US457258A - Type-writing machine - Google Patents

Type-writing machine Download PDF


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US457258A US457258DA US457258A US 457258 A US457258 A US 457258A US 457258D A US457258D A US 457258DA US 457258 A US457258 A US 457258A
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    • B41J19/00Character- or line-spacing mechanisms
    • B41J19/18Character-spacing or back-spacing mechanisms; Carriage return or release devices therefor


(No Model.)
5 Sheets-Sheet 1.
TYPE WRITING MACHINE. No. 457,258. Patented Aug. 4, 1891.
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(No Model.) 5 sheets-sheet 2.
No. 457,258. Patented Aug. 4, 1891.
WrTNE55Es (No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 3. J. D. DAUGHERTY.
TYPE WRITING MACHINE. No. 457,258. Patented Aug. 4, 1891.
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(No Model.)
J. DJDAUGHBRTY. TYPE WRITING MAGHINE. No. 457,258. Patented Aug. 4, 1891.
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TYPE WRITING MACHINE. No. 457,258. PatentedAug. 4, 1891.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent N o. 457,258, dated .August 4, 1891. Application iled June 9, 1891. Serial No. 395,684. (No model.)
To all whom t may concern.'
Be it known that l, J AMES DENNY DAUGH- ERTY, of Kittanning, in the county of Armstrong and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Type-Writing Machines; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it pertains to make and use it, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, which form part of this specification.
Hy invention relates to an improvement in type-writing machines; and it consists in the arrangement and combination of parts which will be fully described hereinafter.
The objects of'my invention are to connect the key-levers and the type-bars directly at their inner ends without the intervention of any other parts, so as to simplify and cheapen the construction and lessen the friction in the operation of the machine; to separate the type-bars and the key-levers by means of division bars or plates, which prevent the parts from interfering with each other; to provide each type-bar witll a type or types having capital and small letters or other characters upon them, and to change from one letter or character to the other by raising the inner end of the frame which carries the type-bars and the key-levers, while the roller or platen carrying the paper remains stationary; to pivot at its rear end the guiding-frame for the type-bars, and which also holds or carriesl the ribbon, and to give to this guiding-frame a vertical movement at its free front end, so that while it serves as a guide for the type-bars it also raises the ribbon, so that each type-bar prints its character in alignment, and then, as the type-bar drops back in its normal position, the guidingframe carrying the ribbon also drops, so as to leave each letter or character, as well as the'whole line of writing, unobstructedly exposed to the operator Without the movement of any other part; to operate the carriage by means of two pivoted spring-ac tuated dogs, which allow the carriage to move forward one space each time that one of the type-bars is operated, and which permit the carriage to slide freely back to its starting-point.
Figure 1 is a plan view of a type-Writer which embodies my invention. Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same. end View of the type-writer to which my invention is applied. Fig. 4 is a rear end View of the same. 13 are detail views of different parts of the same.
A represents the base-plate, which will be of any desired shape, size, or construction Fig. 3 is a front' Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, 910, ll, l2, and
that may be preferred, and from which at l any suitable point rise the two posts or projections B, to the upper ends of which are pivoted the front ends of the frame C, in which are pivoted upon a rod D the key-levers E. Extending across the rear or inner 1 p and also serve to separate and hold the keylevers in position upon the pivotal rod D. These division-plates I are preferably given the shape shown and have a downwardly-extending projection l at their front ends, which are made to increase from the upper front corner of the bar or plate in thickness down to the top edge of the key-levers, and
from this they are all of a uniform thickness. This increased thickness at the lower ends of the extensions I is made for the purpose of separating the key-levers and holding them rigidly in position upon their pivotal rod D.,
The upper edges of these division bars or plates I are of one uniform size or thickness, there being sufficient space between them to allow the type-bars to freely operate, and vat the same time so confine them to prevent y. their interference in operation with each other. The beveled or inclined side of the extensions I serve to prevent the type-bars from having any lateral play or movement when they are at their lowest point, while the upper edges of the plates allow the typebars abundance of room for any amount of IOO movement that may be necessary. These division-plates I may either be formed of solid metal or of sheet metal, as lhere shown, and which pieces of sheet metal are bent double and have these doubled portions separated at their lower ends, between which washers I are placed upon the rod D, Fig. 13.
The inner end of each of the key-levers E, which are pivoted upon the rod D, is provided with curved arms or projections K, which form an opening or socket L, having curved sides, and each one of the type-bars is provided with a curved arm, lever, or projection M, which catches in the socket L of its corresponding lever E, thus forming an interlocking-joint for connecting these parts, and that without the intervention of any other piece or part of any, kind whatever. Vhen the front end of the key-levers is depressed at its rear end as it moves upward, it exerts a pressure upon the arm or projection M of its corresponding type-bar, and thus causes the typebar to turn upon its pivot through nearly a quarter of a circle and imprint one of its charaoters upon the paper. As soon as the keylever is released, a spring which is connected to the feed-lever presses the front end of the said feed-lever against the under side of all of the key-levers and the spacing-bars, and thus causes the type-bars through their corresponding key-levers to instantly return to their normal position. As will be seen, the type-bars are pivoted upon the curved rod, and when in their normal position they form a segment of a circle. The center bar is made perfectly straight, while those bars upon its sides are'slightly curved or bent at their outer ends, the curve increasing in degree the farther .the bars recede from the center and at such anl angle to bring the types upon the bars in a vertical position when at the printing-point.
Pivoted between its ends upon the standards z', which project from the frame A, is the shifting or upper-case frame Xf, which has its inner ends pivotally connected to the inner end of the frame C, and this frame X extends around in front of the keys, as shown in Fig. 1. A downward pressure upon the outer end of the frame X raises its inner ends and with it the inner end of thevframe C, in which are the type-bars pivoted upon the rod F.
Rising from the base-plate A, opposite the inner corners of the lifting-frame X', are the posts N, which have the two inward extensions at their upper ends, and through these extensions are passed the set-screws O, against which the opposite edges of the lifting-frame strike for the purpose of regulating with the utmost nicety the distance that the liftingframe shall be raised in changing from one type or character to another, and thus every character and letter are brought into perfect alignment. When the lifting-frame is down in its normal position, as shown in Fig. 2,- only the small letters are .brought into operation; but when the inner end of this liftingframe, carrying the type-bars and all of their attachments, is raised by depressing the front end of the lifting-frame, then the typebars which print only the capital letters are the characters which are then 'brought' into alignment. It will be noticed that the typebars are given a vertical movement,while the roller or platen carrying the paper to be printed upon remains stationary, thus reversing the usual method employed in type-bar machines now in the market of changing from one form of letter to another. I
Pivoted upon Vthe curved rod D is a spacing bar or lever P, which extends across in front of the keys and at each side, as shown, so as to be in position to be struck by any finger and from any point, and thus enable it to be operated more rapidly and easily than can be done where the rod or bar extends along in rear of the keys in the usual manner or where the spacing mechanism is operated from a small key. In order to hold the spacing-lever up in position and return it instantly to position after being operated, there is attached to each of the inner ends of this lever beyond the pivotal bar D a light springwire Q, and this wire has enough elasticity to holdup the spacing-lever when the feed-1ever has been depressed by one of the keylevers.
Pivoted between the two standards R, which rise from the rear corners ofthe base-plate A, is an L-shaped feed-lever S, -whichhasits front end to extend across the top of the base-plate underneath the keys and spacing-levers, as shown in Fig. 2, so that each time one of these levers is operated the feed-lever S is operated thereby. To the upper end of this feed-lever S is fastened one end of the spring T, by means of which the lever is returned to its normal position as soon as it is left free to move after it has been operated by one of the keys or spacing-levers. The rear end of this spring T is secured to the nut U, placed upon the screw V, which passes through the projection upon the top of one of the curved slidingbars upon which the carriage moves. By means of the screw and the nut the tension of the spring T can be regulated at will, and thus give to the key and the spacing-lever a harder or softer touch, as maybe desired. Mounted upon the upper end of this feed-lever S is the adjustable head WV, upon which the two spring-actuated bars of the dog X are pivoted, and this head W is made adjustable upon the upper end of the lever, so that the dog can be adjusted into position to operate directly with the rack-bars. This head W is secured to the leverS by means of screws, the upper one of which passes through a slot in the head, and this slot permits the necessary adjustment for the dog. The dog X is made in two parts, which are jointed at the center of the head, so as to allow each part an inde- IIO pendent movement of its own, and both parts to.' This spring serves to hold the two parts of the dog X pressed backward against each other where they overlap, and thus form practically a rigid or single dog; but the spring allows the two parts of the dog to freely give as the `carriage is returned to its startingpoint, and when the bevel side of the dog which is engaged with the rack slips freely over the teeth of the rack so engaged.
Rising from the top of the head are the two projections Z, through which pass the horizontal set-screws A', which have their inner ends to bear against pieces of rawhide, rubber, or other suitablesubstance,which is placed in the holes through which the screws pass, and which substance serves to prevent the dog from making any unnecessary amount of noise. The set-screws serve to adj ustthe rawhide forward, and thus regulate the angle or position that the two parts of the dog shall occupy in order to properly engage with their corresponding racks. As the feed-lever is caused to vibrate by the movement of the keys and spacing-lever, the ends of the dog are made to play in and out upon the teeth of the opposite racks, and thus allow the carriage to move forward one space for each movement of one of the levers. Vhile one end 0f the dog is forced backward by the pressure of the carriage the other end is forced one-half space forward, so as to be ready to engage with its corresponding rack when the feed-lever is moved in that direction, and this end, which was forced forward so'as to be ready to engage with its rack, is in turn forced backward afterit engages with the rack, and thus the dog is made to partially turn upon its pivot, and at each partial turn the other end is brought into an operative position.A As the inner end of the two parts of the dog overlap, the two parts are held rigidly together, so as to always be in a line with each other while the carriage is being fed forward; but either of these parts of the dog give freely before the carriage when the carriage is being moved back to its starting-point.
By means of the construction here shown and described it will be readily seen that the dog consists of only two parts, which are jointed together, aspring for pressing the two parts in a line with each other and the two adj usting-screws, and that a very cheap feed` mechanism is produced. The great advantage of this construction consists in having the carriage to move one half-space as the type-bar rises and then move the other halfspace as the type-bar descends, and thus canse the carriage to move while the typebar is'in motion, instead of having the carriage move only after the type-bar has returned to its normal position. As a consequencea much more rapid feed is given to the carriage and it is impossible to strike any two of -the keys so rapidly that the carriage does not. move its full spacev at each stroke.
roller is the small roller L',
Rising from the inner ends of the baseplate A are the two T- shaped standards or supports R, upon which are mounted the two grooved guiding-bars C', upon which the carriageD' moves, and which supports also have the ribbon-spools placed upon them. rlhe carriage D consists of the plate E', which has its ends turned vertically upward, so as to form bearings or supports for the different parts, and which has its central portion cut away and the two racks F' formed as a part of the plate. Projecting from the opposite outer edges of this plate are the extensions or tongues G', which catch in grooved guiding-bars C', and thus guide the carriage back and forth in its movements.
Jonrnaled between the upturned ends of the plate is a roller H', which is provided with a lever l2 and a spring-actuated dog J for revolving the roller and moving the paper. The lever may either be given the shape here shown or any other that may be preferred, and the distance thatv the roller is made to turn at each movement of .the lever can be regulated by means of a stop-pin K', which can be placed in either one of two holes prepared for it. y If placed in the upper hole, the lever will move a long distance'and tu-rn the roller a greater distance than it will if the pin is placed in the lower hole. Placed in front of the lower front ends of the large which serves to cause the paper to move when the large roller is moved by the lever. The whole frame of the carriage being formed from a sin gle plate,
it can be stamped up and have the racks i formed as a part thereof, and the cost of the construction of t-he machine is greatly simplified and cheapened. l
Pivoted by means of the rod N', which is journaled back of the rear grooved guidingbar C', is the guiding-frame O, which both holds the ribbon in position and guides the type-levers in position, so as to strike the paper in regular spacing. As will be seen, the t front end of this frame is divided and the upper part is formed into two horizontal prongs, which are separated from each other at any suitable angle, leaving just'suflicient space between their inner ends to allow the types to strike the paper, and that without any lateral play or movement. These two prongs are given the V shape shown, so as to guide the type-bars at the sides into position with the same precision and accuracy as it doesthose located at or near the center of the machine. This guiding-frame O has openings through its front end forthe passage of the ribbon Q', and 1s given a vertical movement at its front end for the purpose of raising the ribbon as each type-bar rises, and thus bring it in position to be struck by the type, and then as the type returns to its normal position the ribbon is depressed, so as to leave a free and unobstructed view ofthe entire line which is being printed. As above stated, this guiding` frame is pivoted at its rear end, and its front end has a rising and falling movement for the purpose of operating the ribbon directly in front of the eye of the operator, where he can see every letter that is made and the connection of each word with what has preceded or followed it. In order to give the operator as unobstructed a view as possible, there are no parts placed between the eye of the operator and the paper, with the exception of the front end of this frame, which always drops below the line of writing as soon as the letter is struck. For the purpose of giving this frame a vertical play at its front end there is pivoted upon the under side of the base-plate a lever R', which extends at its front end underneath the feed-bar or front end of the feed-lever S, where it extends across under the keys and spacingflevers, and which lever R' is connected at its rear end to the vertical lever S', which is forked at its upper end and connected directly to the guidingframe O'. Each time that one of the keys or spacing-levers is depressed the front end of the feed-lever and the front end of the lever R' is also depressed, and as the rear end of the lever R' is raised the guiding-frame O is y raised before the type-bar can rise to strike the paper. The carriage is drawn forward by the cord or strap that is wound around the wheel S', which has a flat spring wound around its axle or journal, and which journal is pro vided with the ratchet or dog, whereby the tension or spring can be increased or decreased at will. The carriage is returned to the starting-point by means of its operating-lever.
The two ribbon-spools T' are mounted upon the extended upper end of the T-frame S', and each spool is provided with a ratchet U and a handle V' on the lower end of its shaft or journal. By means of these handles the ribbon can be rapidly wound from one spool to the other as desired. The reversing movement of the ribbon is caused by a sliding bar W', which is provided with suitable guidingslots and secured to the front edge of the front grooved guiding-bar C' by means of set-screws. This sliding bar WV' has suitable guiding arms or prongs X' projecting from its lower edge, and these prongs catch upon opposite sides or edges of the dogs Y', which are pivoted upon the standards Z', which rise from and move with the feed-lever, which is pivoted between tlie two standards upon which the carriage is placed. Also secured to this sliding -barW' are the two springs a, which are curved in opposite directions and which alternately engage with the ratchets of the ribbon-spools. These springs, secured to the bar and the dog Y', moved by the arms projecting from the lower edge of the bar, are moved so that while one dog and one spring are engaging with the ratchet the other dog and other spring are moved away from their ratchet, so as not to engage therewith. At each endwise movement of the bar one dog and one spring are brought into operation with their corresponding ratchet-wheel and the other spring and dog are thrown outof operation. By moving the bar W' endwise the ribbon is caused to reel upon either spool that may be desired, and th us its movement is reversed in the usual manner.
The two dogs Y' are pivoted upon standards Z', so as to have a partial turning movement of their own. At the same time they are given a reciprocating movement each time the feed-bar is moved for the purpose of turning the spool upon which the ribbon is being `reeled. In order to hold these two dogs in Vtheir proper position, their rear ends are connected by a suitable spring b, which allows them a sufficient play at their front ends to engage and disengage from the ratchets in such a manner as to cause the spools to revolve a suitable distance at each movement of the feed-lever. As soon as the dog begins its backward movement, the corresponding spring engages with the ratchet and prevents any backward movement of the spool. It will be seen that the endwise movement of these springs is produced entirely by the rocking movement of the feed-lever, so as to move the ribbon the moment it has been struck bya type, and thus no two type ever strike successively in the same place upon the ribbon. This construction greatly simplifies and cheapens the cost of the machine, and a mechanism is produced for operating the ribbon which is not liable to ever get out of repair while in operation. The sliding bar W' has one of its ends formed into a curved elastic handle c and the outer end of the handle moves back and forth over the projection d, which serves to retain the bar in whatever position it may be adj usted. The only object and use of this endwise-moving bar W' is to reverse the movement of the ribbons, and it is so constructed and arranged that the operator has only to apply one finger Ato the handle formed upon one end,and thus move it in either direction desired. This `construction enables the movement of the ribbon to be reversed by a sin gie movement of the bar WV by one of the fingers.
In order to prevent the free ends of the keylevers and the spacing-bars from having any lateral play or movement, a` curved vertical toothed plate is placed below the lower edge of these levers, and the upper ends of the teeth extend up between the levers, so as to allow them only a vertical play. By means of this construction the key-levers are prevented from being bent or from getting out of position at any time.
As shown in Fig. 9, the type-blocks are secured to the ends of their respective type-bars, having a hole or opening made throughV each one of the blocks to receive the end of the bar, and then the block is fastened into any desired position by means of a set screw. This construction enables the type-block .to be adjusted with the utmost accuracy with very little trouble.
I do not make any claim in this applica- IOC Iog
'tion to the pivoted -shitting-frame carrying the type-bars, whereby/either the upper or lower case of type are brought to the printing-point, as this is made the subject-matterl of my pending application -filed May 2, 1590, Serial No. 350,286. v Having thus described my invention, I claiml. In a type-writer, the combination, with the carriage having two horizontal rack-bars, of type-bars, key-levers, a pivoted feed-lever having one end to oscillate between the rackbars, and a dog vertically pivoted to horizontally vibrate and alternately engage the two racks as the feed-lever moves back and forth between the racks, substantially7 as described.
2. In a type-writer, the combinatiomwith the carriage having two horizontal rack-bars, of type-bars, key-levers, a pivoted feed-lever having one end to oscillate between the rack-V bars, and a dog composed of two independently verticallypivoted parts, which horizontally vibrate and alternately engage the two rack-bars as the feed-lever moves back and forth, substantially as described.
3. In a type-writer, the combination, with a carriage having a rack-bar which is provided with teeth of such size that two equal' one space, of type-bars, key-levers, a pivoted feed-lever, anda dog upon the feed-lever, composed of two parts, each part having a longitudinal movement in the same direction in relation to the carriage, whereby the carriage moves a half space when the feed-lever is depressed and a half space when it is released, for the purpose substantially as described.
4. A dog composed of two parts, which are placed upon the same pivot and which eX- tend in opposite directions and which are made to overlap at their inner ends, in combination with a spring for holding the two parts in a line with each oth r, substantially as described.
5. The combination, in a type-writer, ot` a normally horizontal pivoted type-bar having a downwardly-extending projection adjacent to its pivoted point, and a horizontal key-lever below the type-bar having an upwardlyextending projection which engages the projection of the type-bar, whereby the type-bar and lever normally rest in a line one above the other, substantially as described.
6. In a type-writer, the combination of a separate and disconnected normally horizontal type-bar and key-lever, one having a projection and the other two shoulders in the path traveled by the proj ection,one shoulder for moving the type-bar in one direction and the other for returning it to position, substantially as shown and described.
7. The combination, in a type-writer, of a normally horizontal pivoted type-bar having a downwardly-extending projection near its pivotal point and ahorizont-al key-leverbelow the type-bar, having an upwardly-extending 9. In a'type-Writer, the combination, with the printing mechanism and ribbon-spools, of an L-shaped pi voted feed-lever, and pawls pivoted between their ends upon the upper end of the said lever, and springs secured to their inner ends for holding them in contact with the said ribbon-spools, substantially as shown.
lO. In a type-writer, the combination of the feed-lever, a lever R', having its outer end engaged by the feed-lever, a frame through which the ribbon passes, pivoted at its rear end, and a lever S', connected, respectively, to the inner ends of the ribbon-guiding frame and the lever R. whereby a downward movement of the feed-lever raises the said ribbonguide frame, combined to operate in the manner substantially as described.
Il. The combination, with a type-Wri ter carriage having two parallel racks, of adog composed of two independently-moving parts which extend in opposite directions, and a spring for holding the two parts normally in a line with each other, combined to operate in the manner substantially as described.
l2. In a type-writer, the combination, with the carriage having two parallel racks, of a dog composed of two independently-moving parts which extend in opposite direct-ions, and a set-screw which engages each part for limiting its movement, substantially as shown.
13. In a type-writer, the combination, with the feeding-lever, levers horizontally pivoted upon the upper end of the feed-lever and eX- tending forward for operating the ratchets upon the ribbon-spools, and the endwise-sliding bar W', having notched hangers, which engagethe horizontally-pivoted levers, Substantially as shown and described.
14. The combination, with a type-writer, of a pivoted frame having its free end provided with a slot or opening forthe passage of the type, outwardly-extending divergin g guidingarms, and loops upon opposite sides of the said opening, through which loops the ribbon passes, and a connection between the operating mechanism and the said frame for tilting it, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
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