Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Document having a security feature and method of determining the authenticity of the document

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4501439A
US4501439A US06425466 US42546682A US4501439A US 4501439 A US4501439 A US 4501439A US 06425466 US06425466 US 06425466 US 42546682 A US42546682 A US 42546682A US 4501439 A US4501439 A US 4501439A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
light
microstructure
diffraction
layer
document
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US06425466
Inventor
Gregor Antes
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
OVD Kinegram AG
Original Assignee
LGZ Landis and Gyr Zug AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/324Reliefs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/328Diffraction gratings; Holograms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/0005Adaptation of holography to specific applications
    • G03H1/0011Adaptation of holography to specific applications for security or authentication
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/02Details of features involved during the holographic process; Replication of holograms without interference recording
    • G03H1/024Hologram nature or properties
    • G03H1/0244Surface relief holograms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/02Details of features involved during the holographic process; Replication of holograms without interference recording
    • G03H1/0252Laminate comprising a hologram layer
    • G03H1/0256Laminate comprising a hologram layer having specific functional layer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/06009Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code with optically detectable marking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/08Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code using markings of different kinds or more than one marking of the same kind in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means
    • G06K19/10Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code using markings of different kinds or more than one marking of the same kind in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means at least one kind of marking being used for authentication, e.g. of credit or identity cards
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/08Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code using markings of different kinds or more than one marking of the same kind in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means
    • G06K19/10Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code using markings of different kinds or more than one marking of the same kind in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means at least one kind of marking being used for authentication, e.g. of credit or identity cards
    • G06K19/16Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code using markings of different kinds or more than one marking of the same kind in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means at least one kind of marking being used for authentication, e.g. of credit or identity cards the marking being a hologram or diffraction grating
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07DHANDLING OF COINS OR OF PAPER CURRENCY OR SIMILAR VALUABLE PAPERS, e.g. TESTING, SORTING BY DENOMINATIONS, COUNTING, DISPENSING, CHANGING OR DEPOSITING
    • G07D7/00Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of paper currency or similar valuable papers or for segregating those which are alien to a currency or otherwise unacceptable
    • G07D7/06Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of paper currency or similar valuable papers or for segregating those which are alien to a currency or otherwise unacceptable using wave or particle radiation
    • G07D7/12Visible light, infra-red or ultraviolet radiation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F7/00Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus
    • G07F7/08Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus by coded identity card or credit card or other personal identification means
    • G07F7/086Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus by coded identity card or credit card or other personal identification means by passive credit-cards adapted therefor, e.g. constructive particularities to avoid counterfeiting, e.g. by inclusion of a physical or chemical security-layer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D2033/00Structure or construction of identity, credit, cheque or like information-bearing cards
    • B42D2033/04Transparent material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D2033/00Structure or construction of identity, credit, cheque or like information-bearing cards
    • B42D2033/28Paper or card board
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D2035/00Nature or shape of the markings provided on identity, credit, cheque or like information-bearing cards
    • B42D2035/34Markings visible under particular conditions or containing coded information
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2250/00Laminate comprising a hologram layer
    • G03H2250/36Conform enhancement layer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2250/00Laminate comprising a hologram layer
    • G03H2250/39Protective layer
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S283/00Printed matter
    • Y10S283/904Credit card

Abstract

In a security blank which includes a substrate which has two major surfaces, a thermoplastic layer which has a predetermined refraction index and is suitable for embossing thereon a machine-readable authenticity feature in the form of an optical microstructure, and a transparent layer which has a prearranged refraction index for covering and protecting the microstructure, and wherein the prearranged refraction index has a value different from the predetermined refraction index, and the microstructure generates a characteristic diffraction effect from light incident thereonto, the improvement includes a surface of the substrate facing the thermoplastic layer, which has within a region of the microstructure diffuse reflection characteristics of a predetermined magnitude, and wherein the thermoplastic layer is transparent, and wherein the difference between the refraction indexes is sufficiently small, and the magnitude of the diffuse reflection characteristics is sufficiently large, so that the characteristic diffraction effect of the microstructure is not normally detectable by the eye of an observer.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

Reference should be had to copending application entitled "An Apparatus and a Method of Testing the Authenticity of Documents", assigned to the assignee of the present invention.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Most of the documents in use today, for example, bank notes, credit cards, identity cards, railroad and airline tickets, checks and the like can be forged by means of modern reproduction processes at not too great an expense. Many proposals have been made, the object of which is the recording of authenticating features on such documents, which increase the cost of an attempted forgery and therefore reduce the probability of any forgery. A low probability of forgery is attained, if authenticating features are incorporated in the document in the form of optical microstructures, which diffract light in a characteristic manner. Such microstructures, such as, for example, holographically generated structures, phase diffraction gratings and kinoforms can only be manufactured at a high technical expense.

In documents having a substrate of thermoplastic material, the microstructures are embossed directly onto the substrate, as disclosed, for example, in British Patent No. 1,502,460. Paper documents are coated with a thin thermoplastic layer prior to the embossment of the documents with microstructures, as disclosed, for example, by Greenaway in U.S. Pat. No. 4,184,700. The microstructure can be protected from mechanical damage by means of a protecting layer in the form of a laminated foil, as disclosed, for example, by Greenaway, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,119,361, or by means of a lacquer layer, as disclosed for example, in G.B. Patent Application No. 2,082,593. The protective layer may also be impenetratable for visible light to hide the microstructure from view, as disclosed, for example, by Greenaway in U.S. Pat. No. 4,119,361; an opaque or dark protective layer of this kind is not, however, desirable in many cases, on one hand, for aesthetic reasons, and secondly, because it may provide a strong hint that the document carries therewithin a hidden authenticating feature. From Greenaway, U.S. Pat. No. 4,184,700, there is also known a document in which the protective layer has a different diffraction index than the thermoplastic embossment layer.

When subjecting such documents to a test to determine their authenticity, the microstructure is illuminated by a directional light ray, which has a predetermined wavelength, or a predetermined narrow wavelength region. One or several components of the light rays diffracted by the microstructure are sensed by a light sensing arrrangement, and an electronic evaluator or processor tests whether the intensity or the intensity ratio of these components lies or lie within expected limits, as taught, for example, by Greenaway, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,129,382. From Nyfeler, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,211,918, it is also known to embed a certain sequence of microstructures diffraction from one another in a document, and to test during authenticity examination, whether the sequence stored in the document coincides with a desired sequence stored in a read device.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

One of the principal objects of the present invention is to create a document, particularly a document with a substrate which may not be ideal optically, in which the authenticating feature is not only not visible, but is also hidden within the document without attracting any attention. It is a further object of the invention to devise a method in which the presence of such authenticating features can nevertheless be proven with a high degree of reliability.

This object is attained in a security blank including a substrate having two major surfaces, a thermoplastic layer having a predetermined refraction index, and suitable for embossing thereon a machine-readable authenticity feature in the form of an optical microstructure, and a transparent layer having a prearranged refraction index for covering and protecting the microstructure, the prearranged refraction index having a value different from the predetermined refraction index, and wherein the microstructure generates a characteristic diffraction effect from light incident thereonto, by providing a surface of the substrate facing the thermoplastic layer having within a region of the microstructure diffuse reflection characteristics of a predetermined magnitude, and wherein the thermoplastic layer is transparent, and the difference between the refraction indexes is sufficiently small, and the magnitude of the diffuse reflection characteristics is sufficiently large, so that the characteristic diffraction effect of the microstructure is not normally detectable by the eye of an observer.

Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious, and will in part appear hereinafter,

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a cross-section of a document without any protective layer of the prior art;

FIG. 2 is a cross-section of a document according to FIG. 1, but provided with a protective layer;

FIG. 3 is a plan view of a first version of the document, according to the present invention;

FIG. 4 is a plan view of a second version of the document, according to the present invention;

FIG. 5 is a plan view of a third version of the document, according to the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a light sensor scanning the document;

FIG. 7 is a block schematic diagram of a first version of a testing arrangement;

FIG. 8 is a block schematic diagram of a second version of a testing arrangement;

FIG. 9 is a block schematic diagram of a third version of a testing arrangement;

FIG. 10 is a more detailed block schematic diagram of a detail of the testing arrangement; and

FIG. 11 is a block schematic diagram of another detail of the testing arrangement.

DESCRIPTON OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring now to the drawings, and in particular to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is shown a security blank such as document 1, which may, for example, be a bank note, a credit card, an identity card, a railroad ticket or an airline ticket, a check or the like, and which consists of a substrate 2, a thermoplastic transparent layer 3 suitable for embossing a structure thereonto, and a transparent protective layer 4, shown in FIG. 2. The layer 3 covers one of the surfaces 5 of the substrate 2 at least partially. The layer 3 may, for example, have the form of a small strip, an annulus, or a circle. An optical microstructure 6 is embossed on the layer 3, causing a characteristic diffraction of light impinging thereon, which represents an authenticating feature of the document 1, and may be formed by one or several holograms, diffraction gratings, or kinoforms arranged at a certain sequence within the document 1. The protective layer 4 is applied onto the layer 3 following embossment of the microstructure thereonto and may, for example, be a lacquer layer. An inner surface of the protective layer 4 completely abuts the embossment layer of the microstructure 6, while its outer surface 7 is smooth or slightly wavy. A typical thickness of the embossment layer 3 is about 10 microns, and that of the protective layer 4 about 3 microns.

As both the embossment layer 3, as well as the protective layer 4 are transparent, the microstructure 6 borders the layers of two optically dielectric media. In order for the microstructure 6 to be optically effective, the refractive index n1 of the protective layer 4, and the refractive index n2 of the embossment layer 3 differ from one another. The surface 5 of the substrate 1 facing the embossment layer 3 has diffuse refraction characteristics of high reflectivity at least within the region of the microstructure 6, namely both above-mentioned optically dielectric media are disposed on a light background, the surface of which is rough.

If a light ray 8 is directed, according to FIG. 1, onto the microstructure 4 not yet covered by a protective layer, and if the light ray impinges on the microstructure approximately at right angles with the surface thereof, then a clearly defined diffraction maximum 9 or 10 appears in at least one predetermined direction. Upon illumination with white light, the diffraction effect is visible to the human eye, for example, by a clearly defined rainbow effect, which is somewhat disturbed by diffuse scattering from the surface of the substrate 5, but is nevertheless clearly visible.

In order to hide the authenticating feature defined by the microstructure 6 from the human eye, on the one hand, the difference in the refractive indices n2 -n1 is sufficiently small, and on the other hand, the diffuse reflectivity of the surface 5 of the substrate is sufficiently large, so that the diffractive effect of the microstructure 6 is no longer visible to the human eye. Thus the intensity of the diffractive effects is lowered below the visibility limit, and the eye recognizes only scattered light 11 reflected from the surface 5 of the substrate (FIG. 2) which appears as a sufficiently strong disturbing signal, so that the effective signal defined by the diffraction maxima 9 and 10 (FIG. 1) is submerged, as far as visibility to the eye is concerned, within the disturbing signal. Furthermore, the reflected scattered signal 11 is subject to local fluctuations (for example, when the substrate 2 consists of paper such as white paper,) which further masks the diffractive effects of the microstructure 6. As the embossment layer 3 and the protective layer 4 are very thin and transparent, they do not appear as such to an observer, and do not give rise to any suspicion that an invisible authenticating feature is hidden between these layers.

If the diffuse reflectivity of the surface of the substrate 5 is at least 80%, then the diffraction effects are below the limit of visibility, if the difference between the refractive indeces n2 -n1 is at most 0.2. If the difference between the refractive indeces is further reduced, for example, to a value 0.1, then it is possible to ensure that the diffraction effects are far below any visibility limits of the human eye, and automatic detection of the authenticity feature then becomes only possible by using special methods further described hereinafter.

It is advantageous if the substrate 2 is made of paper, which is white in the region of the microstructure 6, and substantially does not carry any print, and whose natural surface characteristics are such that it has the required reflection characteristics. Furthermore, the substrate 2 can be a synthetic material having a metallized surface.

An additional masking of the authenticating feature can be obtained by the covering layer 4 being provided with a slightly wavy surface 7, which diffuses light impinging thereon, so that it acts as a partial diffusor. The wavy surface 7 is effective on one hand, both upon the light rays 8 impinging thereon, as well as following diffraction of the light rays. On the other hand, the spatial angle within which the surface 7 appears glossy is widened.

A further masking of the authenticating feature can be obtained by the surface 5 of the substrate having a varying degree of matness within the region of the microstructure 6 in different zones thereof.

It is advantageous if the microstructure 6 is implemented in such a manner that during scanning thereof by the directional light ray 8 there appear simultaneously diffraction maxima 9 and 10 in several predetermined directions, which, for example, are grouped around an optical axis. By this means, a further masking of the authenticating feature may be obtained, for at most only one of the weakened partial signals can reach the eye of an observer, while by an appropriate number of light sensors disposed along several predetermined directions all partial signals may be received and again summed be means of an electronic adder to arrive at the total signal.

A further masking of the authenticating feature can be obtained if the microstructure consists of a plurality of individual phase diffraction means, for example phase gratings or holograms, wherein each phase diffraction means is small enough in at least one dimension so that the individual phase diffraction means cannot be resolved by the unassisted human eye. This feature may be obtained if the dimensions of the phase diffraction means in one dimension are at most 0.1 mm. On the other hand, the phase diffraction means should be sufficiently large so that the diffraction maxima are not unduly widened. A phase diffraction grating should, for example, consist of at least five grating lines.

If the diffraction effects are further considerably below the limit of visibility, the information-carrying diffraction signals may be so weak in the presence of any strong and non-information carrying diffuse reflection signals, that a single diffraction maximum can no longer be reliably detected automatically by means of a machine. The microstructure 6 is therefore advantageously formed so that during scanning thereof by a directional light ray in at least one predetermined direction there appear in a predetermined time sequence diffraction maxima, if the document 1 is moved at a predetermined velocity in translation or rotation. During examination for authenticity of such a document with an automatically operating read device, the diffraction maxima may be detected by means of a light sensor, and the time sequence of the electrical signals of the light sensor may be compared by means of an electronic evaluator with a desired sequence, the diffraction maxima of the effective components may be summed and compared to those of the desired sequence, while any disturbing components or signals caused by diffuse reflections, and not corresponding to the required sequence are suppressed. This will be further illustrated below in what follows.

In FIG. 3 there is shown a document 1a, whose microstructure 6 consists of a plurality of similar holograms 12, which are disposed at regular distances from one another in a row. The microstructure 6 of the document 1b shown in FIG. 4 is formed by two different types or patterns of holograms 13 and 14, which alternate with one another. The document 1c, according to FIG. 5, includes a microstructure 6 made up of a plurality of holograms 15 of a similar type, which have, however, different respective lengths, and are disposed at different respective spacings from one another in a row. During scanning of the microstructure 6 of documents 1a, 1b and 1c by a directional read-beam, there appear in at least one predetermined direction in a prearranged time sequence diffraction maxima, if the document is moved at a predetermined velocity in translation in the direction of the row of holograms. In the case of the documents 1a and 1b the sequence is periodic, while it is aperiodic in the case of the document 1c.

In FIG. 6 there is shown a document 1d, which has a microstructure 6 in the form of a circular surface, which may be formed by a single hologram 16, which splits the light beam 8 impinging thereon at right angles by diffraction into several partial beams 17 through 20, and wherein the beam 17 through 20, for example, may lie along a conical surface. Upon rotation of the document 1d around the axis of the hologram 16, which coincides with the axis of the light beam 8, the partial rays 17, 18, 19 and 20, are detected by a light sensor 21. In this case, there also appear in a predetermined time sequence diffraction maxima in at least one predetermined direction.

In the case of a periodic sequence, but of an unknown phase position of the effective components of the electrical signals to be selectively detected and provided by the light sensor, the comparison of the time sequence of the electrical signals with the desired sequence is preferably accomplished with the aid of a narrow-band frequency filter 22, shown in FIG. 7. A light source 23 passes a light beam 8, according to FIG. 7, into the read device, the light beam having a small cross-section, and a predetermined wavelength, which impinges on a partial surface of the microstructure 6 of the document 1. At least one light sensor 24 is disposed at a predetermined spatial angle with the surface of the document 1, which corresponds to a possible diffraction angle. Transport rolls 25 of a transport device 26 move the document 1 at an angle transverse to the light beam 8, for example, at right angles, so that the microstructure 6 is continuously scanned. Advantageously the transport device 26 controls the frequency filter 22 in such a manner, that its center pass-frequency is automatically adjusted to the instantaneous scanning velocity, so that the influence of any variation of the transport velocity is eliminated. The light sensor 24 is postcoupled to a detection channel consisting of an amplifier 27, the frequency filter 22 and a comparator 28.

The electrical signals of the light sensor 24, which consists of very weak effective components, and strong disturbing components, are amplified in the amplifier 27 and passed to the frequency filter 22. At the output of the frequency filter 22 there is built up a voltage, if the frequency of the effective components of the signal corresponds to the pass frequency of the frequency filter 22, and if these effective components are summed. Any disturbing components do not, however, contribute any significant amount to the output voltage of the frequency filter 22, as they consist primarily of other frequency components. The comparator 28 provides a YES signal, if the output voltage of the frequency filter 22 exceeds a certain threshold value.

If the time sequence of the effective components to be detected is periodic, and their phase position is also known, then comparison with the desired sequence is advantangeously accomplished by means of a phase sensitive lock-in amplifier, for example, known from the publication T351-15 M-8/75-CP of the Princeton Applied Research Corporation, which is denoted in FIG. 8 with the reference numeral 29. In FIG. 8 the same reference numerals as those in FIG. 7 denote equal parts. The signal input of the lock-in amplifier 29 is connected to the light sensor 24, and a control input thereof is connected to a position indicator 30. The output of the lock-in amplifier 29 is connected to the comparator 28. The position indicator 30 supplies control signals, which correspond to the required sequence, and are precisely synchronized with the instantaneous position of the document 1 disposed below the light ray 8. In FIG. 8 the synchronization is indicated by a dashed line between the transport device 26 and the position indicator 30. It can be implemented, for example, by scanning of the front edge of the document 1, or by scanning of any synchronization marks present on the document 1.

The electrical signals supplied by the light sensor 24 are first amplified as an alternating current in the lock-in amplifier 29, and subsequently switched in their polarity exactly in the rhythm of the desired sequence in such a manner that each positive or negative effective signal peak supplies, for example, a positive value to the output signal of the lock-in amplifier 29, while any disturbing signals superimposed upon one another have no definite phase relationship to the switching rhythm, so that they supply within a sufficiently long-term interval an equal amount of positive and negative contributions to the output voltage, and therefore cancel one another, their average value being zero. The output voltage is a measure of the correlation of the holographically stored sequence and of the desired sequence.

Finally, if the time sequence of the effective components to be detected is aperiodic, then a comparison with the desired sequence is advantageously accomplished by means of an electronic correlator 31, whose first input in the read device, according to FIG. 9, is connected to the output of the amplifier 27, and whose second input is connected to a memory 32. The desired sequence is stored in the memory 32, which is controlled by the position indicator 30, and supplies a comparison signal to the correlator 31 corresponding to the desired sequence, and which is again precisely synchronized to the instantaneous position of the document 1 disposed below the light beam 8. The output of the correlator 31 is connected to the input of the comparator 28.

Similar to the arrangement in the lock-in amplifier 29 of FIG. 8, the effective components of the electrical signal generated by the light sensor 24, which correspond to the desired sequence, are amplified in the correlator 31, while any disturbing components are suppressed.

If the microstructure 6 is of a type that diffraction maxima occur along several spatial angles, then a light sensor can be disposed along each of these spatial angles, and whose electrical signals are analyzed in a detection channel in the manner described for FIGS. 7 through 9, and wherein the output signals of the different detection channels are connected in a logic circuit in such a manner that the document is considered genuine, if several of the detection channels supply a YES signal.

It is also possible to connect the signals of various light sensors to one another, and to supply the signals subsequently to a detection channel. This is shown, for example, in FIGS. 10 and 11. In the arrangement according to FIG. 10, the light sensor 24 is again arranged in a spatial angle with respect to the document 1, which corresponds to a possible diffraction maximum. A further light sensor 33 receives light scattered from the document 1 at a spatial angle where no diffraction maximum is expected. A difference amplifier 34 forms the difference of the electrical signals of the light sensors 24 and 33. The output of the difference amplifier 34 is connected to the detection channel shown in one of the FIGS. 7, 8 or 9. If the document to be tested does not contain any genuine microstructure, but only, for example, absorbing macroscopic periodic color patterns, which generate reflection changes in a similar sequence to that of a genuine microstructure, the document is nevertheless rejected, because the electrical signals of the two light sensors 24 and 33 are logically cancelled as a result of the difference during a time period under test.

In the arrangement according to FIG. 11, which serves, for example, for testing the authenticity of the document 1 by means of two different holograms 13 and 14 according to FIG. 4, there are provided four light sensors 35 through 38, which are connected to a calculating amplifier or arithmetic unit 39. The output of the calculating amplifier 39 is again connected to the detection channel shown in one of the FIGS. 7, 8 or 9. The light sensor 35, is, for example, disposed along the normal diffraction order of the hologram 13, the light sensor 36 is disposed along the conjugate diffraction order of the hologram 13, the light sensor 37 is disposed along the normal diffraction order of the hologram 14, and the light sensor 38 is disposed along the conjugate diffraction order of the hologram 14. The electrical signals of the light sensors 35 through 38 are denoted by S1 to S4. The calculating amplifier forms from this signal a signal: ##EQU1## the sequence of which corresponds to the sequence of the alternating holograms 13 and 14. By forming a difference or a quotient of the effective signals, any error signal, which may result from color pattern sequences which are not due to light diffraction, are largely suppressed.

I wish it to be understood that I do not desire to be limited to the exact details of construction shown and described, for obvious modifications will occur to a person skilled in the art.

Claims (6)

Having thus described the invention, what I claim as new and desire to be secured by Letters Patent is as follows:
1. A security blank including a substrate having two major surfaces,
comprising, in combination,
a transparent thermoplastic layer having a predetermined refraction index as defined by light incident thereon, and being suitable for embossing thereon a machine-readable authenticity feature in the form of an optical microstructure,
and
a transparent protective layer having a prearranged refraction index for covering and protecting said microstructure,
said prearranged refraction index of said transparent protective layer having a value different from said predetermined refraction index of said transparent thermoplastic layer, and
wherein said microstructure includes means for generating a characteristic diffraction effect from the light incident thereonto, said characteristic diffraction effect being normally detectable by the unaided eye of an observer,
a surface of the substrate facing said transparent thermoplastic layer including within a region of said microstructure means for producing diffuse reflection characteristics of a predetermined magnitude,
the difference between said refraction indexes of said transparent layers being sufficiently small, and the magnitude of said diffuse reflection characteristics of the surface of the substrate facing said transparent thermoplastic layer being sufficiently large so that said characteristic diffraction effect of said microstructure is substantially not detectable by the unaided eye of an observer.
2. A security blank as claimed in claim 1, wherein the surface of the substrate within the region of said microstructure has a diffuse reflectivity of at least 80%, and wherein the difference between said refraction indices is at most 0.2.
3. A security blank as claimed in claim 1, wherein said substrate includes paper having a white surface within the region of said microstructure.
4. A security blank as claimed in claim 1, wherein said substrate includes paper having a surface of varying degrees of matteness in different zones thereof.
5. A security blank as claimed in claim 1, wherein said transparent layer has a wavy surface, so as to disperse light impinging on said wavy surface.
6. A security blank as claimed in claim 1, wherein said microstructure includes a plurality of phase diffraction means, each phase diffraction means being sufficiently small in at least one dimension so that it cannot be resolved by the unaided eye of an observer.
US06425466 1981-10-27 1982-09-28 Document having a security feature and method of determining the authenticity of the document Expired - Lifetime US4501439A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH6835/81 1981-10-27
CH683581 1981-10-27

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4501439A true US4501439A (en) 1985-02-26

Family

ID=4315773

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US06425466 Expired - Lifetime US4501439A (en) 1981-10-27 1982-09-28 Document having a security feature and method of determining the authenticity of the document

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (1) US4501439A (en)
JP (1) JPS6230673B2 (en)
DE (1) DE3233197C2 (en)
DK (1) DK159692C (en)
FR (1) FR2515396B1 (en)
GB (1) GB2108428B (en)
NL (1) NL186623C (en)

Cited By (69)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4656473A (en) * 1984-10-04 1987-04-07 Light Signatures, Inc. Secure card and sensing system
US4705300A (en) * 1984-07-13 1987-11-10 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Thin film optically variable article and method having gold to green color shift for currency authentication
US4747620A (en) * 1985-08-28 1988-05-31 The De La Rue Company Plc Security card and security card blank
US4779898A (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-10-25 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Thin film optically variable article and method having gold to green color shift for currency authentication
US4786084A (en) * 1985-11-18 1988-11-22 Copyguard, Inc. Volumetric holographic photocopy prevention film
US4856857A (en) * 1985-05-07 1989-08-15 Dai Nippon Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha Transparent reflection-type
US4922109A (en) * 1988-04-18 1990-05-01 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag Device for recognizing authentic documents using optical modulas
US4983002A (en) * 1987-10-06 1991-01-08 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Optical head device
US5037101A (en) * 1990-06-19 1991-08-06 Mcnulty James P Hologram game card
US5074597A (en) * 1987-01-13 1991-12-24 The Lehigh Press, Inc. Computerized method of generating film masters for embossing and printing color images
US5083850A (en) * 1989-08-29 1992-01-28 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Technique of forming a separate information bearing printed pattern on replicas of a hologram or other surface relief diffraction pattern
US5085514A (en) * 1989-08-29 1992-02-04 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Technique of forming a separate information bearing printed pattern on replicas of a hologram or other surface relief diffraction pattern
US5101184A (en) * 1988-09-30 1992-03-31 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag Diffraction element and optical machine-reading device
US5138604A (en) * 1988-04-12 1992-08-11 Dai Nippon Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha Optical recording method having two degrees of reflectivity and a diffraction grating or hologram formed integrally thereon and process for making it
US5155604A (en) * 1987-10-26 1992-10-13 Van Leer Metallized Products (Usa) Limited Coated paper sheet embossed with a diffraction or holographic pattern
US5200794A (en) * 1989-08-11 1993-04-06 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Optical head for an optical authenticity identifing system
US5291006A (en) * 1989-08-11 1994-03-01 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Authenticity identifying system for information storage cards
US5300764A (en) * 1991-09-11 1994-04-05 Nhk Spring Company, Ltd. Transparent optical identification label with infrared directivity
US5319476A (en) * 1992-01-10 1994-06-07 Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. Multiply recorded hologram for security
US5347111A (en) * 1991-12-26 1994-09-13 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Authenticity identifying structure for an article
US5351142A (en) * 1993-04-16 1994-09-27 Crown Roll Leaf, Inc. Semi-transparent reflective layer for a phase hologram
US5379131A (en) * 1991-12-11 1995-01-03 Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. Method of preventing forgery of diffraction grating pattern and forgery-proof diffraction grating pattern recording structure
US5394234A (en) * 1991-12-19 1995-02-28 Control Module Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting forged diffraction gratings on identification means
US5438403A (en) * 1992-04-28 1995-08-01 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Article identification system
US5442433A (en) * 1989-08-11 1995-08-15 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Identification system for an article having individually attached patches
US5443579A (en) * 1992-06-04 1995-08-22 Director-General, Printing Bureau, Minstry Finance Printed matter and method for printing the same
GB2287430A (en) * 1994-03-16 1995-09-20 Landis & Gry Tech Innovat Ag Information carrier with diffraction markings
US5456498A (en) * 1993-12-20 1995-10-10 Bancimage, Inc. Negotiable instrument fraud detector and processor
US5481095A (en) * 1992-02-17 1996-01-02 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Code reading pattern and an image pickup apparatus for reading the pattern
US5497227A (en) * 1992-09-29 1996-03-05 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. System for determining the authenticity of an object
US5513019A (en) * 1993-04-16 1996-04-30 Crown Roll Leaf, Inc. Semi-transparent reflective layer for a phase hologram
US5591527A (en) * 1994-11-02 1997-01-07 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Optical security articles and methods for making same
US5695808A (en) * 1993-04-16 1997-12-09 Crown Roll Leaf Inc. Method for making transparent reflective films
US5801857A (en) * 1989-09-28 1998-09-01 Gao Gesellschaft Fur Automation Und Organisation Mbh Data carrier having an optically variable element and methods for producing it
US5886798A (en) * 1995-08-21 1999-03-23 Landis & Gyr Technology Innovation Ag Information carriers with diffraction structures
US5923413A (en) * 1996-11-15 1999-07-13 Interbold Universal bank note denominator and validator
US5948199A (en) * 1983-06-20 1999-09-07 Mcgrew; Stephen Paul Surface relief holograms and holographic hot-stamping foils, and method of fabricating same
US5951769A (en) * 1997-06-04 1999-09-14 Crown Roll Leaf, Inc. Method and apparatus for making high refractive index (HRI) film
EP0999525A1 (en) * 1998-11-06 2000-05-10 Kyodo Printing Co., Ltd. Forgery resisting security document
US6087075A (en) * 1997-11-07 2000-07-11 Label Systems, Inc. Holographic tamper-evident label
WO2000072275A1 (en) * 1999-05-25 2000-11-30 Qinetiq Limited Specialised surface
US6243162B1 (en) * 1997-09-09 2001-06-05 Melzer Maschinenbau Gmbh System for optically examining plastic card surfaces
US6252685B1 (en) * 1998-11-06 2001-06-26 Victor Company Of Japan, Ltd. Optical recording medium and apparatus of judging fake thereof
EP1193080A2 (en) * 2000-10-02 2002-04-03 Ultra Electronics Limited A method of forming an image, and a product having an image formed thereon
WO2002011063A3 (en) * 2000-07-27 2002-04-25 Orga Kartensysteme Gmbh Optically active structure for personalizing cards and the like, and method for the production thereof
US6449032B1 (en) 1998-02-13 2002-09-10 Ncr Corporation Sheet recognition system
US20020143671A1 (en) * 1998-10-29 2002-10-03 International Business Machines Corporation Method and system for preventing parallel marketing of wholesale and retail items
US6496256B1 (en) * 1999-10-01 2002-12-17 Applied Materials, Inc. Inspection systems using sensor array and double threshold arrangement
US6573983B1 (en) 1996-11-15 2003-06-03 Diebold, Incorporated Apparatus and method for processing bank notes and other documents in an automated banking machine
US20030213841A1 (en) * 2002-05-14 2003-11-20 Josephson Stanley M. Method for verifying and authenticating initially named payee of negotiable instruments
WO2004013817A2 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-02-12 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Device and document for processing security documents
US20040101638A1 (en) * 2000-10-28 2004-05-27 Lawrence Christopher Robert Iridescent materials and devices
US20040099740A1 (en) * 2002-11-25 2004-05-27 Chresand Thomas J. Merchandising components for authenticating products, and combinations and methods utilizing the same
US20040118931A1 (en) * 2002-09-26 2004-06-24 Selinfreund Richard H. Authentication of items using transient optical state change materials
US20040153476A1 (en) * 2002-08-07 2004-08-05 Allen Loretta E. Label and method of making
US6822769B1 (en) 1999-06-01 2004-11-23 De La Rue International Limited Security device
US20050129282A1 (en) * 2003-12-11 2005-06-16 O'doherty Phelim A. Method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card
US20050151368A1 (en) * 2002-02-22 2005-07-14 Manfred Heim Security document and security element for a security document
EP1589496A1 (en) * 2004-04-24 2005-10-26 Smiths Heimann Biometrics GmbH Device and method for checking optically diffractive structures on documents
US20050269818A1 (en) * 2004-06-03 2005-12-08 Datacard Corporation Identification documents with enhanced security
US20060038005A1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2006-02-23 Diebold, Incorporated Check cashing automated banking machine
US20060086784A1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2006-04-27 Diebold, Incorporated Automated banking machine
US20070102863A1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2007-05-10 Diebold, Incorporated Automated banking machine
US20070211920A1 (en) * 2006-01-23 2007-09-13 Rhoads Geoffrey B Methods and Cards Employing Optical Phenomena
US20080112596A1 (en) * 2006-01-23 2008-05-15 Rhoads Geoffrey B Sensing Data From Physical Objects
WO2009077208A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-06-25 Bam Bundesanstalt Für Materialforschung Und-Prüfung Method and apparatus for identifying a product
WO2011063488A1 (en) * 2009-11-24 2011-06-03 Zakrytoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo "Golograficheskaya Industriya" Anti-counterfeit security identification mark and method of making it
WO2011128214A1 (en) 2010-04-14 2011-10-20 Bundesdruckerei Gmbh Self-verifying optical security element
WO2017177328A1 (en) * 2016-04-15 2017-10-19 Canadian Bank Note Company, Limited Watermark and other security features for thermoplastic security documents

Families Citing this family (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE8326875U1 (en) * 1983-09-19 1983-12-29 Erwin Sick Gmbh Optik-Elektronik, 7808 Waldkirch, De Optically readable code map
ES2038119T3 (en) * 1985-10-15 1993-07-16 Gao Gesellschaft Fur Automation Und Organisation Mbh Data carrier with optical characteristic of genuineness, as well as process for the manufacture and testing of the data carrier.
GB8526870D0 (en) * 1985-10-31 1985-12-04 Bpcc Holographic Security Syst Preventing counterfeiting of documents
EP0278058A1 (en) * 1987-01-23 1988-08-17 LGZ LANDIS & GYR ZUG AG Apparatus for checking the authenticity of documents
JPH0818471B2 (en) * 1987-02-24 1996-02-28 大日本印刷株式会社 The reflection-type hologram sheet - mosquito with door - de
US4869946B1 (en) * 1987-12-29 1991-11-05 Nimslo Corp
GB8812890D0 (en) * 1988-05-31 1988-07-06 De La Rue Co Plc Security device & methods & apparatus for verification
GB9025390D0 (en) * 1990-11-22 1991-01-09 De La Rue Thomas & Co Ltd Security device
JPH04233680A (en) * 1990-12-28 1992-08-21 Toppan Printing Co Ltd Method and device for reading mark
DE4200746A1 (en) * 1992-01-14 1993-07-15 Inform Vertriebsgesellschaft F Machine readable identification information in hologram bar=code - having fixed and variable code section formed by combination of two diffraction angle materials and blanked out section
US5296949A (en) * 1992-04-23 1994-03-22 Flexcon Company Inc. Optical authentication device
DE4243905A1 (en) * 1992-12-23 1994-06-30 Gao Ges Automation Org A security element for the protection of security documents against reproduction
US5909313A (en) * 1993-05-25 1999-06-01 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Multiple image diffractive device
DE4343387A1 (en) * 1993-12-18 1995-06-29 Kurz Leonhard Fa Visually identifiable, optical security element for valuable documents
JPH07172035A (en) * 1994-06-24 1995-07-11 Dainippon Printing Co Ltd Copy preventive medium
DE4436192C1 (en) * 1994-10-11 1996-03-21 Kurz Leonhard Fa Structural arrangement, especially for a security element
DE59500254D1 (en) * 1995-03-16 1997-06-26 Landis & Gyr Tech Innovat Optical information carrier
DE10342276A1 (en) 2003-09-12 2005-04-07 Bundesdruckerei Gmbh A security document and method of producing a security document
GB2426100B (en) * 2005-05-11 2007-08-22 Ingenia Technology Ltd Authenticity vertification
JP5338193B2 (en) * 2008-08-14 2013-11-13 凸版印刷株式会社 Display body, adhesive label, transfer foil and labeled article

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3571957A (en) * 1968-01-04 1971-03-23 Ncr Co Positive identification means and method for owner-presented documents
US3614430A (en) * 1969-03-10 1971-10-19 Pitney Bowes Alpex Fluorescent-ink-imprinted coded document and method and apparatus for use in connection therewith
US4092526A (en) * 1976-05-27 1978-05-30 Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. Secure property device
US4119361A (en) * 1975-08-14 1978-10-10 Landis & Gyr Multilayer identification card
US4129382A (en) * 1975-08-14 1978-12-12 Landis & Gyr Method and apparatus for storing and reading authenticating information
US4140373A (en) * 1975-10-14 1979-02-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Dual-hologram identity card
US4142674A (en) * 1977-01-17 1979-03-06 Schlage Electronics, Inc. Recognition and identification key having adaptable resonant frequency and methods of adapting same
US4184700A (en) * 1975-11-17 1980-01-22 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag Documents embossed with optical markings representing genuineness information
US4211918A (en) * 1977-06-21 1980-07-08 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag Method and device for identifying documents
US4290630A (en) * 1977-03-01 1981-09-22 Governor & Company Of The Bank Of England Security devices
GB2082593A (en) * 1980-08-25 1982-03-10 Landis & Gyr Ag A plastics body modified in respect of optical properties

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3412493A (en) * 1966-05-02 1968-11-26 Ibm Tamper-proof record structure
DE2555214C3 (en) * 1975-11-17 1978-04-27 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag, Zug (Schweiz)
US4892385A (en) * 1981-02-19 1990-01-09 General Electric Company Sheet-material authenticated item with reflective-diffractive authenticating device

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3571957A (en) * 1968-01-04 1971-03-23 Ncr Co Positive identification means and method for owner-presented documents
US3614430A (en) * 1969-03-10 1971-10-19 Pitney Bowes Alpex Fluorescent-ink-imprinted coded document and method and apparatus for use in connection therewith
US4119361A (en) * 1975-08-14 1978-10-10 Landis & Gyr Multilayer identification card
US4129382A (en) * 1975-08-14 1978-12-12 Landis & Gyr Method and apparatus for storing and reading authenticating information
US4140373A (en) * 1975-10-14 1979-02-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Dual-hologram identity card
US4184700A (en) * 1975-11-17 1980-01-22 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag Documents embossed with optical markings representing genuineness information
US4092526A (en) * 1976-05-27 1978-05-30 Addressograph-Multigraph Corp. Secure property device
US4142674A (en) * 1977-01-17 1979-03-06 Schlage Electronics, Inc. Recognition and identification key having adaptable resonant frequency and methods of adapting same
US4290630A (en) * 1977-03-01 1981-09-22 Governor & Company Of The Bank Of England Security devices
US4211918A (en) * 1977-06-21 1980-07-08 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag Method and device for identifying documents
GB2082593A (en) * 1980-08-25 1982-03-10 Landis & Gyr Ag A plastics body modified in respect of optical properties

Cited By (105)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5948199A (en) * 1983-06-20 1999-09-07 Mcgrew; Stephen Paul Surface relief holograms and holographic hot-stamping foils, and method of fabricating same
US4705300A (en) * 1984-07-13 1987-11-10 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Thin film optically variable article and method having gold to green color shift for currency authentication
US4656473A (en) * 1984-10-04 1987-04-07 Light Signatures, Inc. Secure card and sensing system
US4856857A (en) * 1985-05-07 1989-08-15 Dai Nippon Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha Transparent reflection-type
US4747620A (en) * 1985-08-28 1988-05-31 The De La Rue Company Plc Security card and security card blank
US4786084A (en) * 1985-11-18 1988-11-22 Copyguard, Inc. Volumetric holographic photocopy prevention film
US4779898A (en) * 1986-11-21 1988-10-25 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Thin film optically variable article and method having gold to green color shift for currency authentication
US5074597A (en) * 1987-01-13 1991-12-24 The Lehigh Press, Inc. Computerized method of generating film masters for embossing and printing color images
US4983002A (en) * 1987-10-06 1991-01-08 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Optical head device
US5155604A (en) * 1987-10-26 1992-10-13 Van Leer Metallized Products (Usa) Limited Coated paper sheet embossed with a diffraction or holographic pattern
US5138604A (en) * 1988-04-12 1992-08-11 Dai Nippon Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha Optical recording method having two degrees of reflectivity and a diffraction grating or hologram formed integrally thereon and process for making it
US4922109A (en) * 1988-04-18 1990-05-01 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag Device for recognizing authentic documents using optical modulas
US5101184A (en) * 1988-09-30 1992-03-31 Lgz Landis & Gyr Zug Ag Diffraction element and optical machine-reading device
US5442433A (en) * 1989-08-11 1995-08-15 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Identification system for an article having individually attached patches
US5291006A (en) * 1989-08-11 1994-03-01 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Authenticity identifying system for information storage cards
US5200794A (en) * 1989-08-11 1993-04-06 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Optical head for an optical authenticity identifing system
US5085514A (en) * 1989-08-29 1992-02-04 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Technique of forming a separate information bearing printed pattern on replicas of a hologram or other surface relief diffraction pattern
US5083850A (en) * 1989-08-29 1992-01-28 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Technique of forming a separate information bearing printed pattern on replicas of a hologram or other surface relief diffraction pattern
US6337752B1 (en) 1989-09-28 2002-01-08 GAO Gesellschaft für Automation und Organisation mbH Data carrier having an optically variable element and methods for producing it
US6954293B2 (en) 1989-09-28 2005-10-11 GAO Gesellschaft für Automation und Organisation mbH Data carrier having an optically variable element and methods for producing it
US5801857A (en) * 1989-09-28 1998-09-01 Gao Gesellschaft Fur Automation Und Organisation Mbh Data carrier having an optically variable element and methods for producing it
US5037101A (en) * 1990-06-19 1991-08-06 Mcnulty James P Hologram game card
US5300764A (en) * 1991-09-11 1994-04-05 Nhk Spring Company, Ltd. Transparent optical identification label with infrared directivity
US5379131A (en) * 1991-12-11 1995-01-03 Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. Method of preventing forgery of diffraction grating pattern and forgery-proof diffraction grating pattern recording structure
US5394234A (en) * 1991-12-19 1995-02-28 Control Module Inc. Method and apparatus for detecting forged diffraction gratings on identification means
US5347111A (en) * 1991-12-26 1994-09-13 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Authenticity identifying structure for an article
US5319476A (en) * 1992-01-10 1994-06-07 Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. Multiply recorded hologram for security
US5481095A (en) * 1992-02-17 1996-01-02 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Code reading pattern and an image pickup apparatus for reading the pattern
US5438403A (en) * 1992-04-28 1995-08-01 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. Article identification system
US5443579A (en) * 1992-06-04 1995-08-22 Director-General, Printing Bureau, Minstry Finance Printed matter and method for printing the same
US5497227A (en) * 1992-09-29 1996-03-05 Nhk Spring Co., Ltd. System for determining the authenticity of an object
US5351142A (en) * 1993-04-16 1994-09-27 Crown Roll Leaf, Inc. Semi-transparent reflective layer for a phase hologram
US5695808A (en) * 1993-04-16 1997-12-09 Crown Roll Leaf Inc. Method for making transparent reflective films
US5513019A (en) * 1993-04-16 1996-04-30 Crown Roll Leaf, Inc. Semi-transparent reflective layer for a phase hologram
US5456498A (en) * 1993-12-20 1995-10-10 Bancimage, Inc. Negotiable instrument fraud detector and processor
GB2287430A (en) * 1994-03-16 1995-09-20 Landis & Gry Tech Innovat Ag Information carrier with diffraction markings
US5743981A (en) * 1994-11-02 1998-04-28 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Optical security articles and methods for making same
US5591527A (en) * 1994-11-02 1997-01-07 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Optical security articles and methods for making same
US5886798A (en) * 1995-08-21 1999-03-23 Landis & Gyr Technology Innovation Ag Information carriers with diffraction structures
US6101266A (en) * 1996-11-15 2000-08-08 Diebold, Incorporated Apparatus and method of determining conditions of bank notes
US6573983B1 (en) 1996-11-15 2003-06-03 Diebold, Incorporated Apparatus and method for processing bank notes and other documents in an automated banking machine
US20030210386A1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2003-11-13 Diebold, Incorporated Apparatus and method for correlating a suspect note deposited in an automated banking machine with the depositor
US7584883B2 (en) 1996-11-15 2009-09-08 Diebold, Incorporated Check cashing automated banking machine
US20070102863A1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2007-05-10 Diebold, Incorporated Automated banking machine
US20060038005A1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2006-02-23 Diebold, Incorporated Check cashing automated banking machine
US20060086784A1 (en) * 1996-11-15 2006-04-27 Diebold, Incorporated Automated banking machine
US5923413A (en) * 1996-11-15 1999-07-13 Interbold Universal bank note denominator and validator
US7559460B2 (en) 1996-11-15 2009-07-14 Diebold Incorporated Automated banking machine
US7513417B2 (en) 1996-11-15 2009-04-07 Diebold, Incorporated Automated banking machine
US6774986B2 (en) 1996-11-15 2004-08-10 Diebold, Incorporated Apparatus and method for correlating a suspect note deposited in an automated banking machine with the depositor
US6194031B1 (en) 1997-06-04 2001-02-27 Crown Roll Leaf, Inc. Method for making high refractive index (HRI) film by adjusting the flow rate of a vaporized material
US5951769A (en) * 1997-06-04 1999-09-14 Crown Roll Leaf, Inc. Method and apparatus for making high refractive index (HRI) film
US6243162B1 (en) * 1997-09-09 2001-06-05 Melzer Maschinenbau Gmbh System for optically examining plastic card surfaces
US6087075A (en) * 1997-11-07 2000-07-11 Label Systems, Inc. Holographic tamper-evident label
US6449032B1 (en) 1998-02-13 2002-09-10 Ncr Corporation Sheet recognition system
US6746053B1 (en) * 1998-10-29 2004-06-08 International Business Machines Corporation Method and system for preventing parallel marketing of wholesale and retail items
US6817538B2 (en) 1998-10-29 2004-11-16 International Business Machines Corporation Method and system for preventing parallel marketing of wholesale and retail items
US20020143671A1 (en) * 1998-10-29 2002-10-03 International Business Machines Corporation Method and system for preventing parallel marketing of wholesale and retail items
US6252685B1 (en) * 1998-11-06 2001-06-26 Victor Company Of Japan, Ltd. Optical recording medium and apparatus of judging fake thereof
EP0999525A1 (en) * 1998-11-06 2000-05-10 Kyodo Printing Co., Ltd. Forgery resisting security document
GB2368310A (en) * 1999-05-25 2002-05-01 Qinetiq Ltd Specialised surface
WO2000072275A1 (en) * 1999-05-25 2000-11-30 Qinetiq Limited Specialised surface
GB2368310B (en) * 1999-05-25 2003-11-12 Qinetiq Ltd Specialised surface
US6753952B1 (en) 1999-05-25 2004-06-22 Qinetiq Limited Specialised surface
US6822769B1 (en) 1999-06-01 2004-11-23 De La Rue International Limited Security device
US6661508B2 (en) 1999-10-01 2003-12-09 Applied Materials, Inc. Inspection systems using sensor array and double threshold arrangement
US7161670B2 (en) 1999-10-01 2007-01-09 Giora Eytan Inspection systems using sensor array and double threshold arrangement
US6496256B1 (en) * 1999-10-01 2002-12-17 Applied Materials, Inc. Inspection systems using sensor array and double threshold arrangement
WO2002011063A3 (en) * 2000-07-27 2002-04-25 Orga Kartensysteme Gmbh Optically active structure for personalizing cards and the like, and method for the production thereof
US20030230816A1 (en) * 2000-07-27 2003-12-18 Bundesdruckerei Gmbh Optically active structure for secured documents and the like, and methods for their production
US6772951B1 (en) 2000-10-02 2004-08-10 Ultra Electronics Limited Method of forming an image, and to a product having an image formed thereon
EP1193080A2 (en) * 2000-10-02 2002-04-03 Ultra Electronics Limited A method of forming an image, and a product having an image formed thereon
US6827274B2 (en) 2000-10-02 2004-12-07 Ultra Electronics Limited Method of forming an image, and to a product having an image formed thereon
US20030207087A1 (en) * 2000-10-02 2003-11-06 Coles Raymond W. Method of forming an image, and to a product having an image formed thereon
EP1193080A3 (en) * 2000-10-02 2002-07-03 Ultra Electronics Limited A method of forming an image, and a product having an image formed thereon
US7833610B2 (en) * 2000-10-28 2010-11-16 Qinetiq Limited Iridescent materials and devices
US20040101638A1 (en) * 2000-10-28 2004-05-27 Lawrence Christopher Robert Iridescent materials and devices
US20050151368A1 (en) * 2002-02-22 2005-07-14 Manfred Heim Security document and security element for a security document
US7611168B2 (en) * 2002-02-22 2009-11-03 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Security document and security element for a security document
US20030213841A1 (en) * 2002-05-14 2003-11-20 Josephson Stanley M. Method for verifying and authenticating initially named payee of negotiable instruments
WO2004013817A3 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-12-29 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Device and document for processing security documents
WO2004013817A2 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-02-12 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Device and document for processing security documents
US20040153476A1 (en) * 2002-08-07 2004-08-05 Allen Loretta E. Label and method of making
US20040118931A1 (en) * 2002-09-26 2004-06-24 Selinfreund Richard H. Authentication of items using transient optical state change materials
US20040099740A1 (en) * 2002-11-25 2004-05-27 Chresand Thomas J. Merchandising components for authenticating products, and combinations and methods utilizing the same
US20050129282A1 (en) * 2003-12-11 2005-06-16 O'doherty Phelim A. Method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card
US7672475B2 (en) 2003-12-11 2010-03-02 Fraudhalt Limited Method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card
WO2005057506A1 (en) * 2003-12-11 2005-06-23 Fraudhalt Limited A method and apparatus for verifying a hologram and a credit card
US20050237616A1 (en) * 2004-04-24 2005-10-27 Smiths Heimann Biometrics Gmbh Arrangement and method for checking optical diffraction structures on documents
US7345747B2 (en) 2004-04-24 2008-03-18 Cross Match Technologies Gmbh Arrangement and method for checking optical diffraction structures on documents
EP1589496A1 (en) * 2004-04-24 2005-10-26 Smiths Heimann Biometrics GmbH Device and method for checking optically diffractive structures on documents
US7594680B2 (en) * 2004-06-03 2009-09-29 Datacard Corporation Identification documents with enhanced security
US20050269818A1 (en) * 2004-06-03 2005-12-08 Datacard Corporation Identification documents with enhanced security
US8842876B2 (en) 2006-01-23 2014-09-23 Digimarc Corporation Sensing data from physical objects
US20070211920A1 (en) * 2006-01-23 2007-09-13 Rhoads Geoffrey B Methods and Cards Employing Optical Phenomena
US8224018B2 (en) 2006-01-23 2012-07-17 Digimarc Corporation Sensing data from physical objects
US8983117B2 (en) 2006-01-23 2015-03-17 Digimarc Corporation Document processing methods
US8923550B2 (en) 2006-01-23 2014-12-30 Digimarc Corporation Object processing employing movement
US20080112596A1 (en) * 2006-01-23 2008-05-15 Rhoads Geoffrey B Sensing Data From Physical Objects
WO2009077208A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2009-06-25 Bam Bundesanstalt Für Materialforschung Und-Prüfung Method and apparatus for identifying a product
US9589227B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2017-03-07 Bam Bundesanstalt Für Materialforschung Und-Prüfung Method and apparatus for identifying a product
US20110095080A1 (en) * 2007-12-18 2011-04-28 Uwe Beck Method and apparatus for identifying a product
WO2011063488A1 (en) * 2009-11-24 2011-06-03 Zakrytoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo "Golograficheskaya Industriya" Anti-counterfeit security identification mark and method of making it
WO2011128214A1 (en) 2010-04-14 2011-10-20 Bundesdruckerei Gmbh Self-verifying optical security element
WO2017177328A1 (en) * 2016-04-15 2017-10-19 Canadian Bank Note Company, Limited Watermark and other security features for thermoplastic security documents

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE3233197C2 (en) 1986-01-30 grant
JP1426268C (en) grant
DE3233197A1 (en) 1983-05-05 application
FR2515396A1 (en) 1983-04-29 application
DK159692C (en) 1991-04-15 grant
JPS6230673B2 (en) 1987-07-03 grant
DK159692B (en) 1990-11-19 grant
JPS5882371A (en) 1983-05-17 application
GB2108428B (en) 1985-03-06 grant
FR2515396B1 (en) 1987-08-21 grant
NL8204120A (en) 1983-05-16 application
GB2108428A (en) 1983-05-18 application
DK472582A (en) 1983-04-28 application
NL186623C (en) 1991-01-16 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4692394A (en) Method of forming a personal information card
US3977785A (en) Method and apparatus for inhibiting the operation of a copying machine
US6104036A (en) Apparatus and method for detecting a security feature in a currency note
US5729365A (en) Computer generated holographic microtags
US6269169B1 (en) Secure document reader and method therefor
US4728186A (en) Uneven-surface data detection apparatus
US4563024A (en) Hologram identification device
US6301047B1 (en) System for optically identifying an object
US4547002A (en) Credit and identification cards having pieces of diffraction grating therein
US20060249951A1 (en) Security document with ultraviolet authentication security feature
US4484797A (en) Diffractive subtractive color filter responsive to angle of incidence of polychromatic illuminating light
US5623347A (en) Holograms for security markings
US4361757A (en) Card-like data carrier
US5568251A (en) Authenticating system
US5757521A (en) Pattern metallized optical varying security devices
US7353994B2 (en) Security, identification and verification systems
US5379131A (en) Method of preventing forgery of diffraction grating pattern and forgery-proof diffraction grating pattern recording structure
US6359734B1 (en) Surface pattern
US5886798A (en) Information carriers with diffraction structures
US4119361A (en) Multilayer identification card
US5447335A (en) Security device and authenticatable item
US5920058A (en) Holographic labeling and reading machine for authentication and security applications
US5291006A (en) Authenticity identifying system for information storage cards
US4963859A (en) Method and apparatus for capturing information in drawing or writing
US5101184A (en) Diffraction element and optical machine-reading device

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: LGZ LANDIS & GYR ZUG AG, CH-6301, ZUG, CONFEDERATI

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:ANTES, GREGOR;REEL/FRAME:004050/0532

Effective date: 19820922

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12

AS Assignment

Owner name: OVD KINEGRAM AG, SWITZERLAND

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LANDIS & GYR IMMOBILIEN AG;REEL/FRAME:010676/0714

Effective date: 19991111

Owner name: LANDIS & GYR IMMOBILIEN AG, SWITZERLAND

Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:LGZ LANDIS & GYR ZUG AG;REEL/FRAME:010676/0720

Effective date: 19900612