US440341A - Tachygraphy and type-writing machine - Google Patents

Tachygraphy and type-writing machine Download PDF


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US440341A US440341DA US440341A US 440341 A US440341 A US 440341A US 440341D A US440341D A US 440341DA US 440341 A US440341 A US 440341A
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    • B41J3/00Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed
    • B41J3/26Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed for stenographic writing


(No Model.) 2 sheets-sheet 1. v
No. 440,341. Patented Nov. 11,1890.
lI i
(No Model.) 2 sheets-sheet 2.
TAGHYGRAPHY AND TYPE WRITING MACHINE. No. 440,341 Patented Nov. 11, 1890.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 440,341, dated November 11, 1890. I
Application filed April 20, 1889. Serial No. 307,928. (No model.)
To all whom it .may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORGE KERR ANDER- SON, a citizen of the United States, residing at Memphis, in the coun ty of Shelby and State of Tennessee, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Tachygraphy and Type-Vriting Machines, of which the following is a specification. My invention relates to an improved method of writing tachygraphically and to tachygraphic type-writing machines, and has reference more particularly to that class in which the printing characters print in a straight line across the sheet of paper.
'Ihe present invention is designed as an improvement upon that for which I received Letters Patent of the United States, dated September IO, 1889, No. 410,628.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure l is a top plan view of my im proved machine with the roll of paper removed; Fig. 2, a side elevation of the same with part of the ribbon-supporting mechanism indicated in dotted lines; Fig. 3, a perspective view of the bed or base plate and the key-board; Fig. 4, a horizontal sectional View on the line 0c x; Fig. 5, a perspective view looking from the under side of the movable bed or plate to which the printing characters are secured; Fig. 6, a sectional view illustrating the manner in which the keybars are secured to the base-plate; Fig. 7, a view illustrating the construction and arrangement of the ribbon-supporting mechanism; Fig. S, a sectional view illustrating the very frequent occurrence.
construction of the paper-feed mechanism, and Fig. 9 a sectional view of one of the iinger-buttons.
The obj ect of my improvements is to reduce the number of keys on the key-board sufficiently to enable them all to be operated si m ultaneously by the two hands without. shifting the fingers from one key to another.
In the use of my improved machine I employ three groups of characters for the type and keys--one to represent the general phonetic consonant alphabet, one to represent the general phonetic vowel alphabet, and a third to represent a few terminal consonants of The consonants of the first group are combined to form other consonants and combinations of consonants and the vowels of the second group to form other vowels and combinations of vowels, and in selecting the letters which compose these groups great care has been taken to select those of the most frequent occurrence, so that in actual work they will outnumber the combination-letters greatly. In forming the first consonant group I have endeavored to employ as few characters as possible by which a complete consonant alphabet could be formed, and in forming the vowel group I have also endeavored to employ as few characters as possible with which a vowel alphabet could be formed. In forming the group of terminal consonants I have not sought to represent every terminal consonant, but only a few of the most frequent occurrence. The new features so far disclosed, then, consists in the selection of frequently-occurring letters to form each group and in the use to form these groups of a very small number of characters with which they can be formed.
In order to further reduce the number of characters and strokes of the machine necessary in writing and make the system more complete, I use an arbitrary character, sometimes to show that all the letters in a line are read backward or sometimes to show that the vowel in the line is to be read after certain characters-as, for example, L or after R- instead of before said characters, printed. By this means I am enabled to print at one stroke many words which would otherwise require two, such as friend, bliud, time, &c.
From practical experience I have found that the fourteen characters--viZ., S T H K P A U E L R N T S-are peculiarly applicable for the practical operation of my improved method, and in this case the machine for printing or writing the same need have only fourteen type and keys-one for each character as in my improved machine, and
all of these keys are adapted to be struck simultaneously by the two hands.
The first fiveletters of the above systemviz., S T I-I K P-I use singly and in certain combinations to represent an entire phonetic consonant alphabet, the table below giving IOO the different characters and their consonant representations:
T H K represents b H K represents w S T H represents ch r S H K represents sw K P represents d S T H K represents wh H P represents f S T K P represents y T P represents g S T K represents z S K-P represents j S H K P represents ing T K represents l S represents s 'I H K P represents m T represents t S T H K P represents sm H represents l1 S T H P represents mp K represents k H K P represents n P represents p S H P represents q S T represents st T K P represents r S H represents sh S T P represents tw-dw S K represents sk T H P represents v S P represents sp T H represents th The three vowels A, U, and E, taken singly andin combinations, are used to represent the vowels and dipthongs of the alphabet, as indicated in the following table:
A represents A U represents U E represents E U E represents I A U E represents O A U represents AU OU OI A E represents AE and initial A, E, or O.
The letters L R N T S, which are terminal consonants that are likely to occur very frequently in writing, have norepresentation beyond what they themselves are, except that T is sometimes used to represent D and S sometimes represents soft O. By this system I can print a vowel between an initial consonant and any terminal consonant in the last group; but there are many words in which one of the letters R and L comes between the initial consonant and the vowelsuch as friend, blind,&c.-and as there is not room on the key-board for but one more key this additional key (which prints preferably a dot) is employed to indicate that the vowel is read after R or L instead of before these letters as printed.
Whenever it is desired to print the letter S the finger-key bearing the representation of said letter will be struck, and the same is true of the letters T, H, K, and P, which, when printed alone, retain their ordinary significance. If, however,it is desired to represent B, it will be necessary to strike the keys T H K, and in like manner the letters D, F, and G are represented, respectively, by the characters K P, H P, and T P. This manner of representing the characters whichare not otherwise represented is what I term combining, and of course the operator must. learn the combinations in the table above given; but as soon as this is accomplished practice only is required in order to enable the operator to print phonographically from dictation.
Only one word or part of a word will be printed on each line, and as soon as an impression is made, though it be but a dot, the paper will be fed forward a distance equal to a line. The characters printed are plain Roman characters, which are easily read and cannot be confounded or confused with one another, and are so selected that in actual work they outnumber combination letters or characters in the proportion of five to one.
Referring now to the drawings, I will describe a machine which I have successfully operated on the foregoing principles.
A indicates a base-board, which may be made of wood or metal and of any desired shape, and B indicates a metallicblock, which is secured upon the base-board by screws O passing up through the latter. The block is provided with an upwardly-projecting rim or flange a, said iiange and block being provided with radial slots b, in which the key bars or levers D are mounted, the said block being also provided on its under side with feet c c, as 'shown in Figs. 2 and Formed upon the block or plate B are upright lugs or posts d d, which serve to support the paper-feed mechanism, and shorter lugs or posts e e, to which the platen or plate carrying the printing characters is pivoted.
Block or plate B will, for the sake of lightness, be made open at one end and is provided With inwardly-projecting lugs f f, fora purpose presently explained.
The key bars or levers D are narrow flatA pieces of metal perforated .at a point near their inner ends to receive a wire yoke or staple g, the main arm of which passes through the said key bars or levers and forms the pivot or journal upon which the key bars or levers oscillate or swing.
As shown in Fig. 6, the arms of the yokes or staples g extend downward through holes or perforations in the block or base B, and it will also be seen upon reference to said figure and to Figs. l and 3 that a single yoke or staple may be arranged so as to form the pivot or journal for two or more key bars or levers. The lower ends of the yokes or staples g will advisably be bent or clinched against the lower face of the block, so'as to prevent their becoming loose. By providing the block B with the slotted upright flange a the key bars or levers will be prevented from moving sidewise or wabbling during their operation. It is obvious that this flange need not necessarily be at the edge of the block B, but may be at most any other point on the block. This construction and arrangement of the levermounting devices render unnecessary deep slotting of the block and also enable the staples or yokes to be bent into proper form and applied to the leversA or bars before the latter are placed in position. 4
The levers or bars D are flattened out at their inner ends, as shown in Fig. 3, so as to permit the use of a bar thinner than the face of the type, and therefore light, and are supported at said in ner end by a plate or crossbar h, provided on its upper face with a pad or cushion t'. The cross bar or support h is carried by screws 7' j, which screw into the lugs ff of plate or block B, said screws being sur` rounded each by a coiled spring k, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, so that by screwing the screws into the lugs the springs will be compressed and the bar or support lowered.
tensa a Engaging ai; its'. ends with theI feet c c or other part of tle block or plate` B isla rod Z, which extends across' the machine beneath the ends of the bars or levers D, as shown in Fig. 4. A coiled spring m (one for each key har or lever) is connected at one end with the rodZ and at the other end with one of the key bars or levers, thereby holding the latter down upon their support and away from the printed characters.
At their outer ends the key bars or levers are provided with buttons n, which are made of a single piece of hard rubber or similar material, the shank of the button being slotted to receive the key bar or lever, to which it is riveted, as indicated in Fig. 9. It is not necessary that the shank be slotted, as the butt-on may be riveted to the side of the key bar or lever, as illustrated in Fig. 2. By making the shank long` and integral with the body of the button the liability ot' the button on one key-bar striking the adjacent bar is avoided, and the use of rivets to connect the shank and body, which renders the button unsightly, is dispensed with.
E indicates the plate which carries the printing characters, the said plate being provided with perforated ears o to receive pivotscrews p p, by which the plate is secured to the lugs e e.
The printing characters, as shown in Fig. 5, are arranged in a straight line directly above the [latten ed ends of the key-bars and will advisably be formed on a single plate q, which is secured rigidly to the under side of the pivoted plate E. The printing characters may be made of rubber, steel, type-metal, or any other suitable material, and may be secured to the plate E in any manner desired, provided they are so arranged as tohave one character directly above each key bar or lever. By having the characters in a straight line it will be seen that any number of the characters may be printed simultaneously or any particular character printed alone.
At the outer end the plate E is provided with an arm iu, which is coveredwith rubber or felt, and which, resting upon the block B, limits the downward movement of the plate and prevents its printing characters from resting upon the key-bars.
In order to hold the plate E down into proper position, I employ a spring F, which bears at one end upon the plate and at the other end is adj ustably secured to an arm G, which latter is in turn adjustably secured to an upright post 1' of the block B. By loosening the screwsthe arm G, with its spring, may be swung around laterally, so as to remove the spring from the plate and permit the latter to be swung backward to have access to the printing characters for cleaning or other purposes, and it will also be seen that by tightening or loosening the nut t thel tension or force of the spring may be increased or diminished, as desired.
The arm G projects out over one side of i rotation of the shaft.
the plate E and-serves td lim't the upward movement of said plate when struck by the key bars or levers, a cushion u' being' secured 7o to the upper ,side of the plate to reduce the jar and noise.
The roll of paper is carried by an L-shaped arm or support H, secured to the baseeblock B, the extreme outer end of the horizontal por- 7 5 tion of said arm being bent upward, as shown at t, to prevent the accidental displacement of the roll, it being necessary to raise the roll up to slip it olf over the bent end c.
Pivoted to the outer end of the plate E is a pawl or dog` Qc, which is adapted to engage with a ratchet-wheel y, secured to the shaft z of the feed-roll I, as shown in Fig. l, the pawl being held in engagement with the ratchetwheel y by means of a coiled spring a', bearing at opposite ends against or connected with the pawl and the plate E.
The rubber feed-roll I is made consider ably larger than is usual and secured upon a hollow shaft e', the shaft being threaded eX- ternally at one end to receive nuts Z9 b', by means of which the ratchet-wheel y is secured in position upon the shaft, as shown in Fig. 8.
Projecting into the ends of the hollow shaft z are pintles or journals c c', which have their bearing in the upright posts d d of block B, the journals being secured to the shaft bymeans of set-screws d d', as shown, and provided at their outer ends with iiat rubber rollers e. e', as shown in Figs. l, 2, and 8.
J indicates a presser-roll,which is arranged parallel to the feed-roller I, the said presserroll being secured rigidly upon a hollow shaft K, into the ends of which project L-shaped arms L, which project horizontally from the posts d d, as represented in Figs. l and 2. Springs M encircle the rods or arms L and bear at opposite ends against the posts d and a lug or shoulder on the arms, the said springs serving to hold or draw the presser-roller J against the feed-roller.
O indicates the inking-ribbon, which extends transversely across the machine between the printing characters and the key bars or levers, the ribbon being carried at its ends by spools which turn upon shafts Q Q. The shafts are mounted loosely in the upper ends of arms or brackets R, secured to the base-plate A or to the block B, so that either one of Lthe shafts Q or Q can be moved longitudinally to bring its particular spool-disk P into engagement with one of the rollers e.
In order to hold the disk P in engagement with the roller c', the brackets R are each provided with a dat arm N, which bears at its upperend against the pointed ends of shafts Q Q', the arm holding the disk against the roller with sufficient force to cause the latter to rotate the disk, but not to interfere with the IOO IIO
13o The arm N is pivoted upon a pin or bolt S,
which is encircled by a coiled spring T, Fig.
7, designed to exert the necessary pressure upon the said arm, so that when one arm is bearing upon its shaft the other arm may be swung laterally upon its pivot out of engagement with its shaft.
U indicates a ribbon-guide, which is made of a single piece of wire bent back upon itself to form an elongated eye through which the ribbon is passed, the length of the eye being regulated by means of a rubber block V, slipped onto the guide and embracing the two arms thereof. The guides are carried by the upright posts d (l, Figs. 2, 7, and 8, and are adjustable lengthwise in the posts, the stems of the guides receiving the pressure of coiled springs W, seated in recesses in posts, as represented in Fig. 8. The springs are held in place by means of caps or plates X, secured to the under side of the block B.
The strip of paper is fed beneath the pivoted feed-plate E, passing between the ribbon and the key bars or levers, thence around the lower face of roller I, and up between said roller and t-he roller J. In order to prevent the unwinding of the paper from the roll from interfering with the operator, an upright rod Y is secured to the block B, which prevents the paper from falling onto the keys.
The operation is as follows: The operator presses down upon one or more of'the buttons, and thereby throws the inner flattened end of the key lever or levers struck upward and causes the latter to carry the paper up against the inking-ribbon and the ribbon against the printing characters, thus making an impression on the paper. A further movement or depression of the button raises the inner end of the key-bar still higher and elevates the outer free end of the feed-plate E against the pressure of spring F, the pawl on the latter riding over the teeth of the ratchetwheel, against which it is urged by the pawlspring. As the-finger is removed from the button, the spring m returns the key bar or lever to its normal position, and the feedingplate being unsupported also falls; but inasmuch as the plate has to actuate or turn the heavy roller I its descent will be slower than that of the key bars or levers, thereby giving the latter time enough to reach their seat before the plate reaches its seat and preventing a double impression, which would likely occur were the feed-plate permitted to follow with the key-bars. From` this construction it will be seen that the feed-roll will be moved or rotated a certain and predetermined distance vat each reciprocation or oscillation of the feed-plate, so that after each impression (of one or more characters) the paper will be fed forward the requisite distance.
The holes in the key-bars are made larger than the staple or pivot-wire passing through them, so that the wires may be bent before inserting them in the bars, the larger hole permitting their corners to go through it.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim isl. The hereinbefore -described method of phonetically recording syll-ables and words, consisting in the employment of three sets of characters, the first consisting of five consonants to be used singly and in combinations of two or more to represent all the consonants of a phonetic alphabet, the second consisting of a single group of three vowels to be used singly and in combinations to represent all the vowels of the alphabet, and the third group consisting of certain consonants of frequent occurrence as terminals to be used singly with their ordinary signification, all as set forth.
2. The hereinbefore-described apparatus for phonetically recording syllables and words, having a key-board with three sets of characters, the rst consisting of five consonants to be used singly and incombinations of two or more to represent all the consonants of a phonetic alphabet, the second consisting of a single group of the vowels to be used singly and in combinations to represent all the vowels of the alphabet, and the third group consist-- ing of certain consonants of frequent occurrence as terminals to be used singly with their ordinary signification, all as set forth.
In witness whereof I hereunto set my hand in the presence of two witnesses.
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