US509931A - morgeneier - Google Patents

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US509931A US509931DA US509931A US 509931 A US509931 A US 509931A US 509931D A US509931D A US 509931DA US 509931 A US509931 A US 509931A
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    • B23Q35/00Control systems or devices for copying directly from a pattern or a master model; Devices for use in copying manually
    • B23Q35/04Control systems or devices for copying directly from a pattern or a master model; Devices for use in copying manually using a feeler or the like travelling along the outline of the pattern, model or drawing; Feelers, patterns, or models therefor
    • B23Q35/08Means for transforming movement of the feeler or the like into feed movement of tool or work
    • B23Q35/10Means for transforming movement of the feeler or the like into feed movement of tool or work mechanically only
    • Y10T409/00Gear cutting, milling, or planing
    • Y10T409/30Milling
    • Y10T409/30084Milling with regulation of operation by templet, card, or other replaceable information supply
    • Y10T409/301176Reproducing means
    • Y10T409/301624Duplicating means
    • Y10T409/30168Duplicating means with means for operation without manual intervention
    • Y10T409/302352Duplicating means with means for operation without manual intervention including plural cutters


No. 509,931. Patented Dec. 5, 1893.
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7 Sheets-Sheet 2;
{No Model.)
R. MORGENEIER. DUPLIGAI'ING MACHINE. No. 509,931. Patented Dem 5, 1893.
(H0 Model.) 7 Sheets-Sheet 3.
No. 509,931 Patented Dec. 5, 1 893,
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R; MORGENEIER. DUPLIGATING MACHINE. No. 509,931. Patented Dec. 5,1893.
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(No Model.) -7 Sheets-S heet 5.
DUPLIGATING MACHINE. No. 509,931.. Patented Dec. 5, 1893.
(No Model.) 7 Sh eetsSheet 6. R. MORGENEIER.
DU'PLIGATING MACHINE. No. 509,931. Patented Dec. 5, 1893.
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Rm Em T -G EA NM Rm 0 m Rfi D Ila-509,931. Patented Dec. 5,1893.
Unwrap TATES ATENT rien,
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 509,931, dated December 5, 1893.
Application filed November 11, 1892. Serial No. 451,665. (No model.)
To aZZ whom it may concern.-
Be it known that 1, ROBERT MORGENEIER, of Winona, Minnesota, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Duplicating- Machines,of which the following is a specification.
The object of this invention is to provide a machineby means of which the most elaborate and artistic carvings and sculpturings',
IO as well as any concrete object, may be automatically reproduced or duplicated; or, as in case of a carved or sculptured design, such design may, in the duplicate thereof, be cut deeper or shallower than the original, as may I5 be desired; the model, and a single operation of the machine, being sufficient to reproduce an exact duplicate, or a deeper or shallower one. The patterns employed may be of any material capable of sustaininga slight pressure.
The duplicating machine com prises a main frame, a reciprocating table, a series of reciprocal and independently gyratory guide fingers, a projecting and retracting mechanism arranged in connection with said guide fin-' gers; a series of revoluble and reciprocal cutters arranged in connection with the guide fingers; a means for reciprocating the table;
a means for revolving the cutters; means for permitting an independently gyratory and retractive motion in the guide fingers; holders for the pattern and material in which the pattern is to be reproduced in its normal,
greater, or less, depth, and a means for imparting a corresponding movement to the pattern and material, such movement being practically universal.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a plan view of my improved duplicating machine, the two top clamping pieces of the vertical standards being removed. Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the machine with parts broken away in order to more clearly exhibit the pattern. Fig. 3 is an elevation of the ma- 5 chine from the opposite sideto that shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a front view. Fig. 5 1s a plan view, partlyin section, of the cutterand guide finger mechanism. Figs. 6 and 7 are enlarged detail views of the belt shifting 5o mechanism, and Fig. 8 is a sectional detail view of the guide finger holder.
Fig. e is a perspective view showing means for manually adjusting the pattern and material or pattern holders vertically.
In the drawings, A represents the main frame of the machine which serves to carry the various shafts and gears, the sliding table and the cutter and guide finger mechanisms necessarily employed in the construction of my machine. The main shaft of the machine is shown at 1. On one end of this shaft are mounted the loose pulley 2 and the two driving pulleys 3, 4. A straight belt and a quarter-turn belt run alternately, first on the loose pulley 2 and driver 4, and then on driver 3 and loose pulley 2, such alternationcontinuing during the operation of the machine. In organizing the machine in its present form the pulleys 2, 3 and 4 are each fourteen inches in diameter.
In proper position on shaft 1 is mounted the four inch gear 5, meshing with the twenty four inch gear 6, mounted on shaft 7. On shaft 7 is also rigidly mounted the four inch gear 8, meshing with the thirteen inch gear 9 5 on shaft 10. On shaft 10 is mounted the four inch gear 11 meshing with the ten inch gear 12 mounted on shaft 13. Gear 12 engages the teeth of the rack 14 formed Within the sliding table 15.
From the above described construction it will be seen that if the shaft 1 be driven at the rate of one hundred and fifty revolutions per minute, the four inch gear thereon will revolve the twenty-four inch gear, 6, twentyfive times per minute; the four inch gear 8 on the same shaft with gear 6 will revolve the gear 9 on shaft 10, seven and seven tenths times per minute; the gear 11, also on shaft 10, will revolve gear 12, on shaft 13, three times 0 per minute, and gear 12 engaged with the rack 14: on table 15, willcause such table to advance at the rate of ninety-six inches per minute, approximately; and when as before stated, the shaft 1 is caused to alternate in thedirection 5 of its revolution, because of the arrangement of the loose pulley2 and drivers 3 and 4; and straight and quarter turn belts working on the one or the other of the drivers and on the loose pulley, then the table 15 will reciprocate Ioc at the rate of speed mentioned, 2'. 6., ninetysix inches per minute approximately. Thus the object of the train of gears described is to transmit the power required to reciprocate table 15 continually during the operation of the machine.
Bolted against the side of the main frame A, at B, is the belt shifting device, consisting of the'ways 16, in which is held and slides the piece 17. Formed in the sliding piece 17 is the flattened U-shaped slot 18, best shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 7. On oneend and on the upper surface of piece 17 is formed the lug 19 which is straddled by the lever 20. 21 and 22 are bell crank shifting levers pivoted at their angles and the inner ends of these levers overhang the sliding piece 17 and are provided with studs projecting downward into the slot 18. The outer or longer arms of the levers 21 and 22 have studs which upwardly project into the transverse slots 23 in the blocks 24. Blocks 24 slide on the rods 25 and 26 and have formed on their lower sides projecting prongs or fingers 27, 27 which reaching downward straddle the belts carried over the pulleys 2' and 3 when the table is advancing in one direction and 2 and 4 when retreating. Upon the lower left hand side of table 15 is formed or secured the T-rail 28. Adjustably mounted on the rail 28 are the two strikers 29 and 30. The striker 29 is so shaped that when coming in contact with the rocking lever 20, it will strike it at a point above the center of the shaft upon which it is mounted. Striker 30 on the other hand will strike such lever in opposition and be low the center of the shaft upon which it is held. From the construction above described it will be seen that if strikers 29 and 30 are securely clamped at any desired point upon rail 28 and the table is then caused to move either forward or backward, one or the other of the strikers will encounter the lever 20. The momentum of the table exerted upon such lever will cause it to swing on its shaft and acting on lug 19 formed on piece 17 cause such piece to slide in the ways 16; when the piece 17 is moved the levers 21, 22 will swing upon their pivots. The upward projecting studs of the levers moving in theslots 23 of the sliding blocks 24, will cause such blocks to slide upon the rods 25, 26 and, as the prongs of blocks 24 straddle the belt running over the loose pulley 2 and the belt on one of the drivers of shaft 1, these belts will be shifted. One of these belts being straight and the other crossed, the strikers 29 and 30 acting upon the lever 20 causes the reciprocating motion of the table 15. are brought toward each other the reciprocative motion of the table 15 will be shorter and if clamped at the extreme ends of rail 28 the greatest distance of reciprocation is secured.
On the top of the reciprocating table 1 5 are formed the four inwardly beveled ways a, a, a, ain which slide the bases of the four standards 31, 32, 33 and 34. Standards 31 and 32 are rigidly connected by the frame piece 35 and the standards 33 and 34 are similarly If the strikers connected. These standards, so connected, constitute frames which are vertical, parallel and face each other and which are adjustable to and from each other along the ways a. The frame upon the left side of the table carries a pattern holder 36, which is vertically adjustable on and also vertically movable with the X-shaped bars 37, one section of which holds said frame and the other section slides vertically in V-shaped grooves in said standards. The bars 37 are clamped to the holder by means of the bolts 37, and the vertical reciproca-' tions of the holder are efiected through said bars. able on the bars 37 in order to enable the reproduction of a pattern Wider than the range or cut of the machine. This manual adjustment is effected by means of the adjusting screw 37 (Fig. 8), which screw turns in a fixed nut 37 on frame piece 35. On loosening the clamping bolts 37 thelatter may be raised or lowered to bring a new portion of the pattern or material within range of the guide fingers and cutters respectively, whereupon the clamping bolts are again tightened. In this adjustment the point of the screw acts upon a fixed lug 37 on the holder but after the adjustment is effected the point of the screw is moved out of contact with the lug to a suitable distance to permit the automatic vertical movements of the holder, which will now be described. The vertical sliding bars 37 rest with their pointed lower ends upon the peripheries of the heart shaped cams 38, to the end that when such cams are rotated the holders will reciprocate vertically. Cams 38 are mounted on the shafts 39, and immediately back of such cams, are mounted the worm wheels 40, which are engaged by the worm screws 41, mounted on the shaft 42, said shafts revolving inboxes and the rotation of the cams 38 being due to the rotation of these shafts. On shaft 42 is mounted the miter wheel 45, meshing with the miter 46 which has a spline pin in its hub and the grooved shaft 47 slides through such hub, the pin thereof sliding in the groo ve of the shaft. In
order that miter-46 may maintain its position in relation to miter 45, and still slide over the grooved shaft 47 and during or after such sliding, still properly revolve shaft 47 and by such rotation communicate motion to the devices on both right and left standards, the shaft is provided with boxes 48, 48, each rigidly projecting, one from the left and the other from the rightstandard as shown. The vertical frame upon the right side of table 15 is for the purpose of properly holding the material to be operated upon, and is in all details an exact counterpart of the left side device just described, with the exception of a ratchet wheel 54 and pawl 55, held on shaft 42,on the right side vertical frame (Fig. 1) and which is not necessary on the left side vertical frame.
On the under sides of the bases of each of the vertical frames are formed the racks b, b, b, b, the teeth of which project downward.
The holder is also manually adjust.
These teeth are engaged by the pinions c, c, c, c mounted on the shafts 49 and 50. Shafts 49 and 50, which are held in boxes formed on the side of the reciprocating table 15, carry on their forward ends the hand wheels 51, 52.
When it is found desirable to change the distance between the faces of the pattern and material holders, this can be quickly done by loosening the binding screws 53, (Figs. 3 and 4) then loosening the binding'bolts in slides a, a, a, a and turning the hand wheels 51, 52 in the proper direction. As heretofore mentioned, the right hand side vertical frame has upon its shaft 42 the ratchet wheel 54, flanked and overhung by the ratchet pawl 55, which ratchet pawl swings on shaft 42, and the teeth thereof engage the teeth of said ratchet-wheel. The pawl, as shown, is composed of two pieces. The upper one swinging on shaft 42, has lips or lugs on both sides. The lower piece fits snugly between such lugs and can slide therein. This lower piece has formed upon its lower extremity two lugs which straddle a canting bar 56 and ride on such canting bar, when the reciprocations of table carries the ratchet pawl, of which it forms a part, forward or backward. The canting bar 56 is stiffly held by its journaled ends in boxes 57, 58. At a point on its lower edge is formed the downward projecting lug 59, the outer face of which carries a rounded shoulder 60,
(Figs. 1 and 4.) Inclosing the two fiat sides which lever is set in motion by the strikers 29, 30, when table 15 reciprocates.
From the above described construction it will be seen that if the table 15, with the devices thereon, is moved forward longitudinally, it will so advance until the striker 29 encounters the lever 20, causing such lever to swing. In swinging the lever 20 will cause the shifting device to act whereupon the motion of the table will be reversed and continue such reversed motion until the striker 30 again reverses that-motion by means of the lever 20. Immediately the first motion of lever 20 sets in, the lever 61 on the same shaft is also set in motion and its rounded shoulder 62 encounters the shoulder on lug 59, forcing such shoulder backward, thereby canting the bar outwardly. Having canted such bar the lever 61 swings an additional distance sufficient to clear its lug from the canting bar lug, whereupon the canting bar will fall into its first position. The return swing of straddle lever 61 will again cant the bar and allow it to fall, and this canting outwardly and inwardly will take place at the moment when the reversal of the sliding motion of table 15 is in process.
As heretofore stated, the lower end of ratchet pawl 55 rides forward and backward over canting bar 56. Its lugs closely fit the bar allows the pawl to drop into its first position and again engage upon the wheel; and thus during the termination of every reciprocation of table 15, rotate the shaft 42. This rotation is communicated by the mechanism shown and heretofore described to all four of the heart shaped cams 38, which in turn simultaneously and equally raise the pattern and the material holders resting upon them step by step at the termination of each reciprocating motion of the table 15 carrying them. After thus intermittently elevating such holders to the height of one and one-half inches, the rotations continuing, said cams will step by step lower the holders to their starting point. 1
Upon the driving pulley 64 I mount the long belt 65 which extends upward and passes over a driving pulley 66 mounted in bearings on the top of auxiliary frame D which aux.
iliary frame is formed upon and projects upward from within the main frame A. In its upward passage the belt 65 passes between the peripheral faces of aseries of spindle rollers 67, (such rollers being one and fifteen thirty-seconds inches in diameter and held one and one-half inches from center to center) and a series of pressure rollers 68, of the same diameter and same distance between centers and the centers of such spindle and pressure rollers being on the same horizontal plane. The several constructions are such that when the shaft 69, upon which the pulley 64 is mounted, is driven by the belt on the driving pulley (also mounted on shaft 69) at the rate of six hundred and twenty-five revolutions per minute, the spindles 70 in the rollers 67 will revolve at the rate of five thousand revolutions per minute. The said pressure rollers are carried in separate bearings and held together in a housing and each is adjustable as to the space allowed to the said belt 65; thus the pressure exerted on each spindle roller can be accurately adjusted by the particular pressure roller placed longitudinally opposite it. Passing through the series of rollers 67 are the cutter spindles 71, reciprocal therein, yet compelled to revolve with the rollers because of a pin in said rollers which slides in a groove formed in the spindles. At one end each spindle carries the chuck head 72 (Figs. 1 and 4) which firmly holds a cutting tool. At the other and spindle 71 has two rigid collars 73, 74. Held between these is the lipped collar 75. Fitting snugly between the lips of said collar and engaged by a bolt is the lever 76. Said lever has slotted ends and bolts in the lips engage the slots and serve as points of leverage. Lever 76 is pivoted on the pivoted arm 77. To the arm 77 is pivoted an adjusting mechanism composed of the rod 78, the end of which is threaded and carries the thumb nut 82. Upon the rod is the collar 79, spiral spring 80, tightly compressed and held between the collar 79 and a rigid lug 81 formed upon a part of the auxiliary frame D. Thepurpose of this mechanism is to shift the position of the pivotal center of lever 76 when such shifting is desirable or necessary, the purpose of which will be hereinafter described. The end of lever 76', opposite to that end held between the lips of collar 75, is held in the same manner by a'similarly lipped collar 83. C01- lar 83 passes around guide finger tube 84 and is held thereon with the rigid collar 85 and finger chuck 86. The shank of chuck 86 is tubular, is threaded on the outside and is firinly' screwed into the guide finger tube 84, and forms apart thereof. The tubular shank of chuck 86 provides a socket of sufficient length to support theend of a steel rod when the tube carrying the chuck is either advanced or retracted. The series of guide finger tubes is held in flexible sleeves 87, which I prefer to make of soft cast rubber. They are placed in a vertical row as shown, and one and one half inches from center to center. Within the guide finger tube Si is the compressed spiral spring 90, carried on the rod 88, which rod forms a part of the adjusting bolt 89 and its forward end passes freely into the chuck head shank. By means of the adjusting bolt 89, the compression of the spring 90, which "is seated at one end against the inner end of the chuck shank and at its other end in a socket in adjusting bolt, is regulated, and the guide finger tube projected and held forward as desired. From the above description it will be seen that the finger tube, chuck, and finger held in the chuck, form one rigidly joined piece, and that such piece is projected and held forward bythe spiral spring Within the tube, in the manner described. On each side of the guide finger tubeorspindle areadjusted the revolving traction rolls 91, 92, 93, and 94.. These rolls are preferably made of hard Wood or rawhide, with a core, the ends of which form journal bearings and are grooved in a man her that allows of a complete encircling of tube-spindle 84 at two places thereon by the two sets of rollers. The adjustment is such that the surfaces of the rollers and tubes are almost in contact yet sufficiently distant to permit of a slight gyratory motion of the guide finger tube when pressure is brought to bear upontheside of thelinger held therein, to the end that such partial gyration may establish traction contact. When no pressure is exerted upon the side of the guide finger the speed of the four rollers will not affeet the tube spindle. The four traction rollers are geared in such a manner that they all revolveinwardly in a direction from the head of the spindle, the motion of such gear being due to belt running over pulley 66, the shaft of which pulley is connected by gear with the gearing of the rollers as *shown. When traction contact is established between said rollers and tubes the rollers will draw the spindle tube, chuck and guide finger forming part thereof backward against the projecting pressure of spiral spring 90 and this backward motion will be more or less rapid, depending upon the extent and direction of pressure upon the side of guide finger. The function of the guide finger is to indicate, and in conjunction with the pattern employed, to control the depth to which the particular cutter connected therewith, shall cut into the material worked upon. Its gyratability, whereby backward motions may be effected, constitutes it a sensitive guide finger in contradistinction to a rigid point or finger which might be drawn or lifted over the inequalities of a pattern by hand, or which if beveled sufficiently might be automatically drawn over an undulating surface.
The construction and application of a sensitive guide finger, t'. e. a finger so constructed 7 will move slightly backward; and when such motion ensues it actuates mechanism which in turn changes the direction in which such finger and its particular cutter may have moved immediately preceding the moment of activity of such finger; and during the'operation of the machine the distance of reciprocation of the cutters-is under the constant control of said fingers, while I have in the invention herein described enhanced the capacity of the machine described in said patcut, as well as the quality of "WOI'k accomplished by it, by a construction wherein the sensitiveness of the guide fingers employed is due to the gyratability of such fingers. The fingers thus constructed may when pressing upon a plane surface of any pattern become entirely disengaged from the reciprocating mechanism, thereby allowing the out ters to work better and smoother; and when such finger is encountered bya slight incline its partial gyration causes the tube, forming part thereof, to attach itself to the reciproeating mechanism with sufficient force to allow the finger to rise agreeably to such incline, and with almost insensible reciprocations, the cutter controlled by the finger rispositions.
side of the finger its partial gyrative motion will establ sh an immediate and firm traction contact with the reciprocating mechanism surrounding the finger tube whereby such finger and its cutter will instantly rise to the full height of the rectangular mass encountered. Thus smoothness of surface, perfect duplication, and greater capacity are secured.
The essential difierences between a sensitive guide finger with a gyratory motion as herein-described and a finger such as decribed in said patent may be summed up as follows: The latter is for the purpose of governing or eontrollingdistances of reciprocation of predetermined speed or speeds. On the other hand, the former is for the purpose of initiating, effecting and continuing every variation of distance and of speed in its own reciprocation, or should the emergency arise cease all reciprocation and remain extended to the distance allowed of by the pattern employed.
The movements in a machine constructed as described are as follows: First,the projection of a guide finger and a cutting tool toward a pattern and a workable material. Second,the movement of a pattern toward a guide finger until the point thereof rests upon the surface of the deepest depression therein. Third,the movement of material toward a cutter uhtil enough material is advanced into the way of travel of cutter to insure a duplication of the highest parts of a pattern set in opposition thereto. Fourth,- a clamping of a pattern and material in such Fifth,-the rotation of a cutter or cutters. Sixth,a longitudinal reciprocation of the pattern and material. Seventh, an intermittent vertical movement of the same. Eighth,an undulating reciprocation of a cutter or cutters and a finger or fingers when an undulating surface of a pattern is traversed by a guide finger or guide fingers. Ninth,-a complete cessation of vertical motion when a guide finger or fingers travel over a level plane in a pattern. Tenth,a partial gyration of a guide finger or guide fingers when encountering a more or less ab ruptly ascending surface in a pattern followed by a more or less pronounced reciprocation of such finger or fingers. Eleveuth,a quick partial gyration when a guide finger orguide fingers encounter an abrupt projection at an angle with the line of travel of such finger or fingers, and following thereon a speedy reciprocation continued until such obstruction is passed over. Twelfth,--a transverse receding motion of a guide finger or fingers when encountering a rectangular projection squarely in the path of travel, followed by an instantaneous retraction or reciprocation of said finger 0r fingers. Thirteenth,-a correspondingly greater reciprocation and undulatory movement of a guide finger or guide fingers, than of the cutter or cutters connected therewith, due to a previous adjustment for such particular effect.
Fourteenth,a correspondingly greater reciprocation or undulatory movement of a cutter or cutters, also due to a previous adjustment for such particular effect. The second, third, and fourth motions are effected by hand in order to bring patterns and material in proper position before starting up the machine; all the other motions are automatic and due to the power transmitted by the belts and gears. Fifteenth,a manual adjustment of the pattern and material holders vertically when it is desired to reproduce a pattern wider than the cut of the machine.
For the purpose of carving or duplicating a panel one foot wide, six feet long and one inch deep, the adjustment and operation of the machine are as follows: From a powershaft arranged to turn at the proper speed, I pass a straight belt over the driver 4 011 shaft 1, and a quarter turn or cross belt from the same shaft over the loose pulley 2 on shaft 1. I then run back the table 15 until the holders thereon have passed beyond the vertical series of guide fingers. I turn one of the shafts 42 until the heart shaped earns 38 stand with their points upward, thereby bringing the paneland material holders to their highest altitude. I then fasten on the face of each of the holders a piece of smooth planed board in the same altitude with cutters and guide fingers and upon these boards I test the machine after adjustment. I now fasten in each of the guide tube heads by means of the friction collars 86 a guide finger. For work of the kind contemplated, such guide fingers are one and one fourth inches in length, one-half inch in diameter and taper to one-sixteenth of an inch at the point. The point as well as the entire tapered finger is round, smoothly polished, and preferably of hardened steel. In the heads of the cutter spindles are fastened, by means of friction collars 72, the cutters. These cutters are in shape counterparts of the guide fingers, but have a cutting edge formed on their entire length and the points are formed after the manner of a rounded spoon bit. These cutters and guide fingers are shown as a part of Fig. 5. I now set the belt 65 in motion whereby the traction rollers 91,92, 93, and 94: are revolved. I then bring forward the pressure rolls 68, one by one, untilsuch belt isheld against the peripheralfaces of the entire series of spindle rolls 67, where-. upon the rolls and the spindles therein will revolve at proper speed. I then turn the table 15 forward untilthe testing boards on holders stand opposite the guide fingers and cutters. Havingloosened the binding screws 53, I now bring forward the faces of testing boards by turning the hand wheels 51 and 52, continuing such forward motion until one or all of the guide fingers and one or all of the cutter points just touch such boards. If, because of an irregular length some of the cutters or fingers should not touch, I then turn the thumb nuts forming part of the adjusting mechanism of such particular cutter or guide finger,
whereby the samewill immediately be brought into line. I IIOWIGIIIOVG the testing boards and put in their stead the pattern and the material; run back the sliding table and advance'the pattern and the material as far as the depth of cut to be effected. I then firmly clamp the vertical standards and also the strikers 29 and 30 in their proper positions, which for a pattern of the size contemplated would be at the ends of the rail 28. Thus arranged the adjustments are completed and the machine can be setin motion. The table 15 now reciprocates the length of the pattern; the guide points press upon and travel in a straight line over the same, the revolving cutters each cut a groove in the material. In this first travel of the table the guide fingers, chuck and tube will rise and fall as they pass over the undulations, and the cutters because of theirconnectionsthrough lever 76 will rise and fall in corresponding undulations. If, instead of undulating surfaces the fingers encounter more abrupt projections, a slight side pressure will be exercised on such fingers and a slight or partial gyration of the fingers, chuck and tube will'occnr which will be permitted by'the flexible boxes 87 holding the guide tubes. The gyration will press and hold the guide finger tube in partial traction contact with the revolving rollers 91, 92, 93 and 94-, and these will immediately assist in drawing the finger or fingers backward, thus causing them to ascend the surface of the pattern, the'cutter or cutters connected to such finger or fingers rising and falling correspondingly. Should the fingers in this first travel encounter rectangular projections in the pattern the efiect of gyration and consequent binding on traction rolls will be immediate and positive and the finger or fingers so encountered will be instantly withdrawn to the highest point of such projection, the cutter or cutters thereof describing the same movement. Finally should a finger or fingers travel upon a plane surface there will be none of the movements just described, the adjustable spring projectingthefingerorfingers continuallyagainst such plane surface and the cutter or cutters will cut to a uniform depth. At the terminationof the first movement of the table just described, the four cams 38 will be slightly rotated by the pawl 54, allowing the pattern and material holders to descend one sixty fourth of an inch, more or less as may be desired, thus presenting a new profile for the guide fingers to'travel upon and cutters to reproduce. The table now reciprocates and the movement of fingers and cutters j ust described is-repeat'ed. Thus line after line is out, each cut overlapping the preceding cuts repeatedly as'the diameter of the points of cutters are greater than the width of the quantity of material'removed. All parts of the face of the pattern will in regular order be brought in contact with the ends or sides of guide fingers, and the cutters reproduce all its features. When the cams 38 have made a one-half rotation the holders will have been lowered to a distance that will permit each guide finger and cutter to pass over the first line of'travel of the finger or'cutter next adjacent thereto when the duplicate is finished, and requires even in the most artistic work only a little surface finishing and retouching. After the first adjustment the work of the attendant consists in keeping the machine supplied with sharp cutters, and with material to be operated upon. He may attend to a number of the machines. At the speed herein specified, the maximum capacity of the machine is sixtysquare'feet of artistic carving or sculpturing per working day of ten hours. If a deeper and bolder duplicate is to be produced from a shallow cut pattern, which is often desirable, as shallow patterns can be more cheaply made, it is only necessary to lengthen the distance from the central pivot of lever 76 to the pivot in the lipped collar on guide finger tube Si by turning the thumb nuts 82 to the left, or if for any reason a shallower duplicate is desired, the thumb nuts are to be turned to the right. After adjusting for any particular depth of cut, the fingers and cutters are brought up to line on the testing boards in the manner hereinbefore described. It a pattern be wider than the cut of the machine the pattern and material holders may be raised or lowered so as to bring the surfaces not previously acted upon within the operative range of the machine, and a proper joining of the cut surfaces may thus be ef fected.
In the preceding description the term traveling of guide fingers has been employed for sake of brevity. It should however be understood that the guide fingers and cutters reciprocate from a rigidly fixed frame, the traveling motion being confined to'the pattern and the material.
I claim 1. In a duplicating machine, the combination with pattern and material holders arranged parallel to and facing each other, of cutting and guiding mechanisms operating conj ointly therewith, means forantomatically moving said pattern and material holders longitudinally and vertically, whereby to progressively present the surfaces of the pattern and material to the guiding and cutting mechanism and said patternand material holders being also manually adjustable in a plane transverse to the line of movement of the cutting and guiding mechanisms whereby to present new or additional surfaces of the same pattern and material to the action of the cutting and guiding mechanisms, substantially as described.
2. In a duplicating machine, the combination with longitudinally and vertically reciprocating pattern and material holders arranged parallel .to and facing each other and adjustable toand from each other of cutting and guiding mechanism operating conjointly therewith, said pattern and material holders being also adjustable in relation to said cutting and guiding mechanism, substantially as described.
3. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a revoluble and reciprocal cutter, of a reciprocal and gyratory guide finger, substantially as described.
4:- In a duplicating machine, the combination with longitudinally and vertically reciprocating and variably adjustable material and pattern holders, of a series of revoluble and reciprocal cutters and reciprocal and independentlygyratoryguide fingers,connected with the cutters, substantially as described.
5. In a duplicating machine, the combina tion with a revoluble and reciprocal cutter, of a reciprocal and independently gyratory guide finger and a pivoted adjustable lever forming a connection between said cutter and finger, substantially as described.
6. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a series of revolublc and reciprocal cutters, of a series of reciprocal and independently gyratory guide fingers and pivoted adjustable levers connecting the cutters and fingers, substantially as described.
7. In a duplicating machine, the combination with cutters and guide fingers connected by pivoted adjustable levers of mechanism for adjusting said levers whereby to change the leverage upon said cutters and fingers, substantially as described.
8. A duplicating machine having an independentlygyratory and reciprocal series of guide fingers and a series of revoluble cutters connected therewith and controlled thereby, substantially as described.
9. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a series of revoluble and reciprocal cutter spindles of rollers through which such spindles may slide and be revolved thereby, a series of pressure rollers arranged opposite thereof and a driving belt held by the pressure rollers in driving contact with the spindle rollers, substantially as described.
10. In a duplicating machine, the combination with revoluble and reciprocal cutter spindles, of reciprocal guide fingers, tubes forming part of such fingers, lipped collars on the cutter spindles and finger tubes, and levers having slot and pin connections with said collars, substantially as described.
11. In a duplicating machine, the combination with cutter spindles and guide finger tubes, of lipped collars having pins, a lever slotted at its ends and fitting between the lips on said collars and the pins'of said lips engaging the slots of said lever and providing points of leverage, substantially as described.
12. In a duplicating machine, the combination with cutter spindles and guide finger tubes, of lipped collars held thereon, connecting levers movably held between such lips and arms whereon such levers are pivoted, substantially as described.
13. In a duplicating machine, the combination with cutter spindles and guide finger tubes, of connecting levers between said spindles and tubes, arms to which said levers are pivoted, said arms being also pivoted and adjusting rods pivoted to said arms, substantially as described.
14. In a duplicating machine, the combination with cutter spindles and guide finger tubes, of pivoted levers connecting said spindles and tubes, arms to which said levers are pivoted, rods pivoted to such arms, collars on said rods, spiral springs having a bearing on the collars and adjusting nuts, substantially as described.
15. I11 a duplicating machine, the combination with a cutter, of a guide finger connected therewith and adapted to control the movements thereof, and a spring arranged in connection therewith and adapted to constantly project said guide finger and thereby the cutter, substantially as described.
16. In a duplicatinglnachine, the combination with a cutter, of a guide finger connected therewith and adapted to control the projection'thereof into contact with the work, a spring arranged in connection with the guide finger to constantly project the latter, and means for adjusting the pressure of said spring, substantially as described.
17. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a reciprocating and rotating cutter, of a reciprocating guide finger connected therewith and adapted to control the movements thereof, and a spring arranged in c011- nection with the guide finger to constantly project said finger, means for adjusting the tension of said spring and means for retracting the guide finger, substantially as described.
18. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a reciprocating and-rotating cutter,
of a reciprocating guide finger connected therewith and adapted to control the movements thereof, a spring arranged in connection with the guide finger and adapted to constantly project the same, and flexible bearings for said guide finger whereby it is permitted a gyrating motion, substantially as described.
19. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a guide finger and tube to which said finger is connected, a spiral spring arranged in said tube and having a bearing thereon and a rod passing through the axis of the spring and having a sliding bearing in the tube, said rod being adjustable whereby to tension the spring, substantially as described.
20. In a duplicating machine, the combination with gyratory guide fingers, of flexible bearings for said fingers, springs for projecting the guide fingers and traction rolls for drawing back such fingers after the gyratory motion sets in, substantially as described.
21. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a reciprocating carriage for the pattern and material holders, of mechanism for reciprocating the carriage, and shifting mech- ITO anism for changing the direction of travel of such carriage, substantially as described.
22. In a duplicating machine, the combination of a reciprocating carriage, mechanism for reciprocating the same, stops for limiting thetravel of the carriage and a pivoted canting lever for operating the shifting devices of such carriage, substantially as described.
23. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a reciprocating carriage and drivin g belts, a shifting mechanism for said belts, stops for operating said shifting mechanism, said stops being carried by and adjustable on such carriage, substantially as described.
24. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a reciprocating carriage, of sliding and adjustable standards thereon carrying pattern and material holders and means for sliding and adjusting such standards, substantially as described.
25. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a reciprocating carriage, of adjustable and sliding standards, and adjustable clamping pieces for said standards, substantially as described.
26. In a duplicating machine,the combination with sliding standards, carrying pattern and material holders, cams on which said standards rest and means for rotating said cams whereby to move said standards, substantially as described.
27. In a duplicating machine, the combination with adjustable and sliding standards, of cams for moving the standards and worm gearing'for moving the cams, substantially asdescribed.
28. In a duplicating machine, the combination with the reciprocating carriage, of gearing for moving the carriage, shifting mechanism for the gearing, sliding standards carrying pattern and material holders, cams for moving the standards and means controlled by the shifting mechanism for operating said cams at the end of each reciprocation of the carriage, substantially as described.
29. In aduplicating machine, the combination with a reciprocating carriage, of driving mechanism therefor, a shifting device for the driving mechanism, vertically movable pattern and material holders and means controlled by the shifting mechanism for moving the pattern and material holders, substantially as described.
30. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a revoluble shaft, of a ratchet wheel, swinging pawl, and a canting bar provided with projecting lug, substantially as described.
31. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a revoluble shaft, of a ratchet wheel, swinging pawl, canting bar and lug, and a piv oted swinging arm provided with a lug to encounter the lug on said canting bar, substantially as described.
32. In a duplicating machine, the combination with a revoluble cam, of X-shaped bars bearing on said cams and grooved standards in which said bars slide, substantially as described. W
33. In a duplicating machine, the combination with revolnble cams, of X-shaped bars resting with one end against the peripheries of said cams, and a table or holder sliding upon such bars and adjustable thereon, substantially as described.
l/Vitnessesz EDWARD LEES, A. H. CLARK.
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