing n3, thereby greatly reducing the required space between the stu tfing-box and the crank-shaft.
The forked connecting-rod Q is attached to the wrist-pins p' p' and to the crank i in the usual way, thus giving motion to the crankshaft R R" R and to the iiy and band wheels attached 'thereto The rod K, which carries the displacer I, is packed within the working piston by a packing K', retained by gland K2, and by a packing under the upper glandv n2 above named. The space between these two packings may be filled with glycerin or similar viscid and suitable fluid.
The displacer receives motion as follows: Duplicate eccentric wrist pins or cranks S S on crank shaft sections R R give motion through connecting-rods S S/ to cross-bar T, guided by guides t t. This bar T has two arms t t', Figs. l and 3, extending at right angles, forming a cross. From the ends of these arms t t rods t2 t2, Fig. l, extend down and take hold of bar U, Figs. l and 2, to which the displac'er-rod K is centrally attached. Vhen a pump H is used, the pistonrod 7L of its piston h2 is centrally attached to the cross-head T t t', so that the pump-piston h2 and the displacer I move in unison, the downstroke of the displacer being the working stroke of the single-acting piston 7b2. The suction-valve is 202, tu is the delivery-valve, Y Y the suction air-chamber, and Y' the delivery air-chamber. lVhen the motor is used with air, the suction ofthe pump is connected to the jacket or shell Cil at g or g', so that the water which enters the pump is drawn through the cooling-jacket. Heretofore water has been forced through the cooling-jacket after leaving the pump, thus rendering its discharge circuitous and necessitating that the shell shall be made enough stronger-to enable it to withstand the added pressure of the water. Vith my arrangement the Water in the cooling-jacket is at less than atmospheric pressure. Vhen no pump is used, the pillowblock framesV V are extended up high enough to support the guides t 2f.
The displacer I has more or less lead,7 about seventy degrees when air -is used, and less when steam is used, varying also with the speed at which the engine is to be run. To illustrate, when the pistou has completed its working stroke, with its crank-pin on the upper dead-point, as iu Fig. 2, the displacer has performed part of its downstroke to the extent of about seventy degrees between their respective crank-pins. This gives the elastic fluid time to contract by the loss of heat while the piston crank-pin is passingits dead-point and allows the piston to return with greatlyreduced opposing pressure. To be able to regulate this lead according to the requirements, the crank-shaft is made in three sections-the middle section R', Fig. 4, which includes the central crank r and the'two bearings S 8, connected by disks o" i", and the two end sections R R, each comprising a wrist pin or crank S and a shaft extension carrying the iiy-Wheel, joined by disks r2 r2. These sections R R R are joined together by disks r3 r4, bolted together, as shown, acentral stud on disk r3 entering a corresponding hole in disk r4. The bolt-holes on one disk are differentially located from those in the other disk, so that only two opposite bolt-holes will match, it being necessary to revolve the disks on each other to get two other bolt-holes to match, thus giving the means for reducing or increasing the lead of the displacer, or one or both disks r3 r4 maybe suitably slotted to admit of their being rotated in reverse directions when their clamping-bolt is slackened. Any suitable adjusting device may be applied to these disks, so-that one may be turned relatively to the other within the limits demanded in practice. In fact, any construction by which the cranks or wrist-pins S S may be adjusted relatively to the crank fr in order to vary thelead of the displacer is within the scope of my invention.
I will now proceed to describe the method whereby the gaseous pressure within the motor is regulated. Above the pistou N is a cushion-chamber XV of a maximum capacity of about 1.25 times the piston displacement, more or less, its capacity depending upon the piston pressure desired. To the cushionchamber W is connected a regulator2, (shown in Fig. 5,) which is provided with a valve 3, opening toward the chamber W. Vhen air is the fluid used in the motor, the regulator 2 may be omitted, the .valve 3 in such case opening directly from the atmosphere, or the regulator may be used by providing an airopening into it-as, for instance, by removing the closed guide plug or cap et shown and substituting for it an open guide-plugthrough which the atmosphere has free access. From the cushion-chamber W a passage e extends around the piston and opens into the duid-chamber at a point Fig. 5, beneath the lowestposition of the piston. In Fig. 5 is shown the preferred construction, wherein an inlet-valve Z is provided, acting to close the passage to any pressure tending to escape from the chamber C, but to freely IOO IIO
open to admit a tiow into said chamber.
The air confined in the cushion-chamber XV is alternately compressed and expanded by the movements of the piston. If when it is expanded to its utmost at the extreme downstroke ot the piston its pressure falls below that of the atmosphere, air is drawn in through valve 3 to equalize the pressure. Upon the upstroke of the piston the con lined air is compressed. At about the same time the pressure beneath the piston is at its minimum, having been reduced partly by reason of the expansion due to the upward movement of the piston, partly by its loss of heat converted into work done in driving the piston upward, and partly by the loss of heat abstracted by the cold casing C4. If at the instant when the pressure beneath the piston reaches its minimum it is enough less than the pressure of the coinpressed air above the piston to overcome the tension of the spring holding the valve Z closed some of the fluid will pass through the valve into the chamber beneath the piston. Thus the minimum pressure in charnber lV is regulated by that of the external atmosphere, while the minimum pressure under the piston is regulated by the maximum pressure in chamber V.
To illustrate, let us assume that the capacity of the cushion-space is such that the upstroke of the piston compresses the confined air from atmospheric pressure up to twentyseven poundspersquare inch. If at the saine time the minimum pressure beneath the piston falls below twenty-seven pounds, enough air will tend to pass from the cushion-chamber through the valve Z to equalize at that instant the pressures above and belois7 the piston, and when the piston reaches its lowest position the air above it will, owing to the portion it has lost, become expanded to less than atmospheric pressure, and will consequently replenish itself by drawing in a fresh quantity of air from outside. In this illustration I have ignored the slight effect that is due to the pressure of the springs that seat the valves 3 and Z. Itis to be understood that these pressure-valves are in action only at the starting of the engine for pumping up the requisite pressure and subsequently to replace any air that may escape by leakage or absorption. of the motor they should remain inactive. The working pressure of the motor can therefore be raised or lowered independently ofthe temperature of the .furnace-lire,the latter remaining constant, by diminishing or increasing` thedead-space in chamber lV and the spaces connected therewith, which may be done in various ways, adjustably or static.
Inasmnch as air is more eiective when saturated with vapor, -it is advantageous to employ the regulator-chamber 2, even when operating the motor as an air-engine, using it as an evaporator for moistening the entering air. For this purpose it is lilled with water, and in order to vaporize this water the tlue f for the escaping lire-gases is conducted to and around the regulator-chamber, as shown in Fig. 5. The valve Z may be constructed in various ways. The preferred construction is that shown in Fig. 5 and on a larger scale in Figs. G and 7. To prevent the lodging of water in the valve-chamber z', Fig. 7, this chamber is made to drain by locating the spring which closes the valve inside the hollow val ve-stem, which is grooved lengthwise at the bottom, so as to d rain the condensed water downward. The spring at one end abuts upon a transverse pin z2, which passes through opposite Under the normal operation slots in the valve-stem, as shown, and pierces the valve-casing e5, and at the other end the spring abuts against a plug e4, screwed into the end ot' the hollow valve-stem.
In cheaper engines it maybe desirable to avoid the expense of the valve Z, in which case the construction of channel a; 5c shown in Fig. 2 may be used. The channel tis here a valveless port, extending from the cushionchamber downward 'and opening into the chamber C at 0c', just beneath the piston when the latter is at its extreme upstroke. Thus at this instant communication is established between the opposite sides of `the piston. Immediately the piston commences its descent it covers and shuts off the opening m'.
When steam is used as the elastic fluid, the atmosphere is excluded from the reservoir 2, and a valve 5 is attached to the top of it, opening into a condensing-chamber 6, this valve being loaded by a spring or by weights 7 7, so as to open at any pressure above that to be maintained in regulator-chamber 2. Thus when the valve 5 is opened by overpressure under it the vapor escaping through the valve is condensed in chamber 6 and returns into chamber 2 as water when the valve is again opened by overpressure. This valve 5 and condensing-chamber 6 would be unnecessary if a constant pressure could be otherwise maintained in regulator 2, and they are unnecessary when a variation of pressure is ot' no serious consequence, as in pumping water or propelling a boat. In such cases, although steam be used as the elastic medium in the motor, the valve 5 and condenser 6 are omitted. The reservoir 2 is preferably heated in every case. The valve 5 and the spring or weights 7 7 may be applied without the condensing-chamber 6, the surplus vapors in that case escaping into the atmosphere or otherwise.
When the motor is double-acting-that is, without cushion-chamber W and in place thereof another heating and cooling chamber C C and displacer I are acting upon the piston on that side, as shown in Letters Patent of the United States No. 210,840, issued to me December 17, 1S7S-aregulator-reservoir 2, with its attachments, is aflixed to each fluid-chamber on opposite sides of the piston.
When steam is used with a single-acting motor, the reservoir 2 might also be applied to the active side of the piston and the pressure in the cushion-chamber l allowed to regulate itself. p
Instead of Va check-valve 3 between the reservoir 2 and the motor-fluid chamber a slide or other valve opening periodically ata lixed period of the motors cycle of 'motion might be used, the pressure in reservoir 2 being regulated accordingly; but the simplest method of regulating the pressure in the Huid-chambers of the motor on either side of the piston is by the use of a check-valve 3, as shown and described.
For controlling the speed of the motor I ICO IIO
IIS
provide means for establishing` communication between the opposite sides of the piston at will, thereby equalizing more or less the opposite pressures, and consequently deprivin g the piston ot' more or less of its power and reducing its speed. I employ for this purpose a passage or by-pass leading,r from one side ofthe piston to the other and a bypass valve in said passage, which is normally closed, but which is adapted to be opened from `the exterior either by hand or by the action of an automatic governor. In the construction of engine shown in the drawings the valve Z is utilized as this speed-regulating valve in addition to its function as a pressure-regulating valve. For this purpose a spindle l2, Figs. 5, 6, and 7, extends through a stuling-box 13 into the chamber 2; ot` the Valve Z, where the spindle is squared, and carries a toe l-t, by which through the turning ofthe spindle l2 the valve Z is opened, and more or less of an equilibrium is established on opposite sides of the piston. The toe let when not in action is returned into its normal position ot' rest, so as not to impede the free automatic action of valve Z when regulating the pressure of the tluid in the motor. On the outside the stem l2 is connected in the usual way to a hand-lever, if the motor is to be controlled by hand, or to a governor, it it is to be regulated automatically.` lVhile the valve Z is thus opened t0 check the speed of the motor, the mean pressure in cushion-chamber XV rises above its normal pressure for the best economy and power of the motor; but as soon as valve Z is closed and ceases to be active as a speedgoverning valve it in'nnediately comes into action as the pressure-regulating valve, returning to the main Huid-chamber under the piston the fluid delivered into the chamber \V to check the speed of the motor. In large motors a special balanced speed-governing valve is used, located in such a channel connecting the fluid-chambers on opposite sides of the working piston.
By withdrawing the plug-screw l0 at the bottom of chamber C the water can be withdrawn, so as to remove abrasions from the metal or other impurities apt to be present in a 'new machine.
The operation of the motor may now be de-A placer being near its upper dead-point, as in Figs. l and 5, just commencing to move downward, the piston is moving upward, impelled by the increased pressure inthe tluid, caused by its full contact in bulk with the hot surfaces of heating-shell C3. In moving downward the displacer forces the air under it through the regenerator in L, where it lodges most of the heat not absorbed by the work done. More heat is absorbed by the cold surfaces of the cooling-shell C4, through the jacket of which a. current ot' water is caused to flow, as above described. The pressure under the piston after the latter has reached its upper dead-point is thus greatly reduced and the piston is enabled to make its return stroke, impelled by the fiy-Wheel, with far less expenditure ot' force than that exerted upon the piston by the expanding Huid during its upward or working stroke. After the piston has made over half its retu rn or down- Ward stroke the displacer begins to move upward, forcing the cold air above it to pass through the regenerator, picking up the heat it lodged there on its upward course, and lilling the space under the displacer, where it again comes in contact in bulk with the hot walls of the shell C3 and is exposed to the radiation of heat therefrom. Its increase of pressure by the higher temperature thus imparted to it againcauses the piston to move upward aft-er completing its downward stroke, and so on. `Then steam is used instead ot' air, sufcient water is introduced into the elastic-fluid chamber through any convenient opening-say, at 9, Fig. 2--to till it with saturated steam at maximum pressure and minimum volume. The piston being in its uppermost position, the water will run down through channel n :r and through the split or grooved packing-ring M down into the hot chamber C, where it is formed into steam. After that no more water is introduced except occasionally into the regulator 2 to make up for leakage, as described. i
I claim as my invention the following-defined n ovel features, substantially as hereinbefore specified, namely:
1. A displaceigtapered exteriorly at both ends to form frnstums of cones, combined with a Huid-chamberhaving correspondinglytapered ends and an intermediate parallel portion of lengt-h at least equal to the stroke of the displacer.
ICO
IIO
2. A heating and cooling chamber tapered at both ends, combined with a displacer having correspondingly-tapered ends, and a parallel middle portion of length equal to its stroke, and a packing-ring mounted in the chamber and acting on the parallel portion of the displacer.
3. In a non-exhaust motor, a hollow displacer shaped at both ends as a frustu'm ot' a cone or tapered upon the outside, and having parallel sides between the coned ends, longer than its stroke.
4. A reciprocating displacer constructed in sections, each section being a hollow shell of metal, and the sections being isolated from one another by an intervening transverse layer of non-metallic packingof low conduction of heat, extending across the hollow spaces and dividing them into separate chambers, substantially as specified.
5. A reciprocating displacer constructed of three sect-ions, namely, a hot section at one end, a cool section at the opposite end, and a neutral section between them, with isolating layers of non-conducting material interposed between the sections to prevent conduction of heat from one to another.
(i. The combination with a fluid-chamber constructed of a heating-shellat one end, and a cooling-shell at the other, and having a stationary packing-ring, of a reciprocating displacer in said chamber constructedin sections, with its middle portion, which works in said packing-ring, 'cylindrical and with its end portion in said heating-section isolated from said middle portion by a non-conducting packing, substantially as specified.
7. The combination'with a fluid-chamber constructed of aheating-shell at one end, and a cooling-shell at the other, and havinga stationary packing-ring, of a reciprocating displacer in said chamber constructed in three sections, isolated from one another, namely, a h'ot section located in the heating-sheil, a cool section located in the cooling-shell, and a cylindrical neutral section between them which in the rcciprocation of the displacer moves in said packing-ring, substantially as set forth.
S. The combination with a fluid-chamber constructed of a heating-shell at one end, and a cooling-shell at the other, of a reciprocating' displacer in said chamber, a heat-regenerator located in a central tube formed in the displacer and moving therewith, and a packingring between the shell and the displacer, adapted to prevent the passage of gases around the displace-r, and thereby to force them through the regenerator, substantially as specified.
9. The combination of a displacer constructed of sections laterally alined and confined by a tube passing centrally through the sections, with a regenerator borne by and moving with the d isplacer, and located within said tube, substantially as specified.
10. The combination of a non-exhaust motor having heating and cooling jackets, with a water-pump operated thereby and having its suction connected to thev cooling-jacket of said motor, the water being caused to enter the jacket by the motion of the pump, whereby it draws its supply through said coolingjacket at a pressure therein due to its head or pressure, and to the suction of the pump, and delivers it at a higherlevel, substantially as specified.
l1. The combination of a displacer, a working piston, and a crank-shaft constructed with cranks con nected respectively to said working piston, and to said displacer, and adjustable relatively, in order to vary the lead of the displacer, substantially as specified.
12. The combination of a displacer, a working piston, their respective conl'iecting-rods and a crank-shaft, the latter constructed in sections having abutting disks by which said 'sections are connected. together,whereby they may be angularly adjusted in order to vary the lead of the displacer over the piston, substantially as specified.
13. In a single-acting motor, the combination with the working piston of a heating and cooling chamber on one side of such piston, and a cushioning and pumping chamber on the other side thereof, constructed to normally confine an unvarying charge of fluid which is compressed during the power-stroke of the piston and reexpands during the return stroke, substantially as specified.
14. In a single-acting motor, the combination with the working piston of a heating and cooling chamber on one side of said piston, a cushion-chamber on the other side of said piston, and an inlet-valve opening into said cushion-chamber, substantially as specified.
7'5. In a single-acting motor, the combination with the working piston of a heating and cooling chamber on one side thereof, a cushion-chamber on the opposite side thereof, and a communicating passage extendingfrom the cushion-chamber and opening to the opposite side of the piston when thelatter is at the end of its power-stroke, substantially as specified.
16. In a single-acting motor, the combination of the power-piston, a cushion-chamberA on one side thereof, a heating and cooling chamber on the opposite side thereof, an equilibrium-channel leading from the cushionchamber to the heating and cooling chamber, provided with a check-Valve opening toward the latter chamber, substantially as set forth. 17. In a single-acting motor, the combination of the Working piston, a heating and cooling chamber on one side thereof, a cushionchamber on the other side thereof, an inlet- Valve opening linto said cushion-chamber, a passage extending from the cushion-chamber to the heating and cooling chamber, and a valve in said passage opening toward the latter chamber, substantially as specified.
1S. In a single-acting motor, the combination of the working piston, a heating and cooling chamber communicatin g with one side thereof, a cushion-chamber on the other side thereof, a passage connecting said chambers, a by-pass valve in said passage, and means for opening said valve from the exterior to permit a free flowof fiuid around the piston and thereby to control the speed of the motor, substantially as set forth.
19. In a single-acting motor, the combination of the Working piston, a passage connecting the chambers on opposite sides of the piston, a check-valve in said passage opening into the active-fluid chamber, and means for opening said valve from the exterior, in order to permit a fiow of gases from the activefluid chamber, and thereby to control the speed of the motor, substantiallyas specified, whereby when such means are in disuse the ICO IIO
l impaired.
20. In' a non-exhaust motor, an auxiliary fluid-evaporating chamber and means for heating it, combined with the working chamber of the motor,an d a valved passage adapted to admit the vapor generated in said evaporating-chamber into said working chamber.
2l. In a non-exhaust motor, the combination of an auxiliary fluid-evaporating chamber and means for heating it, the working chamberof the motor, a val ved passage adapted to admit the vapor from said evaporatingchamber into said working chamber, and a passage closed by a loaded valve adapted toA allow a surplus of vapor to escape into the atmosphere or a condenser.
22. In a non-exhaust motor, comprising a piston, its working chamber, and a combustion-chamber, the combination therewith of an auxiliary evaporating-chamber, a valved passage for admitting the vapor generated in said evaporating-chamber into said working chamber, and means for heating said evaporating-chamber consisting of aflue conducting the waste fire-gases from said combustionchamber into contact with said evaporatingchamber. A
In a non-exhaust motor, the combination with an auxiliary fluid evaporating chamber and means for heating it, the working` chamber of the motor, a valved passage adapted to admit the resulting vapor from said evaporating-chamber into said working chamber, and a condensing-tube, together with a passage from said evaporating-chamber into said condensing-tube, and a weighted valve normally closed, adapted to control said passage into said condensing-tube.
24. In a non-exhaust motor, in combination with the heating and cooling shells containing working fluid, of means adapted to increase the range of the alternating temperature of such working fluid, consisting substantially of the connected workingfluid heating-chamber C, and cooling-chamber C- formed by shells C3 and Cf, in combination with pegs C5 integrally connecting either or both of said shells C3, O4, with their respective outer shells forming jackets of different temperatures around said connected workinglluid chambers C, C', substantially as shown and described.
25. A displacer formedvof three hollow sections transversely divided, one end section thereof being tapered as the frustum of a cone, and arranged to reciprocate only within the cooling shell or chamber, the middle section thereof formed cylindrical, and arranged to reciprocate alternately into the coolingchamber and into the heating-chamber, and the other end section thereof also tapered as the frustum of a cone, and arranged to reciprocate only within the heating shell or chamber, together with heat and fluid intercepting packing between said sections.
26. A displacer consisting of three hollow sections, separated by heat and current intercepting packing, the two end sections arranged to reciprocate respectively in the cold and in the hot shells, and the middle section arranged to alternately enter both the cold and the hot shell.
2". -A displacer consisting of three hollow sections separated by heat and current intercepting packing, the two end sections arranged to reciprocate respectively in the cold and hot shells, and the middle section arranged to alternately enter both the cold and the hot shell, in combination with a fluidchannel through the displacer.
28. In a non-exhaust motor, the combination with the heating-shell of the heating and cooling chamber, the furnace, and its llamespace, of fixed [ire-brick intervening between the fuel and flame space, and the heatingshell, whereby the burning out of the latter is`prevented or retarded and the fuel combustion is improved. y
29. In a non-exhaust motor, the combination with the heating-shell of the heating and cooling chamber, and the furnace, of firebrick with staggered or overlapping openings through the same, whereby the combustion is improved'and the heating-shell protected.
30. The combination with a non-exhaust motor, of a gas-furnace having fire-brick intervening between the flame-space and the heating-shell of the motor, and adjustable air-inlets into the flame-space, whereby complete combustion may be attained, and the oxidation and destruction of the heatingshell prevented or retarded.
3l. In a non-exhaust motor, the combination with the heating and cooling chamber, and ajacket upon its cooling-section, together with a'cooling fluid adapted to pass through such jacket, of interchangeable inlets and outlets upon such jacket, whereby the temperature within the same may be regulated.
In a non-exhaust motor, the combination of the heating and cooling chamber and a displacer, both having tapered ends, whereby the heating or cooling surface of said chamber laid bare by a reciprocation of the displacer is largely in excess of the stroke of the displacer, a regenerator through which the inclosed fluid must flow in passing between the hot and cool part of said chamber, and a packing-ring adapted to force the fluid to pass through said regenerator.
3 3. The combination with a non-exhaust in otor,comprising a heating and cooling chamber and a displacer, and a working piston and cylinder, of means for determining the maximum working pressure of the non-exhaust fluid, consisting of a pumping vcylinder and piston having a given clearance, an inletvalve from asupply of the working fluid opening into said pumping-cylinder, and a valvecontrolled passage from said cylinder into the heating and cooling chamber, whereby the IOO IIO
clearance between said pumping-piston and its cylinder determines the working pressure in the motor.
Si. In a non-exhaust reciprocating motor,
the connection between the power-piston and i the crank-shaft substantially as shown and described, to wit, the power-piston, its pistonrod, lche piston -rod stuffing-box, asleeve around such stufIing-box, formed with two opposite wrist-pins, sind adapted to slide upon the said sniffing-box, a fixed connection be-
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2547781A (en) * 1943-05-29 1951-04-03 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Apparatus for regulating the indicated power of hot gas motors
US2607190A (en) * 1948-07-27 1952-08-19 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Hot gas reciprocating engine with working medium augmenting means
US20020158617A1 (en) * 2001-01-31 2002-10-31 Robertshaw Controls Company D/B/A Invensys Appliance Controls Switching system for plural simmer voltages

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2547781A (en) * 1943-05-29 1951-04-03 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Apparatus for regulating the indicated power of hot gas motors
US2607190A (en) * 1948-07-27 1952-08-19 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Hot gas reciprocating engine with working medium augmenting means
US20020158617A1 (en) * 2001-01-31 2002-10-31 Robertshaw Controls Company D/B/A Invensys Appliance Controls Switching system for plural simmer voltages

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