US452005A - short - Google Patents

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US452005A
US452005A US452005DA US452005A US 452005 A US452005 A US 452005A US 452005D A US452005D A US 452005DA US 452005 A US452005 A US 452005A
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armature
axle
magnets
car
field
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K5/00Casings; Enclosures; Supports
    • H02K5/04Casings or enclosures characterised by the shape, form or construction thereof

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  • This invention relates to an electrically-propelled ear or vehicle in which the armature of the propelling-motor is connected directly with a driving wheel or axle, by direct connection being understood one which imparts a revolution to the said wheel or axle for each revolution of the armature.
  • Thepresent invention consists in certain features adapted to render the arrangement of practical usefulness. A difficulty arises in this connection on account of the limited diameter which can be given to 2 5 the armature, the comparatively low speed and the consequently strong pull which the armature is required to exert.
  • the armature which is axially mounted with reference to 0 the driving wheel or axle, and which is connecteddirectly therewith, is of the Brush type, but is provided with cross-connections at the commutator or elsewhere, so that there are four or more sets of coils in multiple arc in- 3 5 stead of two sets only as in the ordinary motors, and in connection with such an armature so mounted and cross-connected, a number of field-magnets are employed, which are arranged to exert their power upon the flat faces 0 of the armature.
  • pole-pieces of these magnets do, therefore, not materially project beyond the diameter of the armature, where by it becomes practicable to make the armature of a diameter very nearly equal to that of a driving-wheel, and thus obtain the maximum leverage upon the armature without resorting to a special construction of car or road bed, or both, as has heretofore been deemed necessary in fruitless attempts to secure the 5 same result.
  • the field-magnets are disposed with reference to the armature substantially in the manner of the Brush dynamo, but that their number is increased, whereby a greater pull upon the armature is obtained.
  • the flat faces of the armature will hereinafter be referred to as the ends of the armature, and the disposition of the pole-pieces of the field-magnets in operative relation to the flat ends of the armature 6c renders it possible to make the armature of maximum diameter which the space below the car-floor admits, and at the same time socure the maximum pull upon the armature.
  • the poles With the same object of securing the most powerful attraction on the armature under the conditions imposed it is preferred to arrange the poles so that the two lowest magnets are equidistant from the lowest point of the armature, one in front and one in rear of the same. In the case of a four-pole machine this brings the two poles which are below the driving axis forty-five degrees from the vertical plane through said axis. In this position the field-magnets may project beyond the pe- 7 5 riphery of the armature and still be above its lowest point.
  • the motor-car embodying one or more of the new features or combinations of features before specified is included in the invention irrespective of the precise means of securing an axial mounting and direct connection of the armature. It is, however, specially included when the armature and field-magnets are both mounted on the driving-axle, the field-magnets being supported by journalbearings and held from rotation by a connection with another part of the car (as the carbody or the other car-axle or a motor thereon or the like) adapted to that end.
  • Figure l is a partial View, in sectional elevation, of a motorcar provided with driving mechanism constructed in accordance with the invention, 5 the left of said figure being in section on line t of Fig. 2, and the right in a plane corresponding with line i of said figure.
  • Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section on line 'i i of Fig. 1
  • Fig. 3 is a diagram illustrating the cross Ioo connection of the armature-bobbins.
  • the motors is mounted axially with reference to the corresponding driving-axle B; or, in other words, the axes of the driving-axle and armature are coincident, or nearly so.
  • the armature is directly connected with the drivingaxle. As shown, it is keyed or mounted fast on the axle B.
  • the commutator O is also fast on said axle.
  • the armaturecore is of the well-known Brush type, being composed of a flat strip wound upon itself and provided with bobbins in notches in the edges. The bobbins are connected in series with each other throughout the ring, and are provided each with a conductor leading to a strip of, the commutator O.
  • the opposite strips are join ed together electrically by crossconnections 2, and the commntator-brushes D and E are placed ninety degrees of arc apart.
  • the armature-windin g will thus be divided into four sections a b c d,whicl1 are in multiple arc with one another.
  • the current which enters, say, by the brush D divides into four portions, of which one portion passes to the right through the quadrant a, another portion after passing through a cross-connection 2, passes to the left through the quadrant b, a third portion after passing through the same cross-connection, passes to the right through the quadrant c, and the fourth portion passes to the left through the quadrant d.
  • the number of the bobbins may be increased; also that the number of sections in multiple are into which the armature-winding is divided may be increased by appropriate cross-sections and an appropriate arrangement of the brushes D E.
  • the numher of sections should correspond with the number of the poles. As four of these are shown, the cross-connections and the brushes are arranged to divide the armature into quadrants.
  • the field-poles are formed each by a pair of magnets F G of like sign on the opposite
  • the magnets proj ect from yokes ll and K, which are mounted on the ear-axle by means of journal-bearings 8 and 4:, and are held from rotation by a connection Q with the car-body P.
  • the journalbearing at is formed in the bracket K.
  • the connection Q extends to an arm L, which fastens the yokes together, another similar arm M being arranged opposite.
  • the connection Q consists of a jointed rod fastened to the car-floor at 5 and provided with a flange 6 and nuts 7, springs or buffers 8 being interposed between the arm L and the said flange (3 and nuts 7.
  • the frame of said magnets is divided longitudinally of the said axle and the parts are bolted together after application.
  • the field-magnet poles are, as shown, Within (or not materially beyond) the outer circumference of the armature A, so that this latter may be made of as large diameter as the space between the axle B and the ground admits. It will also be observed that notwithstanding the increased number of magnets they are all placed horizontally, with their poles facing the flat ends of the armature.
  • the two lowermost pairs of mag nets are, with this arrangement, equidistant from the lowermost point of the armature, one pair in front and the other in the rear of said point, the centers of the two poles being forty-five degrees of are from the vertical.
  • the current is passed through the armature and field coils from any known or suitable source of electricity on oroutside of the car.
  • the field and armature coils may be in series with each other, but the invention is not restricted to any special connection. Instead of having the field fixed and the armature rotating, itis evident that the armature might be held from rotation, as described for the field, and the latter be keyed on the driving-axle and allowed to turn therewith, and this reversed arrangement will be understood as included in the invention as a substitute for what is more particularly described without further specification herein.
  • armature wound with a continuous series of bobbins with cross-coimections instead of providing an armature wound with a continuous series of bobbins with cross-coimections, other forms of armature adapted for use with a multipolar field crossing the rim of the armature parallel thereto may be employed, the invention extending, generally, to a motor of this description, as well as to one having an armature with crossconnections adapted to connect four or more sections of the armature-windings in multiple are with one another.

Description

(No Model.)
S. H. SHORT. DRIVING MECHANISM FOR ELECTRIC MOTOR CARS.
No. 452,005. Patented May 12,1891.
l l I l UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
SIDNEY II. SHORT, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO, ASSIGNOR TO THE SHORT ELECTRIC RAILIVAY COMPANY, OF SAME PLACE.
DRIVING MECHANISM FOR ELECTRIC-MOTOR CARS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 452,005, dated May 12, 1891.
Application filed November 1, 1890. Serial No. 370,035. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern.-
Be it known that I, SIDNEY H. SHORT, of Cleveland, in the county of Cuyahoga and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Driving Mechanism for Electric-Motor Cars; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention,such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
This invention relates to an electrically-propelled ear or vehicle in which the armature of the propelling-motor is connected directly with a driving wheel or axle, by direct connection being understood one which imparts a revolution to the said wheel or axle for each revolution of the armature.
I-Ieretofore such an arrangement has been proposed, but so far as I am aware has not goneinto use. Thepresent invention consists in certain features adapted to render the arrangement of practical usefulness. A difficulty arises in this connection on account of the limited diameter which can be given to 2 5 the armature, the comparatively low speed and the consequently strong pull which the armature is required to exert. In accordance with the present invention the armature, which is axially mounted with reference to 0 the driving wheel or axle, and which is connecteddirectly therewith, is of the Brush type, but is provided with cross-connections at the commutator or elsewhere, so that there are four or more sets of coils in multiple arc in- 3 5 stead of two sets only as in the ordinary motors, and in connection with such an armature so mounted and cross-connected, a number of field-magnets are employed, which are arranged to exert their power upon the flat faces 0 of the armature. The pole-pieces of these magnets do, therefore, not materially project beyond the diameter of the armature, where by it becomes practicable to make the armature of a diameter very nearly equal to that of a driving-wheel, and thus obtain the maximum leverage upon the armature without resorting to a special construction of car or road bed, or both, as has heretofore been deemed necessary in fruitless attempts to secure the 5 same result.
It will now be readily understood that the field-magnets are disposed with reference to the armature substantially in the manner of the Brush dynamo, but that their number is increased, whereby a greater pull upon the armature is obtained. The flat faces of the armature will hereinafter be referred to as the ends of the armature, and the disposition of the pole-pieces of the field-magnets in operative relation to the flat ends of the armature 6c renders it possible to make the armature of maximum diameter which the space below the car-floor admits, and at the same time socure the maximum pull upon the armature. With the same object of securing the most powerful attraction on the armature under the conditions imposed it is preferred to arrange the poles so that the two lowest magnets are equidistant from the lowest point of the armature, one in front and one in rear of the same. In the case of a four-pole machine this brings the two poles which are below the driving axis forty-five degrees from the vertical plane through said axis. In this position the field-magnets may project beyond the pe- 7 5 riphery of the armature and still be above its lowest point.
The motor-car embodying one or more of the new features or combinations of features before specified is included in the invention irrespective of the precise means of securing an axial mounting and direct connection of the armature. It is, however, specially included when the armature and field-magnets are both mounted on the driving-axle, the field-magnets being supported by journalbearings and held from rotation by a connection with another part of the car (as the carbody or the other car-axle or a motor thereon or the like) adapted to that end.
In the accompanying drawings,which form a part of this specification, Figure l is a partial View, in sectional elevation, of a motorcar provided with driving mechanism constructed in accordance with the invention, 5 the left of said figure being in section on line t of Fig. 2, and the right in a plane corresponding with line i of said figure. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section on line 'i i of Fig. 1, and Fig. 3 is a diagram illustrating the cross Ioo connection of the armature-bobbins.
The armature A of each of the propellingflat ends of armature A.
motors is mounted axially with reference to the corresponding driving-axle B; or, in other words, the axes of the driving-axle and armature are coincident, or nearly so. The armature is directly connected with the drivingaxle. As shown, it is keyed or mounted fast on the axle B. The commutator O is also fast on said axle. The armaturecore is of the well-known Brush type, being composed of a flat strip wound upon itself and provided with bobbins in notches in the edges. The bobbins are connected in series with each other throughout the ring, and are provided each with a conductor leading to a strip of, the commutator O. The opposite strips are join ed together electrically by crossconnections 2, and the commntator-brushes D and E are placed ninety degrees of arc apart. The armature-windin g will thus be divided into four sections a b c d,whicl1 are in multiple arc with one another. Thus the current which enters, say, by the brush D divides into four portions, of which one portion passes to the right through the quadrant a, another portion after passing through a cross-connection 2, passes to the left through the quadrant b, a third portion after passing through the same cross-connection, passes to the right through the quadrant c, and the fourth portion passes to the left through the quadrant d. It will be understood that the number of the bobbins may be increased; also that the number of sections in multiple are into which the armature-winding is divided may be increased by appropriate cross-sections and an appropriate arrangement of the brushes D E. The numher of sections should correspond with the number of the poles. As four of these are shown, the cross-connections and the brushes are arranged to divide the armature into quadrants.
The field-poles are formed each by a pair of magnets F G of like sign on the opposite The magnets proj ect from yokes ll and K, which are mounted on the ear-axle by means of journal-bearings 8 and 4:, and are held from rotation by a connection Q with the car-body P. The journalbearing at is formed in the bracket K. The connection Q extends to an arm L, which fastens the yokes together, another similar arm M being arranged opposite. The connection Q consists of a jointed rod fastened to the car-floor at 5 and provided with a flange 6 and nuts 7, springs or buffers 8 being interposed between the arm L and the said flange (3 and nuts 7. To facilitate the application of the field-magnets to the car-axle B, the frame of said magnets is divided longitudinally of the said axle and the parts are bolted together after application. \Vith this construction the field-magnet poles are, as shown, Within (or not materially beyond) the outer circumference of the armature A, so that this latter may be made of as large diameter as the space between the axle B and the ground admits. It will also be observed that notwithstanding the increased number of magnets they are all placed horizontally, with their poles facing the flat ends of the armature. The two lowermost pairs of mag nets are, with this arrangement, equidistant from the lowermost point of the armature, one pair in front and the other in the rear of said point, the centers of the two poles being forty-five degrees of are from the vertical.
In operation, the current is passed through the armature and field coils from any known or suitable source of electricity on oroutside of the car. The field and armature coils may be in series with each other, but the invention is not restricted to any special connection. Instead of having the field fixed and the armature rotating, itis evident that the armature might be held from rotation, as described for the field, and the latter be keyed on the driving-axle and allowed to turn therewith, and this reversed arrangement will be understood as included in the invention as a substitute for what is more particularly described without further specification herein. Instead of providing an armature wound with a continuous series of bobbins with cross-coimections, other forms of armature adapted for use with a multipolar field crossing the rim of the armature parallel thereto may be employed, the invention extending, generally, to a motor of this description, as well as to one having an armature with crossconnections adapted to connect four or more sections of the armature-windings in multiple are with one another.
Having fully described my invention,what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
l. The combination, with a car, of an electric propelling-motor comprising a ring armature mounted axially upon a driving-axle and directly secured thereto, with non-rotative multipolar field-magnets, the pole-pieces of which are arranged to produce a field-offorce crossing the armature parallel to the plane thereof, substantially as described.
2. The combination, with a car, of an electric propelling-motor comprising a ring armature mounted axially upon a driving-axle and secured directly thereto, with non -rotative multipolar field-magnets having their polepieces facing the flat ends of the ring armature, substantially as described.
3. The combination, with a car, of an electric propelling-motor comprising a ring armature mounted upon and secured to adrivingaxle, with non-rotative multipolar field-magnets having their pole-pieces facing the flat ends of the ring armature, with the lowermost pole-pieces, one on each side of both, equidistant from and above the lowermost point of the armature, substantially as described.
4. The combination, with a car, of an electric propelling-motor constructed with a ring armature secured to a driving-axle, multipolar field-magnets in operative relation to the flat ends of the rim of the armature jour- IOU IIO
naled upon the driving-axle and held from point, said magnets being mounted on said rotation with the latter by a connection with driving-axle by journal-bearings and being another part of the car, substantially as de- I held from rotation by a connection with an- I5 scribed. l other part of the car, substantially as de- 5 5. The combination, with a car, of an elecscribed.
tric propelling-motor comprisingaring arina- V In testimony whereof I have signed this ture mounted on and secured directly to a specification in the presence of two subscribdriving-axle, and multipolar field-magnets ing witnesses.
horizontally arranged on the opposite flat SIDNEY H. SHORT. IO ends of the rim of the armature above the XVitnesses:
lowest point thereof, with the lowermost mag- A. B. CALHOUN,
nets equidistant in front and rear of said A. F. XVOODS.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2719238A (en) * 1952-02-19 1955-09-27 Winsted Hardware Mfg Company Electric motor for hand tools

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2719238A (en) * 1952-02-19 1955-09-27 Winsted Hardware Mfg Company Electric motor for hand tools

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