US448037A - Peters co - Google Patents

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US448037A US448037DA US448037A US 448037 A US448037 A US 448037A US 448037D A US448037D A US 448037DA US 448037 A US448037 A US 448037A
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    • B41J3/00Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed
    • B41J3/36Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed for portability, i.e. hand-held printers or laptop printers


(No Model.) 6 sheens-sheet 1.


No. 448,037. Patent/ed Mar. l0, 1891.


@w GMW (No Model.) 6 sheets-'sheet 2.



No. 448,037. Patented Mar. I0, 1891.

(Ie' Medel.) s sheei-,s--sleeefJ 3.



No. 448,037. I Petented Mee-10,1891.

No Modl.) 6 sheets-sheer, 4.


No. 448,037. Patented Mano, 1891.

(No Model.) 6 Sheets- Sheet 5.



Patented Mar. I0, 1,891.

TH: oms persas co., moro-umu.. mamut-ma. o. c.

(No Model.) -6 Sheets-Sheet 6.



No. 448,037. Patented Mar'. 10, .1891.


SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 448,037, dated March 10, 1891.

Application tiled Jnly`27,1889. Serial No. 318,877. (No model.) Patented in England ,Tune 6, 1889, No. 9,425.

T0 aZZ whom t may concern,.-

Be it known that we, EDWARD SMITH HIG- GrNs and HENRY CHARLES JENKINS, both subjects ot the Queen of England, residing at London, in England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Type-I/Vriters, (for which we have received Letters Patent of Great'Britain, No. 9,425, dated J une 6, 1889,) of which the following is a specification.

This invention, which relates to type-writers, has for its object to simplify the construction of such machines, and has specially among its features to arrange that each letter written shall be apportioned a space proportionate to its requirements-for example, that apportioned tothe letter i to be less than that apportioned to the letter n and that to the letter n less than that to the letter 111, and so on. I/Vherever a particular character requires it, Whether such character be a small or capital letter, figure, or punctuation or other mark, a smaller or larger space will be given to it, according to its dimensions.

In this specification and claims the word case is used to signify a font or set of type characters, the words lower case or stationary case the font or set normally acted upon by the key-levers, and the words upper case, shifting case, or movable case that font or set ,of letters which is normally unacted upon by thekey-levers,butwhich may be operated after depressing a key herein termed the case-changing key.

A machine constructed according to our invention may be provided with a shifting case and a comparatively small key-board by arranging each key to act upon two type characters, or by doubling the number of keys tudinal section. Fig. 7 is a View of a blank from which some of our keylevers are advantageously constructed. Fig. 7 is a plan view of the inner end of` a key-lever. Figs. S and 9 are views of portions of other of the key levers. Fig. 10 is a view of one of some of the secondary or intermediate levers upon which the key-levers directly act. Figs. 1l and 12 are others of the said levers. Fig. 13 is a viewof a portion of one of the type- 'levers, and Fig.14C a transverse section through a portion of one ot' the rails on which the vtype-levers are pivoted. Fig. 15 is a front 4elevation of a portion of the same and other adjacent parts.

Like letters indicate like parts throughout the drawings.

A A is the stationary frame in or on which are mounted all the working parts of the machine.

B are the key-levers, some of which are preferably stamped out of sheet metal in the form shown in Fig. 7, while others are stamped out to the forms partly shown in Figs. 8 and 9, as hereinafter explained.

From Fig. 7, which by the dotted lines indicates the parts at Which the blank is bent to form the finished lever, it will be seen that each key-lever is provided with two platforms ZrL and b5, which are not abreast of each other, and one of which is caused to operate atypecharacter of the upper case, while when such different printing is desired the other platform is caused to effect the printing of a character of the lower case. The wings b, one of which is connected to the main part ofthe lever by a neck be, are for preventing the p articular intermediate lever C, Figs. 5 and 10 to 12, which each of the key-levers B acts upon, from moving laterally out of the position it occupies relatively to the said lever B.

The configuration of the inner ends of the finished key-levers is illustrated in Figs. 7 il, S, and 9, in which the platforms b4 b5 and the guide-wings b are shown as bent into their operative positions.

Upon the upper edge of each of the key-levers Bis formed a projection b', b2, or b3, hereinafter for convenience referred to as the o projection, b2 projection, and the b3 projection. The length of the upper edge of b', as shown ICO clearly by comparing Fig. 7 with Fig. S, is shorter than that of b2, while that of b2, as shown clearly in Figs. 8 and 9, is shorter than that of 123, the number of these different lengths (in this example three) corresponding to the number of different letter-spacings which the machine shown on the drawings is adapted automatically to make. This number, as Valso the numberof platforms, such as b4 b5, may` be varied to suit the conditions which it is intended each machine shall fullill. These key-levers B, to stiffen them, are each preferably embossed with one or more longitudinal corrugations similar to the levers T, (see Fig. 6,) and they are all coaxially pivoted on one stationary rod B', supported in the sides of the frame A, the proper distance between the said levers bein g maintained by collars, bosses, or equivalent means. The forward ends of the key-levers B turn upward, and to the extremity of each of the said upturned ends in the ordinary manner is fixed a button or finger-plate B2, on which is depicted a character which corresponds with the letter or charactercarried bythe type-lever operated by each such key-lever. At these forward ends, also, the key-levers are guided in their vertical movement between pins or wires D, (only one of which is shown in Fig. 5,) which are carried in the bracket-plate D', to which are also secured springs D2, the tendency of which is always to raise the forward and lower the rearward ends of the key-levers B.

D3 is a felt, india-rubber, or equivalent buffer, against which strike the key and other similar operating-levers when they return to theirnormalpositions. Thebefore-mentioned secondary or intermediate levers C, upon two of which each key-lever B is adapted to operate, are all coaxially mounted on the same rod C', which is supported in the more downwardly-projecting arm C2 of two bell-cran k levers, each of which is pivoted at c1@ to one side of the machine. The other arm C3 of each of these bell-crank levers is connected by a link C4 to the rear end of one ofthe two case-chan ging levers T, which are situated at the sides of the machine, and which, like the other key-levers, are pivoted on the rod B and turn up at their forward ends, where they are furnished with finger-plates T'. lt will therefore be seen that Vby depressing one of the levers T, by which is meant the forward end of such lever, the rod C', together with all the intermediate levers C pivoted thereon, will be moved forward, C5 being a spring which will effect the return to their normal positions of all the parts so moved when the lever T is released by the operator. These levers C, which are generally of the shape shown in Fig. l0, are formed at their rear ends each, preferably, with a slot or recess c, these rear ends, to prevent crowding of the parts connected thereto, being alternately of Various lengths, as shown more clearly in Fig. 5. The forward end of each of the levers C is formed with a downwardly-projecting heel c2 and with an upwardly-extending recess c', the former of which is adapted to rest over one of the platforms b4 bS-say the platform Zit-to enable the said lever C to be operated by a key-lever, and the latter is to allow the said key-lever to be depressed without interfering with the lever of the case then out of use, but which lever, when such other case is being used, is over the platform Eesides the recess c' the neck 176 of each lever B is also shaped so as to give ample clearance between the levers B and C by being bent slightly downward, as clearly shown in Figs. 8 and 9. The forward and backward sides c3 of each of the heels c2 incline upward in the manner shown in Figs. 10 to l2, so as to enable the said heel to ride up onto one of the platforms b4 b5 should the said platforms be elevated before the case-changing lever is operated.

Instead of having` two platforms b4 and b5 on the key-lever B and the heels c2 all at the same distance from the fulcrum C', it is obvious that we may have a single platform on each lever B and arrange the heels c2 of the upper and lower case levers C at different distances from the fulcrurn C'.

Where it is desired to apportion to the characters of the movable case greater space than to the corresponding characters of the other case, we provide on each of the levers C which operates such a character a projection or working-face c4 or c5, the length of the length of the upper edge of the l'atter of whichis greater than that of the former, as shown in Figs. ll and l2.

To compensate for the loss or gain of motion derived from the irregularity in the lengths of the rear ends of the levers C, the levers connected to their forward or backward ends are formed irregular to secure in themselves an inverse result, which, together with the movements of the said levers C, causes a practically equal amount of motion to be imparted to all the key and type levers. These type-levers E are preferably arranged in two tiers, each consisting of a partly-cirl cular gallery, as shown in Figs. l, 2, and 5, and each type-lever at its lower end is advantageously formed in the manner shown most clearly in Fig. 13, the lengthof those of one tier differing from those of the other tier, so that all the types E2 may strike at the same point. In Fig. 13, e is a semicircular recess, and e' and e2 perforations, the former, as shown in Fig. 5, for receiving the upper end of one of the links F, which connect together the levers C and E, and the other for receiving the upper end of one of the springs E', the lower end of which spring is in any convenient manner fastened to the foot of the standard G', secured to the vertical part A' of the frame A A', which part A' supports the galleries of type-levers. It is by these springs E' that the type-leversE are caused to return to their normal positions when the key-levers are released by the op- IOO ITO


erator. The lower end of each ot' the typelevers E terminates in a heel e3 for the purpose of securing it against longitudinal deviation at the time of making an imprintingstroke, as hereinafter described. The semicircular recesses e of the type-levers E fit over the rail G, which, besides being curved to the arc of a circle throughout its length,

is also partly circular in sect-ion. Each of these rails G, of which there are two, one for each tier of type-levers, is formed integrally with the standard G', which is suitably secured to the vertical frame A'. vers E are held apart from each other by the teeth or prongs g of a curved comb-like structure G2, which is screwed or otherwise secured to the rail-standard G' in any convenient manner, and one of the said teeth passes between every two type-levers. (See Figs. 2, 5, and l5.) The back or continuous part g of the comb G2 serves as a 'stop against which the lower or rearward end of each type-lever E strikes when it is caused to make an .iin-` printing action, at which time the heel e3 projects up at the back of the stop g' and secures the said type-lever against moving longitudinally.

Each of the links F, by which the levers C are connected to the type-levers E, is formed in two parts, which are united by a nut F', screw-threaded right and left handed or otherwise arranged, so as to provide for the elective lengths of such link being adjusted.

rllhe type-levers may, if desired, be formed with embossed corrugations, so as to stiften them, and when they are drawn back to their normal positions by the springs E' they strike against an india-rubber or equivalent butter A2, so as to prevent undue vibration and noise.

H is the paper-carriage` which in the ordinary manner is capable of being moved in the direction of its length along or across from side to side of the machine in guides A3 in the frame A, J being a barrel containing a spring which,through a chain or the like, (represented in Fig. 6 by a dot-and-dash line 3,) always tends to draw the carriage in the direction indicated by the arrow ,e in Figs. 1,2, and 6. The power exerted bythe last-mentioned spring may, if necessary, be adj usted by winding it upthrough the media of the square-ended spindle j (to which one of its ends is connected) and a key, after the manner of winding up a clock, the ratchetv and pawl j?, Fig. 4, serving to retain the spring against unwinding accidentally.

J are anti-friction rollers, over which the carriage H rolls, so as to reduce the friction between the said carriage and the guides A3. The earriageH, in the usual manner, carries a paper-roller K, which may be of the ordinary construction, and which is secured fast upon the shaft K', supported in the standards H', which form part of the said carriage. Each of these standards H' is formed with two projecting lugs or bearings h and h', the

The type-le- Y former for supporting one end of the rod K2, andthe latter for'supporting one end of the rod K3, the opposite ends of the rods K2 and K3 being similarly supported in the standard H' at the opposite end of the carriage. The rod K2 is capable of being rotated in the bear-l ings h, and is furnished with a wire loop or frame K4, which is adapted to press upon the periphery of the roller K by means of the spring` K5, one end of which is secured in the rod K2 and the other end of which passes beneath the adjacent projecting bearing h, as shown in Fig. 2. 'On the right-hand end of the rod K2is secured a lever-arm K6, by pressing down which the wire frame K4 can be moved out of contact with the roller K. The rod K3 is securely iXed in the bearings h', and into this rod, as shown clearly in Fig. 5, are secured the ends of the springs K7, the middle portions of which form axles upon which rollers K8 are free to rotate, the springs K7 holding the said rollers KS in contact with the surface of the roller K. i

Upon,preferably, the right-hand end of the shaft K' and outside of the standard H' at that end are secured a milled head K9 forenabling the roller to be turned by hand and a ratchet-wheel K10, with the teeth of which engages a pawl K11, pivoted to a bracket K12, which is capable of oscillating on the said shaft K at the inner side ot' the ratchetwheel, as shown in Fig. 6. 'lhe pawl K11 is formed in part with ahandle K13, by means of which it may be disengaged by hand from the teeth of the ratchet-wheel K10,with which it is usually held in engagement by a spring K14, which is secured to the bracket K12. This bracket K12 is slotted or recessed to receive one end ot the link L, which is pivoted thereto, and the other end ot which link, as shown in Fig. 3, is formed with a slot L', which receives a screw or pin m5, by which the said link is jointed to a lev-er M. The pin m5 lnay be inserted in either of two or more holes m6, formed in the lever M, so as to enable the mot-ion imparted to the roller K through the pawl K11 to be adjusted. This lever M is pivoted atm to the adjacent standard H' and at its free or forward end terminates in a handle in', and upon its rearward end acts a spring m2, which tends always to draw the said lever into theposition in which it is represented in Fig. 3. The upper edge of the lever M is formed with a notch or recess Imi; for receiving the projection n, hereinafter referred to, and the said lever is also formed with an angularly-shaped slot m4 for receiving a projection n. The projections n and 'a' are formed on t-he upper ends of a lever n2, pivoted at n4 to the adjacent standard H', this lever, as shown in Fig. 6, forming one end of the swinging escapement-rack N, at the opposite end of which is formed an arm n4, by which said rack is pivoted to the adjacent standard H' in a manner similar to that at which it is pivoted at the first-mentioned end. By this arrangement it will be seen that by IOO IIO

y depressing the forward end of the lever M the rack N may be moved from the position in which it is shown in full lines to that in which it is shown in dotted lines in Fig. 3, and at `the same time the rollerK may be moved round upon its axis.

H2 is a handle secured to the carriage H and adapted to be used in conjunction with the lever M for moving the said carriage by hand.

O is a shaft supported at its ends in the frame A, and which is capable of being os cillated by a crank-arm O' and other means hereinafter described.

O2 is a sleeve which is securely fastened t0 the shaft O and on which is formed an arm O3, the outer end of which, as shown in Fig. 4, is notched or toothed to correspond with the teeth of the rack N. In this sleeve there is secured a feather o, over which another sleeve Olis capable of being lnoved longitudinally, but which feather prevents the sleeve OAL from being moved on its axis independently of the sleeve O2. On this sleeve O4 is also formed an arm O5, the outer end of which, like that of the arm O3, is notched to correspond with the rack N, as shown in Figs. 4 and 6. This arm O5, as shown clearly in Fig. 5, is slightly wider than the arm O3, and, regarded longitudinally, the said arms O3 and O5 are seen to overlap each other to a small extent. The closed end 0' of the sleeve O4 fits around and is capable of sliding on the shaft O, and against the inner face of this end bears one end of a spring o2, the opposite end of which bears against the sleeve O2, so as to tend always to move the sleeve O4 in the direction indicated by the arrow y in Fig. 6- thatis to say, away from the sleeve O2. Beyond its closed end othe sleeve O4is reduced in diameter, so as to form a shoulder or face o3, which, like the extreme face 04, has a distinct function to perform in the letter-spacing operations, as hereinafter explained. The reduced portion o5 4is adapted to enter a recess o of a collar o7, secured upon the shaft O, and the effective face of which in Fig. 6 is marked 0S. The extent of longitudinal motion of which the sleeve O4 is capable is limited between the position in which itis shown in Fig. G-that is, where the arms O3 and O5 abut against each other-and the position in which it is represented in Fig. 4, where the faces 03 and o8 abut against each other, the reduced portion o5 in this last-described position being within the recess 0G. This maximum amount of motion corresponds to the greatest space which maybe given to any one of the printing` characters of the machine now being described; but this maximum motion in another machine may begreater or less than in the example here given.

P', P2, and P3 are three th ree-sided frames all pivoted on two studs p, one secured into each side of the frame A, as shown in Figs. 3

`yand 5. The longitudinal member of each of the frames (which members are hereinafter referred to as the frames P", P2, and P3) extend from side to side of the machine, that marked P' passing over all the before-described projections 192172, and b3 of the keylevers B, thatmarked Pzover all the projections 192 and b3, but not over the projections b', and that marked P3 over all the projections b3, but not over the projections b' and b2 of thesaid key-levers. At each end the frame P' is formed in one withor secured to au arm 1J', the free end of which, as shown in Fig. 5, is forked and engages with the pin of the crank-arm Q', which, as before described, is secured rigidly upon the shaft O.

p2 is a spring, one similar to which is applied to each of the frames P', P2, and P3 for drawing it down after the key-levers are released.

U is a key-lever, which, like the other heylevers B, is pivoted on the rod B', and the rearward end of which terminates in an upturned projection, the upper edge of which, like one of .the projections b2. extends beneath the frames P and P2. This key-lever is for blank-spacing, orinstead of the blankspacing being effected by a projection on the lever U, bearing directly against the under side of the frames P' and P2, the said lever U may effect such spacing through a lever such as that shown in Figs. 1l and l2, which, however, will not be connected to a typedever, but will at its forward end be provided with a projection or working-face extending under so many of those of the frames P' P2 P3 as may be necessary. In some machines we may altogether omit the projections uponthe key-levers B and effect the letter-spacing `by the operation of one or more frames-such as P', P2, and PS-by projections or workingfaces formed on the levers C, so as to operatev one, two, or more of such frames. (See Figs. ll and l2.) Instead of having the projections b b2 b3 upon the levers B, the arrangement may be reversed, the projections being upon the frames P' P2 P3, and the levers plain.

To each of the frames lP2 and P3 there is pivoted the lower end of a link p3, the upper end of one of which is jointed to an arm P4, that of the other link being jointed to a similar arm P5, as shown more clearly in Fig. 4. These arms are adapted to limit the extent of the spaces given to the printing characters by arresting the movement of the sleeve O4, as hereinafter explained. The pivot p4 of the arms P4 P5 is carried in a small frame P6, which is mount-ed on guide-rods p5, Fig. 4,'so that it is capable of being moved vertically up and down. On the pivotp4 are also jointed cthe upper ends of two curved links p, Figs.

4 and 5, the lowerends of these links being pivoted on a bar p7, carried in the rear ends of two spacing-key levers p8, which are united at their forward vends by a finger-board pi.

Q is a bracket, which is secured to the base orstationary frame A of the machine in any convenient manner and extends forward over the paper-rollerK in the mannerindicat-ed in IIO Figs. 2 and 3. The upper extremity of this bracket is forked to receive the arm Q', which is pivoted t-herein, and to the forward end of which is connected the upper extremity 0f the spring q, the lower extremity of which is secured to a fixed eye q', the tendency of this spring being always to raise the rear end of the arm Q. This rear end has a covering` or inking-pad q2, of suitable material, such as felt or the like, for absorbing a quantity of ink.

Q2 is a roller of suitable composition or material for distributing the ink over the surface otl the pad q2,this roller being pivoted on a (preferably) wire spindle Q2, the ends of which are looped, so that they maybe guided vertically on two rods C14, which are secured to the bracket Q. Springs or other equivalent means may beemployed for increasing the pressure of the roller Q2 on the inkingpad q2.

R is a plate preferably bent to an angle, asv

shown in Figs. 3 and 5, and which is secured to the bracket Q in any desired manner. This plate, as shown in Fig. 6, is formed with aY- shaped recess R', into which each ot' the typelevers passes when caused to make an imprinting action. The incline-sided mouth o" of this recess serves to direct the type-levers into the lower or parallel-sided part r, in which the type-levers are all in the precise horizontal position for printing, and which serves to lock or secure the said levers against lateral displacement when operated for printing. This parallel-sided part ot the recess constitutes the center from which are struck the curves ot' the galleries on which are pivoted the type-levers. It desired, the plate R may be dispensed with andthe lateral locking of the type-carrying ends of the type-levers E may be effected by causing such ends to pass between prongs carried by the free end of the inking-arm Q, as indicated by dotted lines in Figs. 5, 2, and 21.

S is a rod which is secured against longitudinal motion at one end in a lug or bracket s, Figs. l and 5, formed on the carriage H, and at its other end in a hole formed in the standard H atthe left-hand side of the machine.

S is an arm, the position of which may be adjusted on the rod S, and which may be secured in any such position by a bindingscrew s.

S4 is a spring which holds the arm S in the position in which it is shown in Fig. 5, a suitable stop being provided to prevent the outer end of said arm from moving to a lower position. The spring s4, however, allows the free end of the arm S to be raised, but returns it to the position shown in Fig. 5 immediately after the cause for its uprising has been removed.

S2 is the gong which this arm is indirectly caused to sound through the hammer S2, which is best represented in dotted lines in Fig. l.' This hammer S2 is carried on the flexible end s2 of a lever S4, which is pivotedl at S2, Fig. l, to the frame A, and on the other desired length of time.

end of which lever the arm S is adapted to act for operating the said hammer.

S5 is a spring for throwing' the hammer against the gong immediately after the lever is released from the pressure of thevarm S. In its return movement the spring s4 allows the arm S to tilt upward when passing across the inclined end of the lever S4.

The before-described machine may be provided with means for retaining the movable case continuously in action, so as to print, for example, in capital letters only, for any Supposing the machine to be in a normal condition-that is to say, with none ot the keys depressed and otherwise ready for work, with the carriagefl in its farthermost right-hand position and the before-mentioned toothed arm O5 engag- 1 ing with the rack N of the escapement and abutting against the arm O3the operation ofv j the said machine may be described as follows: The top edge of the sheet of paper which is lto be written upon is inserted between the frame K4 and the roller K of the said frame by means of the handle K6 being moved out of contact with the, roller. The roller K is then rotated by means ot the milled head K9,

so that the upper edge ofthe paper is inserted between the rollers K and K2. For the convenience of this description let it now be supposed that it is desired to print the letteri or some other such letter which requires to Abe apportioned but a small amount of space.

The key-lever B corresponding to that letter is depressed in the usual manner,and through the platform b4 at the rearward end of the said l'ever operates the lever C and through it draws down the i type-lever. In its descent the type-letter E2, carried by this lever E, strikes upon the inking-pad q2, which thereby inks the type, but at the same time recedes from the type by the arm Q turning on its pivot until it is clear of the printingface of the said type, which then terminates its descent by striking on the paper, and thus printing the letter L Then the i keylever is released, it is raised by the spring D2 beneath it and the i type-lever E is drawn back to its normal position by its spring E. So soon as the type-letter E2 clears the inking-pad q2 in its upward course the said pad, under the iniiuenc'e of the spring q, moves backward and causes the roller Q2 to vroll over its surface, and thus distribute the ink thereon. Now, as the letter i occupies but a minimum amount of space, the key-lever B by which it is operated is provided with a b projection only-that is to say, one of the projections which are adapted to raise the frame P only and leave the frames P2 and P2 undisturbed. It is therefore only the frame P which is raised when the i keylever is depressed, with the result that through the forked arm p', crank o', and rod O the toothed arm O5 is tilted backward out of engagement with the rack N; but just before it is quite so disengaged the toothed arm IOO O3 engages with 'the said raclr, and thus for the time locks it in the position it then occupies. So soon as the teeth of the arm O5 are clear of the rack N the said arm, under the iniiuence of the spring 02, is forced in the direction indicated by the arrow 'y in Fig. 6 until its progress is arrested by the face o4 abutting against the arm P5, which, as also the arm P,is then laid across the path which extends onward to the collar 07. \Vhen the i key-lever is released and its rearward end thereby allowed to descend, the frame P, under the inuence of one of the before-inentioned springs p2, is also caused-to descend and at the same time the toothed arm O3 to be disengaged from the rack N; but before being quite disengaged the teeth of the arm O5 are caused to engage with the rack. Immediately after the arm O3 has been disengaged from the rack lY the escapement-spring in the barrel J, overpowering the spring 02, draws along carriage 1I until it is stopped by the arm O5, which has been drawn along with it, striking against the arm O5, the carriage and the paper having thus been caused to travel to an extent corresponding to what may be termed a half-letter space.7 Now, supposing the nextletter desired to be written is one which necessitates the apportioning to it of what may be termed a full-letter spacesuch a letter, for example, as nthe course pursued, so far as regards the operator, is identically the same as that already described with regard to the writing of the letter i 5 but the key-lever B of this letter n,7 instead of being formed with a b projection, is formed with a b2 projection-that is to say. a projection adapted to raise both the frames P and P2 and leave the frame P3 undisturbed.

The function performed by the raising of the frame P in all instances being the same, it is now only necessary to describe how the mechanism is caused to make letter-spaces which shall be greater than those which can be made by the operation of the frame P. By the operation of, say, the n key-lever and the consequent simultaneous uprising of the frames P and P2 by the b2 projection, with which it is provided, the escapement is operated as before; but through the link p3, which connects the frameP2 with the arm P5, the'said arm P5 is raised, so that the toothed arm O5, under the influence of the spring 02, flies toward the collar cT and is stopped only when it abuts against the then unraised arm P4, whichisat thetimeinterposed betweenthefaee o4 and collar o7, so that the toothed arm has been carried through on e half-letter space (the minimum amount) consequent upon the rising of the frame P and another half-letter space consequent upon the withdrawal of the half-letterspacethick arm P5 from across the path leading to the collar o7. Assuming that the next letter or character it is desired to write be one which necessitates the apportionment of what for convenience we term a atacar 'until its travel in that direction is arrested by the face o3 abutting against the arm P5, which, with the arm P4, is then elevated into such a position as to allow only the reduced portion o5 of the sleeve O4 to move beneath them, both the said arms being at the time interposed between the face o3 and the collar 07. By thus having removed from the path of the sleeve O5 the two half-letter-space-thick arms PAl and P5 the toothed arm O5 moves toward the right of the machine to the'extent of a one-an d-a-half-letter space, the distance between the faces 03 and 04 being equal to two half-letter spaces, so that as soon as the particular key-lever in operation is released and the arm O3 consequentlydisengaged from and the arm O5 engaged with the rack the escape- I ment-spring in the barrel J will draw the carriage Il toward the left of the machine to the said extent. If a character of the stationary case requires, say, a half-letter space, and the corresponding character of the movable case requires, say, a whole-letter space, then the key-lever B of that particular letter is formed with a b `projection for operating only the frame P', and the lever C, which is adapted to be operated by the platform b5 of that key-lever, is formed with a projection or face c4, which, as shown clearly in Fig. ll, will raise the frame P2. If a character of the movable case requires, for example, a oneand-a-half-letter space and the corresponding letter of the stationary case, for example, but a half-letter space, then the particular keylever B of that character has a b projection, as before, and the corresponding lever C a c5 projection or working-face, as shown in Fig. 12. The shifting ot' the case necessary for making these last-mentioned changesA is effected by depressing one of the levers T, so as to move the heels c2 of one set of the levers C oft the platforms b4 and the heels c2 of the other set of the said levers C onto the platforms b5, in which latter position the said levers (i are shown in Fig. 5. It will be seen that should one of the keylevers B be depressed while a change is being made from lower to upper case the forward movement of the inclined sides c3 of the heel c2 corresponding to the particular key-lever so depressed by riding up onto the platform b5 will still cause the particular lever C of the shitting case to be operated and the desired letter to be printed on the paper. Similarly, should any such key-lever be depressed when the case-changing key is released, the rear inclined side b5 will have a like effect. Vhen the end of a word is reached and it is desired while printing the last letter of the word to IOO ITO

make provision for a space between it'and the next to be written, the operator will depressthe finger-board p9 at the front of the machine, and thus, through the rod p7 and links p5, raise the pivot p4, which will have the effect of raising the arms P1 and P5 clear of the face o4 of the sleeve O4, and thus when a key-lever B is depressed the face o3 is used in the place of and in a manner similar to the face 01, which has been before described, to limit the extent of movement toward the right, the farthermost positionof the sleeve Oi1 in that direction being that in which the reduced portion o5 is within the recess 06. So soon as the key-levers B and 8 are released the escapement-spring, as be ore described, overpowering the spring o2, draws along the carriage until it is stopped by the arm O5 abutting against the arm O3, and the pivot `p4 is lowered to its normal position. If spacing without striking a letter is desired, the keylever U may be repeatedly depressed until the required amount of space is obtained. lVhen the paper being written upon has been moved by the carriage H to the required distance across the machine, which will be announced to the operator by the sounding of the gong S2, (the position of the signaling-arm S having been previously adjusted on the rod S,) the carriage H must be returned to the right-hand side of the machine in order to commence a fresh line of writing. For

` this purpose the operator grasps the two handles H2 and m and presses the latter toward the former, and in so doing [irst releases the projection n from the recess m3, and then by the upper side of the slot m4 pressing against the projection n tilts over the rack N into the position indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 3, so as to be clear of the arms O3 and O5, the slot L being of such length that up to this time no motion has been imparted to the link L. Upon further pressing the handle m toward thehandle II2 motion is communicated through the link L, pawl`K11, and ratchetwheel K10 to the roller K, so that the paper is moved through the distance which has been previously provided for by the particular position which the pin m5 occupies in the lever M. The operator then, with the handle m still pressed down, draws the carriage to the right to the desired position for the commencement of another line of printing or writing. The length of the slot L enables the operator to release the rack N from the arms Oiand O5for moving the carriage across the machine without affecting the line-spacing mechanism, and by the provision of the handle K13 the pawl K11 may be released from the ratchet-wheel K10, and by means of the milled head K9 the paper be moved backward or forward through and without affecting other parts of the machine than roller K.

The machine may be furnished with guides for suitably conductingthe paper to and from the roller K.

Certain of the before-described improvements, in place of being used in a general combination to form a complete type-writer, such as is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, may be applied to type-writers of other construction.

An important feature of the before-described type-writer is that a practically uninterrupted view of the writing as it is produced is always to be had.

Instead of operating the escapement in the manner hereinbefore described, we can arrange it to be operated so that the arm O3 is normally engaged with the rack N', as is the arm O5 in the arrangement described, and the arm O5 will be normally disengaged from but will move along the carriage in the previously-explained manner.

Ve are aware that it is not new to operate the escapement of the paper-carriage of a type-writer by a frame, such as P', worked by the key-levers, and therefore make no claim to such part individually.

We claiml. In a type-writer, a key-lever, a group of secondary levers, a corresponding group of type-levers, and shiftable connections between said levers, whereby the key-lever may be connected with either type-lever of the group, substantially as described.

2. In combination, a key-lever, a group of secondary levers, a movable fulcrum therefor, laterally-extending platforms upon the key-lever, and a heel upon each secondary lever, adapted to ride upon one of the plat-- forms, substantially as described.

3. In a type-writer, a key-lever, a movable group of secondary levers, means for moving the secondary levers to engage any one thereof separately with the key-lever, and a group of type-levers, each type-lever being connected to a secondary lever, substantially as described.

4. In combination, a key-lever having aprojection or platform and a secondary lever mounted upon a movable fulcrum and provided with a heel having inclined sides, said heel being adapted to rest upon the said platform, substantially as described.

In a variable feed mechanism, a group of frames and a series of key-levers, each bearing a projection, said projections varying in size according to the number of frames desired to be engaged thereby, substantially as described.

6. In combination, a key-lever, a secondary lever operated thereby, and a group of frames forming part of a variable feeding mechanism, said secondary, lever having a projection which is adapted to engage selected frames, substantially as described.

7. In combination, a key-lever, a group of secondary levers movably mounted, type-levers, connections between the type-levers and the secondary levers, a variable feeding device, and means for causing the key-lever to IIO engage either secondary lever and to produce a corresponding movement of the feeding device, substantially as described.

S. In combinatioma key-lever, a feeding device, a secondary lever movably mounted, and means for moving said secondary lever simultaneously into or out of engagement with the key-lever and the feeding device,-

substantially as described.

9. In combination, a key-lever, a group of type-levers, a variable feeding mechanism, and shiftable connections between said parts, whereby the key-lever may operate either type-lever and cause an appropriate movement of the feeding device, substantially as described.

10. In a type-writer escapement, a rack, two coaXially-mounted arms, each bearing a plurality of teeth, and means for vibrating the arms, substantially as described.

l1. In a feeding device, a rack, fixed and sliding coaXially-mounted arms, each bea-rin g a plurality of teeth and adapted to engage the rack, and movable stops for variably limiting the travel of the sliding arm, substantially as described.

12. In a feeding device, a rack, fixed and sliding coaxiallymounted pawls, stepped faces upon the sliding pawl, and a stop movable so as to engage either or neither of the faces, substantially as described.

13. In a type-writer, the combination, with a pivoted ink-pad and types and type-levers for swinging the same, of a distributing-roller arranged to pass over the pad at each of its vibrations.

14. In combination with the supportingbracket, the ink-pad pivoted thereto and normally in the path of the types, the inkingroller, and the guides for said roller, substantially as described.

Al5. In a type-writer, a pivoted inliing-pad forked at its free end, as and for the purpose described.

16. The combination, with the type-lever E, having segmental notch e, of the rail G and comb G2, substantially as described.

17. The combination, with the typelevers having notches c and heels c3, of the rail G and overlying stop-rail g', substantially as described.

18. The combination, with the line-spacing ratchet and pawl and the operating-lever, of the adjustable link L for varying the line space, substantially as described.

19. The combination, with the pivotedrack having the projections n and n', of the lever having the recesses m3 and m4 and the spring m2, substantially as described.

In testimony whereof we have hereto set our hands in the presence of the two su bscribing witnesses.



JAMES ALLEN, J nnr., Solicitor, 8 Olcl Jewry, London.

WALTER VVHITAKER, Clerk to Mess. Allen d' ErlwcmlsgSol/rs., S Old Jewry, E. O'.

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2469390A (en) * 1946-05-10 1949-05-10 Victor Adding Machine Co Key lever spacer and guide for stenographic machines
US5704089A (en) * 1993-03-29 1998-01-06 Walters; Vicki R. Heater fin cleaning device
US20050265430A1 (en) * 1995-06-30 2005-12-01 Interdigital Technology Corporation System for using rapid acquisition spreading codes for spread-spectrum communications

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2469390A (en) * 1946-05-10 1949-05-10 Victor Adding Machine Co Key lever spacer and guide for stenographic machines
US5704089A (en) * 1993-03-29 1998-01-06 Walters; Vicki R. Heater fin cleaning device
US20050265430A1 (en) * 1995-06-30 2005-12-01 Interdigital Technology Corporation System for using rapid acquisition spreading codes for spread-spectrum communications

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