US4558228A - Energy converter - Google Patents

Energy converter Download PDF

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Publication number
US4558228A
US4558228A US06509442 US50944283A US4558228A US 4558228 A US4558228 A US 4558228A US 06509442 US06509442 US 06509442 US 50944283 A US50944283 A US 50944283A US 4558228 A US4558228 A US 4558228A
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Grant
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Prior art keywords
rotor
generator
energy converter
turbine
gas
Prior art date
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Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US06509442
Inventor
Jaakko Larjola
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High Speed Tech Ltd Oy
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Jaakko Larjola
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/18Structural association of electric generators with mechanical driving motors, e.g. turbine
    • H02K7/1807Rotary generators
    • H02K7/1823Rotary generators structurally associated with turbines or similar engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D15/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby
    • F01D15/10Adaptations for driving, or combinations with, electric generators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D25/00Component parts, details, or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, other groups
    • F01D25/18Lubricating arrangements
    • F01D25/22Lubricating arrangements using working-fluid or other gaseous fluid as lubricant
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K17/00Asynchronous induction motors; Asynchronous induction generators
    • H02K17/42Asynchronous induction generators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K21/00Synchronous motors having permanent magnets; Synchronous generators having permanent magnets
    • H02K21/12Synchronous motors having permanent magnets; Synchronous generators having permanent magnets with stationary armatures and rotating magnets
    • H02K21/14Synchronous motors having permanent magnets; Synchronous generators having permanent magnets with stationary armatures and rotating magnets with magnets rotating within the armatures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/08Structural association with bearings
    • H02K7/083Structural association with bearings radially supporting the rotary shaft at both ends of the rotor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/10Combined combustion
    • Y02E20/14Combined heat and power generation [CHP]

Abstract

The invention concerns an energy converter, comprising a boiler, a turbine (11), a condenser, a feed pump (16) and a generator (17) and, if required, a recuperator and a pre-feeding pump. The thermal energy to be supplied to the boiler has been arranged to maintain a Rankine process driving the generator (17) and thus to produce electricity. The turbine (11), the generator (17) and the feed pump (16) have a joint rotor shaft (36). The rotor (36) is rotatably carried with gas-dynamic bearings (24) utilizing the circulating fluid's vapor. The lower surface of the rotor (21) of the turbine (11) has been disposed to serve as one abutment surface of a gas-static thrust bearing (22). The gas-dynamic bearings (24) are bearings of tilting pad type.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention concerns an energy converter comprising a boiler, a turbine, a condenser, a feed pump and a generator and, if needed, a recuperator and a pre-feeding pump, in said energy converter the thermal energy to be supplied to the boiler having been arranged to maintain a cyclic process driving the generator and thereby to produce electricity, and in said energy converter the turbine, generator and feed pump having a joint rotor.

Ample quantities of high-grade waste heat are released by industry and by ships, such as flue gases and hot process gases. The energy contained in these cannot often be utilized directly as heat energy, among other things because of great transport distances and/or surplus supply of heat energy at the site producing the waste energy. It is for his reason that particularly in the U.S.A. and in the U.K., where there is little district heating activity, development work has been started on an energy converter for converting this waste heat into electricity. It is based on the conventional power plant process wherein an organic liquid is used as circulating fluid instead of water. The existing state of art will become apparent e.g. by reference to: Giglioli, G. et al: Tetrachloro-ethylene Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery from ceramic tunnel kilns, SAE/P-78/75, 1978 and to U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,061,733 and 2,961,550.

The planned and constructed experimental plants are however usually based on conventional power plant technology, in other words, they comprise an impulse turbine, speed changing gears, slip ring seals, a lubrication system, a vacuum pump, etc. This implies that they require maintenance, their efficiency is low and they are expensive. In hermetic designs (in the U.S. patents cited above) liquid-lubricated bearings have been employed, which at the very high speeds of rotation involved wear out relatively fast and also require a special pipe system to convey the lubricating liquid of the present invention is to achieve an improvement in these energy converters of prior art. A more detailed object of the invention is to provide an energy converter the Rankine process of which is totally enclosed, thereby obviating seals and vacuum pumps, and wherein the bearing arrangement has been carried out with virtually wear-free gas bearings (with continuous service life more than 100,000 hrs), of which the radial bearings function with the ambient process fluid vapour, and that for turbine and feed pump are used inexpensive single-stage radial machines in which the lower surface of the turbine rotor constitutes one abutment face of a gas thrust bearing. In this manner the converter has been rendered maintenance-free and, moreover, low in price owing to its simplicity. Furthermore, the minimal friction of a gas bearing, compared with liquid-lubricated ones, improves the efficiency of the turbo-generator. The other objectives of the invention and the advantages gained by it will be apparent in the disclosure of the invention.

The objectives of the invention are attained by means of an energy converter which is mainly characterized in that the shaft has been rotatably carried with gas-dynamic bearings using the vapour of the circulating fluid, and that the lower surface of the turbine rotor has been disposed to serve as one abutment face of a gas-static thrust bearing.

The energy converter of the invention may be provided with valves, and the condenser placed at a suitable elevation so that the apparatus is able to start on thermal power alone.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention is described in detail by referring to an advantageous embodiment of the invention presented in the figures of the drawings attached, to which, however, the invention is not meant to be exclusively confined.

FIG. 1 presents the flow circuit of the energy converter of the invention.

FIG. 2 presents an advantageous embodiment of the central part of the energy converter of FIG. 1, i.e., the combination of turbo-generator and feed pump, in schematic sectional view.

FIG. 3 shows the schematic cross section of the generator rotor of the means of FIG. 2 in the case in which the generator is a synchronous machine.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The general design of the energy converter according to the invention depicted in FIG. 1 is as follows. The circulating fluid, for instance C2 Cl3 F3, is evaporated with the aid of waste heat energy in the boiler 10; it expands in the turbine 11, cools down in the recuperator 12 (which may or may not be provided) and condenses in the condenser 13, in which e.g. raw water or outdoor air serves as the condensation-inducing fluid 14. The feed pump 16 feeds the circulating fluid directly or through the recuperator 12 (if incorporated in the process) back to the boiler 10. The circuit moreover comprises a prefeeding pump 15 to counteract cavitation in the feed pump 16. The high frequency current 18 produced by the generator 17 is converted by the circuit 19 to become a stabilized current 20 fit to be fed into the standard electric network. If an asynchronous machine is used for generator, the electric circuit 19 also supplies the magnetizing current. The turbine 11, the generator 17 and the feed pump 16 have a joint rotor shaft 36.

In FIG. 2 are shown the salient components of the combination of the turbo-generator and feed pump set apart in FIG. 1 with dotted lines. The expansion of the circulating fluid vapour takes place in the radial turbine 11, the lower surface of its rotor 21 at the same time serving as one surface of the gas-static thrust bearing 22. In this manner, the thrust bearing could be made exceedingly simple of its construction and, in addition, turbulence losses at the turbine disk are avoided. The supporting gas film in the bearing in question is produced with fresh vapour 23. The type of the generator 17 may be either an asynchronous machine, in which case the rotor 25 must have some kind of squirrel-cage winding and the stator 26 must be supplied with magnetizing power e.g. through a capacitive circuit, or the generator may a synchronous machine, in which case the rotor 25 has been permanently magnetized. The radial bearings 24 are gas-dynamic bearings, operating with the ambient process fluid vapour, without separate supply. The bearings 24 of the gas-dynamic type are preferably tilting pad bearings (in German: Kippsegmentlager) which are stable even at very high angular velocities and simultaneous minor radial loads. Ordinary ball bearings would wear our very rapidly, as would liquid-lubricated hydrodynamic bearings; and the conventional hydrodynamic bearings or conventional gas bearings would in addition be unstable in the mode of loading here concerned. The feed pump 16 is a single-stage turbo pump with contactless seal. The leakage flow 27 is returned to the condenser 13.

The squirrel-cage winding of the rotor 25 of the asynchronous generator may be formed in that simply axial grooves 28 have been cut in a steel cylinder and short-circuiting rings 29 e.g. of copper have been mounted on the ends. A design like has great advantages of structural strength in high-speed asynchronous machines.

The permanently magnetized rotor of the synchronous generator may be constructed, considering the enormous centrifugal forces, in the following way. As shown in FIG. 3, upon the steel cylinder 32 constituting the rotor is mounted a sleeve 34, made of aluminium or another non-magnetic material, and powerful permanent magnets 33, made e.g. of samarium/cobalt, are embedded in the sleeve 34 to extend just into contact with the cylinder 32 and to produce two or more poles on the rotor. Finally, to prevent detachment of the pieces, a band 35 made of a very strong, non-magnetic material, such as reinforced plastic, is applied tightly over the sleeve. A structure able to stand the immense centrifugal forces of a high-speed rotor has hereby been obtained.

The boiler 10, the recuperator 12 (if any) and the condenser 13 may be positioned so that after the circulation is interrupted, enough liquid may flow into the boiler 10 via the check valve 30 to suffice as it is evaporated to run the joint rotor of the turbo-generator and feed pump up to operating speed and thus to start up the apparatus on thermal power alone. The valve 31 ensures adequate initial pressure.

As can be understood from the preceding disclosure, the apparatus is a completely hermetic entity: nothing is carried out from the process but the electrical leads, and the bearing arrangements from the turbine, generator and feed pumps have been managed with gas films involving no abrasion of metallic surfaces. The pre-feeding pump 15 can be made hermetically sealed and maintenance-free by conventional technique (submerged pumps; ball bearings lubricated by the circulating fluid) thanks to the low operating pressure required. Therefore the invention meets the requirements imposed regarding freedom of maintenance, and calculations have shown that with its aid low costs per unit are achievable for the entire energy converter, as a result of the high efficiency of single-state radial machines and of the simple design of the turbo-generator and feed pump.

Only one advantageous embodiment of the invention has been presented in the foregoing and it is obvious to a person skilled in the art that this may be modified in numerous different ways within the scope of the inventive idea stated in the claims following below.

Claims (7)

I claim:
1. In an energy converter, comprising a feed pump having a pump rotor, a generator having a generator rotor, and a gas turbine having a turbine rotor driven by vapor of a circulating fluid, the feed pump rotor, generator rotor, and turbine rotor being mounted on a joint rotatable shaft, the improvement comprising
said joint shaft being rotatably mounted in gas-dynamic bearings utilizing the vapor of the circulating fluid,
said turbine rotor having a lower surface, a portion of which constitutes an abutment surface of a gas-static thrust bearing in which said joint shaft is mounted,
said shaft being disposed to extend substantially vertically, and
the feed pump, generator, and turbine being mounted on the joint shaft in that order, from bottom to top.
2. Energy converter according to claim 1, wherein the gas-dynamic bearings are bearings of tilting pad type.
3. Energy converter according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the generator is a brushless asynchronous machine, the squirrel-cage winding of its rotor formed by making longitudinal grooves in a steel cylinder and by mounting on the ends of the cylinder, rings of good conductivity, and an electric circuit is disposed to supply to the stator of the generator the requisite magnetizing current.
4. Energy converter according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the generator is an asynchronous machine provided with a permanent magnetic rotor in which pieces of permanent magnet material are embedded in a sleeve of non-magnetic material, the sleeve being mounted on a steel cylinder constituting the rotor to extend just into contact with the steel cylinder and to cause magnetic poles to be established on the rotor, and the sleeve being surrounded by a band of an exceedingly strong, non-magnetic material.
5. Energy converter according to claim 1 or 2, wherein both the turbine and the feed pump are single-stage radial machines and the generator is a brushless synchronous or asynchronous machine.
6. Energy converter according to claim 1 or 2, further comprising a boiler and a condenser positioned so that when circulation of the circulating fluid is interrupted, enough circulating liquid flows through a check valve into the boiler to be evaporated and then drive the joint rotatable shaft up to operating speed, thus starting up the energy converter under thermal power alone.
7. The energy converter according to claim 6, additionally comprising a recuperator.
US06509442 1981-10-13 1982-10-08 Energy converter Expired - Fee Related US4558228A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FI813164A FI66234C (en) 1981-10-13 1981-10-13 Energiomvandlare
FI813164 1981-10-13

Publications (1)

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US4558228A true US4558228A (en) 1985-12-10

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US06509442 Expired - Fee Related US4558228A (en) 1981-10-13 1982-10-08 Energy converter

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US (1) US4558228A (en)
EP (1) EP0090022B1 (en)
JP (1) JPS58501681A (en)
DE (1) DE3265400D1 (en)
DK (1) DK261583D0 (en)
FI (1) FI66234C (en)
WO (1) WO1983001482A1 (en)

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US4677307A (en) * 1984-01-11 1987-06-30 Energiagazdalkodasi Intezet Process for the realization of cogenerative supply of electricity and heat (cogeneration), particularly in industrial power plants
US4877985A (en) * 1986-12-29 1989-10-31 Byrd William A Dynamoelectric machine
US5329771A (en) * 1990-09-26 1994-07-19 Oy High Speed Tech Ltd. Method for securing the lubrication of bearings in a hermetic high-speed machine
US5469705A (en) * 1994-08-22 1995-11-28 The Nash Engineering Company Heat recovery in a liquid ring pump seal liquid chiller system
US5795138A (en) * 1992-09-10 1998-08-18 Gozdawa; Richard Compressor
US6041604A (en) * 1998-07-14 2000-03-28 Helios Research Corporation Rankine cycle and working fluid therefor
US6046509A (en) * 1998-08-27 2000-04-04 Tuthill Corporation Steam turbine-driven electric generator
US6233938B1 (en) * 1998-07-14 2001-05-22 Helios Energy Technologies, Inc. Rankine cycle and working fluid therefor
WO2002093722A2 (en) * 2001-02-12 2002-11-21 Ormat Technologies Inc. Method of and apparatus for producing uninterruptible power
US6494042B2 (en) * 2001-02-12 2002-12-17 Ormat Industries Ltd. Method of and apparatus for producing uninterruptible power
US20040093869A1 (en) * 2000-09-13 2004-05-20 Jaakko Larjola Lead-in structure and a fixing flange for a turbo generator
US7175385B2 (en) 2003-12-15 2007-02-13 Man Turbo Ag Mounting of the rotor of a gas turbine
US20070266708A1 (en) * 2006-05-18 2007-11-22 Rapitis Marios K Self-contained refrigerant powered system
US20080246281A1 (en) * 2007-02-01 2008-10-09 Agrawal Giridhari L Turboalternator with hydrodynamic bearings
US20090087299A1 (en) * 2007-10-02 2009-04-02 Agrawal Giridhari L Foil gas bearing supported high temperature centrifugal blower and method for cooling thereof
US20100181771A1 (en) * 2009-01-21 2010-07-22 Roos Paul W Integrated Hydroelectric Power-Generating System and Energy Storage Device
WO2011146388A1 (en) * 2010-05-19 2011-11-24 General Electric International, Inc. Generator system for an organic rankine cycle
CN102322300A (en) * 2010-05-14 2012-01-18 诺沃皮尼奥内有限公司 Turboexpander for power generation systems
WO2012008938A1 (en) * 2010-07-16 2012-01-19 American Hydro Jet Corporation Integrated hydroelectric power-generating system and energy storage device
US20120235415A1 (en) * 2010-09-13 2012-09-20 Ebara International Corporation Power recovery system using a rankine power cycle incorporating a two-phase liquid-vapor expander with electric generator
US8613195B2 (en) 2009-09-17 2013-12-24 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Heat engine and heat to electricity systems and methods with working fluid mass management control
US8616001B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2013-12-31 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Driven starter pump and start sequence
US8616323B1 (en) 2009-03-11 2013-12-31 Echogen Power Systems Hybrid power systems
US8739538B2 (en) 2010-05-28 2014-06-03 General Electric Company Generating energy from fluid expansion
US8783034B2 (en) 2011-11-07 2014-07-22 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Hot day cycle
US8794002B2 (en) 2009-09-17 2014-08-05 Echogen Power Systems Thermal energy conversion method
US8813497B2 (en) 2009-09-17 2014-08-26 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Automated mass management control
US8839622B2 (en) 2007-04-16 2014-09-23 General Electric Company Fluid flow in a fluid expansion system
US8857186B2 (en) 2010-11-29 2014-10-14 Echogen Power Systems, L.L.C. Heat engine cycles for high ambient conditions
US8869531B2 (en) 2009-09-17 2014-10-28 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Heat engines with cascade cycles
US8963356B2 (en) 2010-01-21 2015-02-24 America Hydro Jet Corporation Power conversion and energy storage device
US8963354B2 (en) * 2010-09-13 2015-02-24 Ebara International Corporation Power recovery system using a rankine power cycle incorporating a two-phase liquid-vapor expander with electric generator
US8984884B2 (en) 2012-01-04 2015-03-24 General Electric Company Waste heat recovery systems
US9014791B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2015-04-21 Echogen Power Systems, Llc System and method for managing thermal issues in gas turbine engines
US9018778B2 (en) 2012-01-04 2015-04-28 General Electric Company Waste heat recovery system generator varnishing
US9024460B2 (en) 2012-01-04 2015-05-05 General Electric Company Waste heat recovery system generator encapsulation
US9062898B2 (en) 2011-10-03 2015-06-23 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle
US9091278B2 (en) 2012-08-20 2015-07-28 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Supercritical working fluid circuit with a turbo pump and a start pump in series configuration
US9118226B2 (en) 2012-10-12 2015-08-25 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Heat engine system with a supercritical working fluid and processes thereof
US9316404B2 (en) 2009-08-04 2016-04-19 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Heat pump with integral solar collector
US9341084B2 (en) 2012-10-12 2016-05-17 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle for waste heat recovery
US9441504B2 (en) 2009-06-22 2016-09-13 Echogen Power Systems, Llc System and method for managing thermal issues in one or more industrial processes
US9476428B2 (en) 2011-06-01 2016-10-25 R & D Dynamics Corporation Ultra high pressure turbomachine for waste heat recovery
US9638065B2 (en) 2013-01-28 2017-05-02 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Methods for reducing wear on components of a heat engine system at startup
US9752460B2 (en) 2013-01-28 2017-09-05 Echogen Power Systems, Llc Process for controlling a power turbine throttle valve during a supercritical carbon dioxide rankine cycle
US9951784B2 (en) 2010-07-27 2018-04-24 R&D Dynamics Corporation Mechanically-coupled turbomachinery configurations and cooling methods for hermetically-sealed high-temperature operation
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Cited By (62)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4677307A (en) * 1984-01-11 1987-06-30 Energiagazdalkodasi Intezet Process for the realization of cogenerative supply of electricity and heat (cogeneration), particularly in industrial power plants
US4877985A (en) * 1986-12-29 1989-10-31 Byrd William A Dynamoelectric machine
US5329771A (en) * 1990-09-26 1994-07-19 Oy High Speed Tech Ltd. Method for securing the lubrication of bearings in a hermetic high-speed machine
US5795138A (en) * 1992-09-10 1998-08-18 Gozdawa; Richard Compressor
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