US453454A - Hot-air furnace - Google Patents

Hot-air furnace Download PDF


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US453454A US453454DA US453454A US 453454 A US453454 A US 453454A US 453454D A US453454D A US 453454DA US 453454 A US453454 A US 453454A
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    • F24H3/00Air heaters


(No Model.)
PatqntedJlirie 2, 1891.
I &
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 453,454, dated June 2, 1891. Application filed September 4, 1890. Serial No. 363,920. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
'Be it known that I, GEORGE A. \VELLs, a citizen of the United States, residing at Oskaloosa, in the county of Mahaska and State of Iowa, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Hot-Air Furnaces; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others'skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
My invention has reference'to those furnaces especially adapted for heating dwellings; and my object is to provide means for more perfectly regulating the draft, consuming the smoke and gas, and 'economizing heat.
With these ends in view my invention consists in the peculiar features and combinations of parts more fully described hereinaf ter, and pointed out in the claims. 7
The perspective view in the drawing shows my complete device with the front wall removed.
.The outside shell a is preferably made of sheet-steel or cast-iron, having a base portion 1), middle section a, and top portion (Z, all of which open into each other.
The fuel-chamber e is provided with a grate f, which is supported upon brackets hon the wall g. The usual ash-chamber i is located below the grate, and is made accessible by means of the ash and grate-shaking doors j and k. The right-hand side of the chamber is provided with a hollow lining, which consists of a straight vertical face m, having lateral flanges n. The face, m is provided with a series of oblong vertical openings 0, through which the incoming air passes to the fuel, and the lateral flanges n are also provided with openings 19, the lower ones being commanded by a sliding damper q, having a handle q. An additional section 1' stands upon the upper flange 'n, and has formed therein the vertical flues 1", which register with openings in the upper flange, whereby the air or gas is made to pass from the upper part of the fuel-chamber into the fuel, or from. the ashpit up and around the fuel, without passing through it, as will be further explained hereinafter.
The opposite side of the fire-chamber is provided with a fire -brick lining s, and to prevent the latter from burning out (as it is exposed to an intense heat) I provide afreshair chamber 11, formed of plates u and u and situated beneath the top of the section 0 and back of the lining s. The plate a" is perforated its full length, as seen at '0, and the air is admitted to the chamber through damper-ed openings 1;, and thence passes through said perforated plate,.striking the back of the fire-brick lining s and keeping the latter cool to preventit from burning out. This lining is cut away on its lower back side to form a vertical recess t, and the air which has entered behind the lining passes down through this opening and thence down around a horizontal water-boiler w, which is suspended over the left-hand side of the grate a sufficient distance to allow the products of combustion to pass freely under it and into the flue w on the way out, as denoted by arrows 2. c
An external pipe a extends from a chamber 12'', located above the lower portion 12, upward and laterally'to a damper-box z. This box is for the purpose of creating a direct or indirect draft to the fuel, and it is located over an opening .2 in the top of the fuelchamber walls, and the pipe a enters one side of said box. A damper c is pivoted in the corner of the box and just below where the pipe a enters, and is adapted to alternately close the pipe and an opening (1 in a diagonal partition I), which extends across from the lower to the upper corner of the damper-box. The chimney-pipe a" communicates with the top of the box, and a dampered inlet-opening z" is situated inthe front wall of the box 2 to admit oxygen to the firebox, for the purpose which will hereinafter appear.
The preferred construction of my device having been set forth, I will now proceed to describe its operation. after the fuel-chamber c has been filled the damper q is closed to make the air go directly through the grate. The grate-shaking door j now being opened, the opening (1 closed, and the damper 0 being turned up to close pipe a and open communicationwith the chimney- 'pipe, the draft will pass up through the fire,
thence through opening .2 into the damper-box aandout through chimney-pipe a, as denoted In starting the fire:
by arrows 1. By thus adjusting the dampers a direct draft is given in the old and well-known way; but to economize fuel and to more perfectly'consume the gas and smoke my device can be converted into an indirect-draft-making furnace by properly adjusting the valves hereinbefore described. This is accomplished by first closing the grate-shaking door to prevent any air from entering below the grate, and then turning the damper a down upon the plate I) to keep the draft from passing directly out of the chimney-pipe a". The damper y is left open. When thus adjusted, the draft enters the damper-box .2 through opening .2", thence through opening z downward into the fuel-chamber e, thence through the coked fuel lying between the lining r and s, thence beneath the boiler, and down through vertical fiue a, chamber 1)", exterior pipe a, into damper-box z,and out of smokepipe a". In the indirect draft the fuel is still more perfectly consumed by reason of the downflues 7', which permit the air to pass down the right-hand side of the fire-chamber and through the fuel by way of the slots 0 in the lining m. A still further advantage of these side fines is that they will allow the dust which is created by shaking the grate to pass up around the fire at the side and out of the chimney through the damper box 2' and smoke pipe a". This is accomplished by drawing out the damper q, so that the draft will draw the dust up through the hollow lining on and fiues 7".
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. In a hot-air furnace, the combination of a fuel-chamber, a damper-box located above and communicating therewith, an exterior pipe connecting the lower part of said chamber with the damper-box, a partition having an opening and being located in said box, and a damper so pivoted as to alternately close the pipe and opening in the partition, whereby an indirect or direct draft may be created, in the manner and for the purpose substantially as described.
2. In a hot-air furnace, the combination, with a fire-chamber, of a hollow lining upon the sides thereof, forming an air-space between the lining and the walls of the firechamber, said lining being provided with openings in its side and bottom, and a damper commanding the openings in the bottom, in the manner and for the purpose substantially as described.
3. In a hot-air furnace, the combination of a lining, an air-chamber behind the latter and having perforations through which the air is conducted behind said lining, and a water-boiler around which the air passes from behind said lining, as and for the purposeset forth.
4. In a hot-air furnace, the combination of a fire-chamber having a damper-box above it provided with a dampered inlet-opening, a smoke-pipe leading out of said box, a partition having an opening and interposed between the top and bottom, an external pipe leading from the lower part of the furnace to the damper-box, and a pivoted damper located in said box and adapted to alternately close the openingin said partition and said pipe, all arranged and adapted to operate in the manner and for the purpose substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
GEORGE A. W ELLS. \Vitnesses:
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