US4377415A - Reinforced cement sheet product containing wollastonite for reduced shrinkage - Google Patents

Reinforced cement sheet product containing wollastonite for reduced shrinkage Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US4377415A
US4377415A US06233664 US23366481A US4377415A US 4377415 A US4377415 A US 4377415A US 06233664 US06233664 US 06233664 US 23366481 A US23366481 A US 23366481A US 4377415 A US4377415 A US 4377415A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
cement
wollastonite
product
set forth
amount
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US06233664
Inventor
Robert M. Johnson
Elmer M. Melling
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
National Gypsum Properties LLC
Original Assignee
National Gypsum Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • C04B28/04Portland cements
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/90Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies cross-cutting to different types of waste
    • Y02W30/91Use of waste materials as fillers for mortars or concrete
    • Y02W30/95Use of waste materials as fillers for mortars or concrete from building or ceramic industry

Abstract

A cement-wollastonite product consisting essentially of Portland cement binder in an amount of between about 40% and 90% by weight, and wollastonite in an amount of between about 10% and 60% by weight. The product may contain fibers in an amount of between about 1% and 15% by weight. If the product contains fibers other than asbestos and is to be formed on a Hatschek or other type of wet forming machine, it may contain clay in an amount of between about 2% and 15% by weight, and poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer in an amount of between about 0.03% and 0.5% by weight. The product may also contain silica and/or filler in an amount of between about 10% and 40% by weight for replacing part of the wollastonite. The filler may be waste fiber-cement product or inert filler material.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a cement sheet product which contains asbestos or other reinforcing fibers.

By way of background, in the past asbestos-cement compositions have been formed into sheets for subsequent formation into such products as siding shingles, flat sheets, corrugated sheet products, and the like. These sheets generally contained Type I Portland cement binder in an amount of about 58%, silica and/or filler in an amount of about 27%, and asbestos fibers in an amount of about 15%. The products had many desirable qualities including high strength, exterior durability, easy application, and the ability to be colored in various colors. In addition, products containing asbestos have a dimensional movement as follows when going from a saturated to a bone dry state: Normal cure --0.035--0.045 inches/foot, Autoclaved --0.018--0.024 inches/foot. These ranges are well documented in the asbestos-cement products industry. It is also well known that the lower the dimensional movement, the more stable the product, and the more resistant the product is to cracking or warping in extreme cases of outdoor exposure where relative humidity and temperature conditions vary considerably. However, in recent years, governmental regulations have restricted the use of asbestos. Therefore, attempts have been made to find substitutes for asbestos. One such attempt is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,040,851 which utilizes cotton fibers instead of asbestos fibers, along with other components in addition to Portland cement and silica. However, in the past it has been found that products containing fibrous asbestos substitutes do not have the desirable relatively low wet-to-dry shrinkage characteristics of an asbestos-cement composition, particularly the non-autoclave products, and the higher dimensional movement could result in undesirable exterior durability.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is accordingly the object of the present invention to provide a cement product containing asbestos or other fiber substitutes which have low wet-to-dry dimensional changes in both autoclaved and non-autoclaved products. Other objects and attendant advantages of the present invention will readily be perceived hereafter.

The present invention relates to a cement-wollastonite product consisting essentially of Portland cement binder in an amount of between about 40% and 90% by weight, and wollastonite in an amount of between about 10% and 60% by weight. Preferably the product also includes fibers in an amount of between about 1% and 15% by weight. In addition, the product may also contain silica and or filler in an amount of between about 10% and 40% by weight, as a substitute for some of the wollastonite. If the product does not contain asbestos and is to be formed on a Hatschek machine or other type of wet forming machine, it may contain clay in an amount of between about 2% and 15% by weight and poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer in an amount of between about 0.03% and 0.5% by weight, as set forth in copending application Ser. No. 233,663, filed of even date herewith. The various aspects of the present invention will be more fully understood when the following portions of the specification are read.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The improved cement product of the present invention is essentially a cementitious product of Portland cement and wollastonite. The product may preferably also contain fibers for improved strength and handleability, but it can be made without fibers. The product can include silica and/or filler as a substitute for some of the wollastonite. The filler may be reground waste fiber-cement product or inert fillers. The product, as noted above, is intended to be used for the same purposes as asbestos-cement products, namely, as siding for houses, roofing, slabs, corrugated sheets, flat sheets and the like. If the product contains fibers other than asbestos and is to be formed on a Hatschek or other wet forming machine, it may also contain clay and poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer.

It is preferred that Type I Portland cement be used but Type II or any other conventional type may be used. The cement may be present in an amount of between about 40% and 90% by weight and more preferably between about 50% and 70% by weight, although the most preferred range is between about 60% and 70% by weight.

The wollastonite (CaSiO3) is used to reduce the wet-to-dry dimensional changes in both autoclaved and nonautoclaved products including sheets. Wollastonite is especially valuable as a component in the formulation of products which are not autoclavable and which contain fibers other than asbestos because of the inherent higher shrinkage of such products. The wollastonite can be used by itself as a substitute for silica in existing compositions to produce a product which does not require autoclaving, or it may replace part of the silica. The wollastonite may be present in an amount of between about 10% and 60% by weight there it is used by itself. It may also be present in an amount of between about 15% and 30% by weight where silica and/or fillers are present, and more preferably it may be present in an amount of between about 15% and 25% by weight where silica and/or fillers are present. The wollastonite which has been used is known under the trademark WOLLASTONITE NYAD-G and is a product of Interpace Corporation. Wollastonite is a naturally occurring, nonmetallic calcium metasilicate material. It is wholly acicular, with typical aspect ratios of 3:1 to 20:1. The NYAD-G has the highest aspect ratio, typically 15:1 to 20:1, and is the preferred grade although other grades may be used.

As noted above, silica and/or fillers may form a part of the composition. The fillers may be inert substances such as reground product, calcium carbonate, or any other suitable substance. The silica and/or filler which is used is preferably 120 mesh, but it an be any other suitable mesh size between 80 mesh and 325 mesh. The silica and/or filler can be present in an amount of between about 5% and 30% by weight, and more preferably between about 10% and 20% by weight, but the most preferred range is between about 10% and 15% by weight.

Fibers are preferably incorporated into the product to provide increased strength and handleability, although a product can be fabricated without fibers. Fibers which can be used to prepare fiber-cement sheet products in accordance with the present invention are cotton, sisal, hemp, rami, jute, kraft, glass, alumina (KAOWOOL), carbon, mineral fiber, polypropylene, aramid (KEVLAR), and a polyvinyl alcohol fiber (KURALON). It will be appreciated that asbestos fibers may also be used where such use conforms to existing regulations. Each of the foregoing fibers, as well as the other fibers specifically discussed heretofore, can be combined with the remainder of the ingredients. Any of the foregoing fibers may be present in an amount of between about 1% and 15% by weight, and more preferably between about 2% and 10% by weight, and most preferably between about 2% and 7% by weight.

Acetalized polyvinyl alcohol fibers are especially desirable, and such a product known under the trademark KURALON has been used. In this respect, compositions have been made from KURALON VF 5501 and KURALON VPB 103. This product is manufactured by Kuraray Company, Ltd. of Osaka, Japan and is described in its publication entitled "Kuralon Technical Service Manual, Book 1". The KURALON VF 5501 is preferred and by way of example it has the following physical properties: Standard elongation between about 5.5 and 7.1%; standard Youngs modulus between about 195 and 295 g/d; wet shrinkage (100° C.×30 min) between about 0.5 and 3.5%; heat shrinkage (160° C.×30 min) between about 0 and 0.5%; creep (1 g/d 100° C.×60 min) between about 0.5 and 2.0%; specific gravity between about 1.26 and 1.30; and moisture absorbancy (30° C. 65% RH) between about 2 and 5%. The fibers may have a length of between 1/8" and 3/4", and a thickness of between 0.5 and 6 denier. All of the other features of the KURALON are set forth in the above-noted publication which is incorporated herein by reference. The acetalized polyvinyl alcohol fiber may be present in the amounts set forth within the above ranges of the fibers.

If the product contains fibers other than asbestos and is to be fabricated on a Hatschek machine or under other conditions where there must be a reasonable drainage rate and a low solids loss, the product can also contain clay and poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer. The type of clay which has been used successfully as ENGLEHARD X2059. However, other clays may also be used. These clays include bentonite and kaolin types, and BENTONE LT, ATTAGEL 40, MINNGEL PG, and IMVITE IGBA. The clay is used for the purpose of keeping the fibers in suspension during the sheet forming process when fibers are used. The clay may be present in an amount of between about 2% and 15% by weight, and more preferably between about 3% and 10% by weight, and most preferably between about 4% and 7% by weight.

The poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer which is preferred is known under the trademark POLYOX WSR-301. It is a water soluble resin which is nonionic. It has a molecular weight of approximately 4,000,000 and a viscosity range of 25° C., cps in a 1% solution of 1650-3850 and a Brookfield Spindle No./Speed, rpm of 1/2. This product is a proprietary product of the Union Carbide Corporation and is described in detail in its various publications including the pamphlet "POLYOX Water-Soluble Resins are Unique" published in November of 1978, which is incorporated herein by reference. The POLYOX WSR-301 is a thickening agent. It also causes very rapid flocculation of the mixture of the clay and the fiber. In addition, other grades of poly(ethylene oxide) can be used in the same range. These grades are POLYOX WSR-1105 having a molecular weight of 900,000 and POLYOX WSR-Coagulant having a molecular weight of 5,000,000. Thus, poly(ethylene oxide) having a molecular weight in a range of between about 900,000 and 5,000,000 can be used. All of the above grades of POLYOX are described in detail in the above publication and they have the common structure (O--CH2 CH2)n.

The poly(ethylene oxide) can be present in an amount of between about 0.03% and 0.05% by weight, and a more preferred range is between about 0.04% and 0.03% by weight, but the most preferred range is between about 0.05% and 0.1% by weight. In addition, as a refinement, a nonionic flocculant known under the trademark RETEN 420 may be added to improve the flocculation characteristic. The RETEN 420 is a proprietary product of Hercules, Inc. and is a nonionic, high molecular weight, synthetic, water soluble copolymer of acrylamid and betamethacryloxyethyltrimethylammonium methyl sulfate. This product may be present in an amount of between about 0.01% to 0.03% by weight, and more preferably is present in an amount of about 0.01% by weight.

The use of the poly(ethylene oxide), as described above, in combination with the clay, when fibers other than asbestos are used, results in the retention of the cement and fines (of wollastonite, silica and/or fillers). Without the use of the poly(ethylene oxide) in combination with the clay for forming the product on a Hatschek machine or other type of wet forming machine, water will filter rapidly through the mixture so that an undesirably large amount of the wollastonite fines, cement fines, silica and/or filler fines may be lost, which results in a weaker product. When there is rapid drainage on a Hatschek machine, the loss of fines causes the drainage water to be contaminated so that it cannot be recirculated in the sheet-forming process. Thus, while the poly(ethylene oxide) is normally a thickening agent, when it is used in combination with the clay, as noted above, it results in the thorough, very rapid flocculation of the mixture, which in turn results in retention of the fines in suspension. It has been found that the use of clay alone, or poly(ethylene oxide) alone may slow down drainage to a certain extent. However, when they are used together they not only slow down drainage to a proper value, but they also cause rapid flocculation of the slurry so as to result in the retention of the cement fines and silica and/or filler fines in suspension, which in turn results in a stronger and more homogeneous product.

The samples which were tested in accordance with the following examples were made as follows: The fibers which were used were dispersed in 1,000 milliliters of water by use of a Waring blender. This water with the dispersed fibers therein was transferred to a mixing beaker. To this mix any of the other solids which were used, such as cement, wollastonite and filler, were added, and at the same time the clay, if used, was added as a 10% slurry so that the total amount of water was approximately 1,060 milliliters. The total liquid solid mixture was mixed for 13/4 minutes and thereafter the poly(ethylene oxide), if used, was added and mixing was continued for approximately 10 seconds. Thereafter, the Reten, if used, was added and the resultant slurry was poured into a suction box and vacuum drawn to remove the excess water. Thereafter, the pat or sample was removed from the suction box and compressed at 325 psi to form a test pat which was approximately 3 inches by 8 inches by 1/4 inch. It was this test pat or sample which was normal cured or autoclaved to provide the test sample. It will be appreciated that the same procedure, as noted above, was followed when certain of the components were not used, in which event the step referring to the manner in which they were incorporated was eliminated from the above procedure.

The formulations of each of Examples 1-7 are as follows:

______________________________________EXAMPLES OF FORMULATIONS IN % BY WEIGHT     1    2      3      4    5    6    7______________________________________Type I Cement       59.93  57.10  69.57                          68.49                               56.54                                    49.56                                         43.25Silica 120 mesh       13.31  12.69  0    0    12.57                                    27.53                                         0WOLLASTONITENYAD-G      26.63  25.38  25.30                          24.90                               25.13                                    16.52                                         49.14KURALONVF 5501     0      0      2.53 0    0    0    0KURALONVPB 103     0      0      0    1.87 0    0    0COTTON PS 31       0      0      0    0    2.51 2.20 2.62CLAY X 2059 0      4.76   2.53 4.67 3.14 4.13 4.91POLYOX WRS-301       0.10   0.06   0.06 0.06 0.09 0.05 0.06RETEN 420   0.03   0.01   0.01 0.01 0.01 0.005                                         0.006______________________________________

The physical properties of Examples 1-7 are shown in the following table:

__________________________________________________________________________PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FORMULATIONS 1-7   1    2    3    4    5    6    7__________________________________________________________________________Type Cure   auto-        auto-             normal                  normal                       auto-                            auto-                                 auto-   clave        clave          clave                            clave                                 claveShrinkage Wetto Dry -in./ft. 0.011        0.012             0.024                  0.023                       0.013                            0.012                                 0.005% Absorption   23.7 26.0 25.7 24.4 29.8 28.0 36.7Density - lb/ft.sup.3   98.7 96.0 94.4 97.0 89.7 106.3                                 81.3Deflection - in.   0.048        0.052             0.106                  0.061                       0.040                            0.049                                 0.058Modulus ofRupture psi   3309 3358 4128 3194 2643 3071 1790__________________________________________________________________________

In the above examples those which were designated as normal cure, were cured in moist air at ambient temperature for twenty-eight days. Those which were designated as having been autoclaved, were cured at room temperature, in a moist atmosphere for two days. The samples were then placed in an autoclave and subjected to a saturated steam atmosphere at a pressure of 110 psi for a period of ten hours. The pressure was then relieved and the samples were removed.

In interpreting the data of the above tests, it should be noted that the normal wet-to-dry shrinkage for asbestos-cement sheet products is about 0.040 inches per foot for normal cure material and about 0.020 inches per foot autoclaved material. Example 1, which contains both silica and wollastonite, demonstrates the reduced shrinkage due to the use of wollastonite. In this respect, the shrinkage was only 0.011 inches per foot.

Example 2 exhibits a wet-to-dry shrinkage of 0.012 inches per foot. It is to be noted, however, that Example 2 contains clay in the amount of 4.76% by weight which is used to enhance fiber dispersion. However, there were no fibers used in Example 2 which could affect the strength, and therefore Example 2 shows that the existence of clay does not appreciably change the physical properties which are otherwise obtained. In Examples 3 and 4 there was no silica used, only wollastonite NYAD-G. However, KURALON, an acetalized polyvinyl alcohol product was used as a reinforcing fiber. In these non-autoclaved examples, the wet-to-dry shrinkage was about 0.024 inches per foot, which is in the range of autoclaved asbestos-cement products, and which is less than the normally expected shrinkage of about 0.040 inches per foot which is obtained in the absence of wollastonite. However, the modulus of rupture with the use of KURALON VF 5501 increased to about 4100 psi, and the deflection also increased over the examples which did not use fibers. Examples 3 and 4 are significant in that they show that the wet-to-dry shrinkage for a normal cured product is well below 0.040 inches per foot, which is acceptable for cement sheet products.

Examples 5 and 6 show that with the use of cotton as a reinforcing fiber and with the use of both wollastonite and silica, an autoclaved product gives highly desirable wet-to-dry shrinkage and in addition provides adequate strength. Example 7 is an extreme case wherein the silica and a portion of the cement were replaced with wollastonite, cotton was used as the reinforcing fiber, and the product was autoclaved. This example shows that the excess wollastonite resulted in very low shrinkage, but the strength was reduced because of the low cement content and the low density.

The effect on wet-to-dry shrinkage of substituting wollastonite for silica in various cement compositions is shown by the following examples which were autoclaved, as defined above, and tested by standard procedure for wet-to-dry shrinkage and for density.

______________________________________EXAMPLES OF AUTOCLAVED FORMULATIONS IN %BY WEIGHT     8     9      10      11   12    13______________________________________Type I Cement       54.7    57.7   60    60   60    60Silica 120 mesh       30.3    0      40    0    35    0WOLLASTONITENYAD-G      0       30.3   0     40   0     35ASBESTOS 5R 7.5     7.5    0     0    0     0ASBESTOS 6D 7.5     7.5    0     0    0     0COTTON PS 31       0       0      0     0    5     5Shrinkage Wetto Dry -in./ft.     .0190   .0063  .0126 .0052                                 .0144 .0063______________________________________

It is known to one skilled in the art that autoclaved asbestos-cement products generally have a wet-to-dry shrinkage of 0.018 ft./in. to 0.024 in./ft. From the above data it can be seen that the wollastonite reduced the wet-to-dry shrinkage by a factor of approximately 3.0.

The effect on wet-to-dry shrinkage of substituting wollastonite in various cement compositions is shown by the following examples which were normal cured, as defined above, and tested by standard procedures.

______________________________________EXAMPLES OF NORMAL CURED FORMULATIONS IN %BY WEIGHT     14     15     16       17   18______________________________________Type I Cement       54.7     60     60     60   60Silica 120 mesh       0        40     0      35   0WOLLASTONITENYAD-G      30.3     0      40     0    35ASBESTOS 5R 7.5      0      0      0    0ASBESTOS 6D 7.5      0      0      0    0COTTON PS 31       0        0      0      5    5Shrinkage Wetto Dry -in./ft.     .0185    .0329  .0123  .0470                                   .0160______________________________________

It is known to one skilled in the art that normal-cured asbestos-cement products generally have a wet-to-dry shrinkage of 0.035 in./ft. to 0.045 in./ft. From the above data it can be seen that wollastonite reduced the wet-to-dry shrinkage by a factor of between 2 and 3.

It can thus be seen that the improved cement product of the present invention is manifestly capable of achieving the above enumerated objects, and while preferred embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed, it will be understood that the present invention is not limited thereto, but may be otherwise embodied within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (21)

What is claimed is:
1. A cement-wollastonite product comprising Portland cement binder in an amount of between about 40% and 90% by weight an wollastonite in an amount of between about 10% and 60% by weight to provide low wet-to-dry dimensional changes.
2. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 including silica in an amount of between about 5% and 30% by weight.
3. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 including fibers in an amount of between about 1% and 15%.
4. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 3 including silica in an amount of between about 5% and 30% by weight.
5. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 3 wherein said fibers are acetalized polyvinyl alcohol.
6. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 3 wherein said fibers are selected from the group of asbestos, cotton, sisal, hemp, rami, jute, kraft, glass, alumina, carbon, mineral fiber, polypropylene and aramid fibers.
7. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 6 including silica in an amount of between about 5% and 30% by weight.
8. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 wherein said Portland cement is present in an amount of between about 50% and 70% and wherein said wollastonite is present in an amount of between about 15% and 30%.
9. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 8 including silica in an amount of between about 5% and 30% by weight.
10. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 8 including fibers in an amount of between about 3% and 10%.
11. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 10 including silica in an amount of between about 5% and 30% by weight.
12. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 10 wherein said fibers are acetalized polyvinyl alcohol fibers.
13. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 9 including fibers in an amount of between about 4% and 7%.
14. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 13 wherein said fibers are acetalized polyvinyl alcohol fibers.
15. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 wherein said low wet-to-dry dimensional changes for autoclaved products range between about 0.005 and 0.012 inches per foot.
16. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 wherein said low wet-to-dry dimensional changes for normal cured products range between about 0.0123 and 0.024 inches per foot.
17. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 wherein the wet-to-dry dimensional changes of an autoclaved product are reduced by a factor of up to about 3 as compared to the wet-to-dry dimensional changes of similar autoclaved products containing silica and no wollastonite.
18. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 wherein the wet-to-dry dimensional changes of a normal cured product are reduced by a factor of up to about 3 compared to similar normal cured products containing no wollastonite.
19. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 wherein said low wet-to-dry dimensional changes of a product are reduced by a factor of at least about 2 as compared to similar products containing silica and no wollastonite which are either autoclaved or normal curved.
20. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 wherein said low wet-to-dry dimensional changes for autoclaved products are less than about 0.013 inches per foot.
21. A cement-wollastonite product as set forth in claim 1 wherein said low wet-to-dry dimensional changes for normal cured products are less than about 0.024 inches per foot.
US06233664 1981-02-11 1981-02-11 Reinforced cement sheet product containing wollastonite for reduced shrinkage Expired - Lifetime US4377415A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US06233664 US4377415A (en) 1981-02-11 1981-02-11 Reinforced cement sheet product containing wollastonite for reduced shrinkage

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US06233664 US4377415A (en) 1981-02-11 1981-02-11 Reinforced cement sheet product containing wollastonite for reduced shrinkage
CA 395101 CA1185275A (en) 1981-02-11 1982-01-28 Reinforced cement sheet product containing wollastonite for reduced shrinkage

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US4377415A true US4377415A (en) 1983-03-22

Family

ID=22878185

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US06233664 Expired - Lifetime US4377415A (en) 1981-02-11 1981-02-11 Reinforced cement sheet product containing wollastonite for reduced shrinkage

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US4377415A (en)
CA (1) CA1185275A (en)

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1984004296A1 (en) * 1983-04-22 1984-11-08 Manville Service Corp High temperature and alkali-resistant refractory fibre for reinforcing cementitious products and those reinforced products
EP0376334A2 (en) * 1988-12-28 1990-07-04 Ask Corporation Non-asbestos inorganic hardened compositions and production method thereof
US5164431A (en) * 1990-12-10 1992-11-17 Kuraray Co., Ltd. Process for producing molded articles
US5167710A (en) * 1989-06-09 1992-12-01 Saint-Gobain Recherche Process for manufacturing a cement mixture containing reinforcing fibers and products obtained therefrom
US5183506A (en) * 1987-08-19 1993-02-02 Zhang Zhong M Modified flux composition for cement
US5298071A (en) * 1990-03-23 1994-03-29 Vontech International Corporation Interground fiber cement
US5349118A (en) * 1990-09-04 1994-09-20 Joseph Davidovits Method for obtaining a geopolymeric binder allowing to stabilize, solidify and consolidate toxic or waste materials
US5356671A (en) * 1990-03-01 1994-10-18 Sandoz Ltd. Concrete spraying process
US5440846A (en) * 1992-11-13 1995-08-15 Record; Grant C. Construction for building panels and other building components
US5811360A (en) * 1993-01-15 1998-09-22 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US5849818A (en) * 1993-06-03 1998-12-15 Walles; Wilhelm E. Skin sulfonated particles in matrices
US5928975A (en) * 1995-09-21 1999-07-27 The Morgan Crucible Company,Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibers
US5955389A (en) * 1993-01-15 1999-09-21 The Morgan Crucible Company, P/C Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US5994247A (en) * 1992-01-17 1999-11-30 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US5998315A (en) * 1994-08-02 1999-12-07 Morgan Crucible Company Plc Strontium aluminate inorganic fibers
US6037288A (en) * 1997-04-30 2000-03-14 Robinson; Sara M. Reinforcement of ceramic bodies with wollastonite
US20040194960A1 (en) * 2001-02-15 2004-10-07 Bj Services Company High temperature flexible cementing compositions and methods for using the same
US20050014624A1 (en) * 1992-01-17 2005-01-20 Jubb Gary Anthony Saline soluble inorganic fibers
US6861381B1 (en) 1999-09-10 2005-03-01 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc High temperature resistant saline soluble fibres
US20050072056A1 (en) * 2003-10-02 2005-04-07 Saint-Gobain Materiaux De Construction S.A.S. Cementitious product in panel form and manufacturing process
US6881257B2 (en) * 2003-07-10 2005-04-19 Seymour Beauboeuf Machinable light weight sisal-based concrete structural building material
US20050233887A1 (en) * 2002-01-04 2005-10-20 Jubb Gary A Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US6987076B1 (en) 1998-09-15 2006-01-17 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Bonded fibrous materials
US20060094583A1 (en) * 2004-11-01 2006-05-04 Freeman Craig J Modification of alkaline earth silicate fibres
US20080202752A1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2008-08-28 Bj Services Company Low density, high yield cement slurry formulation and method of using the same
US8628713B1 (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-14 Nichiha Corporation Inorganic board and method for manufacturing inorganic board
CN105272112A (en) * 2015-11-03 2016-01-27 陶祖岐 Inner wall board manufactured by domestic garbage

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4040851A (en) * 1975-05-30 1977-08-09 Gaf Corporation Cotton-cement articles
US4101335A (en) * 1976-11-04 1978-07-18 Cape Boards & Panels Ltd. Building board
US4132555A (en) * 1975-01-02 1979-01-02 Cape Boards & Panels Ltd. Building board
US4199366A (en) * 1977-11-21 1980-04-22 Inventa Ag Fur Forschung Und Patentverwertung Fiber-reinforced cement-like material

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4132555A (en) * 1975-01-02 1979-01-02 Cape Boards & Panels Ltd. Building board
US4040851A (en) * 1975-05-30 1977-08-09 Gaf Corporation Cotton-cement articles
US4101335A (en) * 1976-11-04 1978-07-18 Cape Boards & Panels Ltd. Building board
US4199366A (en) * 1977-11-21 1980-04-22 Inventa Ag Fur Forschung Und Patentverwertung Fiber-reinforced cement-like material

Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1984004296A1 (en) * 1983-04-22 1984-11-08 Manville Service Corp High temperature and alkali-resistant refractory fibre for reinforcing cementitious products and those reinforced products
US5183506A (en) * 1987-08-19 1993-02-02 Zhang Zhong M Modified flux composition for cement
EP0376334A2 (en) * 1988-12-28 1990-07-04 Ask Corporation Non-asbestos inorganic hardened compositions and production method thereof
EP0376334A3 (en) * 1988-12-28 1991-02-27 Ask Corporation Non-asbestos inorganic hardened compositions and production method thereof
US5167710A (en) * 1989-06-09 1992-12-01 Saint-Gobain Recherche Process for manufacturing a cement mixture containing reinforcing fibers and products obtained therefrom
US5356671A (en) * 1990-03-01 1994-10-18 Sandoz Ltd. Concrete spraying process
US5298071A (en) * 1990-03-23 1994-03-29 Vontech International Corporation Interground fiber cement
US5539140A (en) * 1990-09-04 1996-07-23 Davidovits; Joseph Method for obtaining a geopolymeric binder allowing to stabilize, solidify and consolidate toxic or waste materials
US5349118A (en) * 1990-09-04 1994-09-20 Joseph Davidovits Method for obtaining a geopolymeric binder allowing to stabilize, solidify and consolidate toxic or waste materials
US5164431A (en) * 1990-12-10 1992-11-17 Kuraray Co., Ltd. Process for producing molded articles
US6180546B1 (en) 1992-01-17 2001-01-30 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibers
US5994247A (en) * 1992-01-17 1999-11-30 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US7259118B2 (en) 1992-01-17 2007-08-21 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibers
US20050014624A1 (en) * 1992-01-17 2005-01-20 Jubb Gary Anthony Saline soluble inorganic fibers
US5440846A (en) * 1992-11-13 1995-08-15 Record; Grant C. Construction for building panels and other building components
US5811360A (en) * 1993-01-15 1998-09-22 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US5955389A (en) * 1993-01-15 1999-09-21 The Morgan Crucible Company, P/C Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US5849818A (en) * 1993-06-03 1998-12-15 Walles; Wilhelm E. Skin sulfonated particles in matrices
US5998315A (en) * 1994-08-02 1999-12-07 Morgan Crucible Company Plc Strontium aluminate inorganic fibers
US5928975A (en) * 1995-09-21 1999-07-27 The Morgan Crucible Company,Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibers
US6037288A (en) * 1997-04-30 2000-03-14 Robinson; Sara M. Reinforcement of ceramic bodies with wollastonite
US6987076B1 (en) 1998-09-15 2006-01-17 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Bonded fibrous materials
US6861381B1 (en) 1999-09-10 2005-03-01 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc High temperature resistant saline soluble fibres
US20040194960A1 (en) * 2001-02-15 2004-10-07 Bj Services Company High temperature flexible cementing compositions and methods for using the same
US7470641B2 (en) 2002-01-04 2008-12-30 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US20050233887A1 (en) * 2002-01-04 2005-10-20 Jubb Gary A Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US7651965B2 (en) 2002-01-04 2010-01-26 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US7153796B2 (en) 2002-01-04 2006-12-26 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US20090127489A1 (en) * 2002-01-04 2009-05-21 Gary Anthony Jubb Saline soluble inorganic fibres
US6881257B2 (en) * 2003-07-10 2005-04-19 Seymour Beauboeuf Machinable light weight sisal-based concrete structural building material
US7128965B2 (en) * 2003-10-02 2006-10-31 Saint-Gobain Materiaux De Construction S.A.S. Cementitious product in panel form and manufacturing process
US20050072056A1 (en) * 2003-10-02 2005-04-07 Saint-Gobain Materiaux De Construction S.A.S. Cementitious product in panel form and manufacturing process
US20090156386A1 (en) * 2004-11-01 2009-06-18 Craig John Freeman Modification of alkaline earth silicate fibres
US20060094583A1 (en) * 2004-11-01 2006-05-04 Freeman Craig J Modification of alkaline earth silicate fibres
US7875566B2 (en) 2004-11-01 2011-01-25 The Morgan Crucible Company Plc Modification of alkaline earth silicate fibres
US7967909B2 (en) 2007-02-26 2011-06-28 Baker Hughes Incorporated Method of cementing within a gas or oil well
US20080202752A1 (en) * 2007-02-26 2008-08-28 Bj Services Company Low density, high yield cement slurry formulation and method of using the same
KR101855715B1 (en) 2012-06-29 2018-05-10 니치하 가부시키가이샤 Inorganic board and method for manufacturing inorganic board
US8628713B1 (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-14 Nichiha Corporation Inorganic board and method for manufacturing inorganic board
EP2679559A3 (en) * 2012-06-29 2015-02-11 Nichiha Corporation Inorganic board and method for manufacturing inorganic board
EP2679559B1 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-09-21 Nichiha Corporation Inorganic board and method for manufacturing inorganic board
JP2014009121A (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-20 Nichiha Corp Inorganic board, and method of producing inorganic board
CN105272112A (en) * 2015-11-03 2016-01-27 陶祖岐 Inner wall board manufactured by domestic garbage
CN105272112B (en) * 2015-11-03 2017-06-23 陶祖岐 Interior wall panels made from a garbage

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CA1185275A1 (en) grant
CA1185275A (en) 1985-04-09 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3215549A (en) Binding composition and method of making same
US5945208A (en) Fire-resistant gypsum building materials
US5964934A (en) Acoustical tile containing treated perlite
US3042578A (en) Insulating product and its manufacture
US5021093A (en) Cement/gypsum composites based cellulose-I
US6268042B1 (en) High strength low density board for furniture industry
US5076986A (en) Process for manufacturing a composite material
US4118236A (en) Clay compositions
US4326891A (en) Crystalline calcium carbonate as a diluent in hydrothermally cured hydraulic cement compositions
US4533581A (en) Highly heat-resistant disc roll
US4780141A (en) Cementitious composite material containing metal fiber
US4450873A (en) Reinforced plastic composite structure
US6872246B2 (en) Fiber cement composite materials using cellulose fibers loaded with inorganic and/or organic substances
US2421721A (en) Molded fiber-cement composition product
US5718759A (en) Cementitious gypsum-containing compositions and materials made therefrom
US2156308A (en) Art of manufacturing cement-fibrous products
US5685903A (en) Cementitious gypsum-containing compositions and materials made therefrom
US5637362A (en) Thin, sealant-coated, fiber-reinforced gypsum panel
US20040168615A1 (en) Fiber cement composite materials using bleached cellulose fibers
US6030447A (en) Cement formulation
JP5212039B2 (en) Fiber incorporation papermaking plate and a manufacturing method thereof
US4101335A (en) Building board
US5395438A (en) Mineral wool-free acoustical tile composition
US5858083A (en) Cementitious gypsum-containing binders and compositions and materials made therefrom
US4840672A (en) Lightweight insulating boards and process for manufacturing same

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY, 4100 FIRST INTERNATIONAL

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNORS:JOHNSON ROBERT M.;MELLING ELMER M.;REEL/FRAME:003848/0855

Effective date: 19810206

CC Certificate of correction
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

AS Assignment

Owner name: AMERICAN OLEAN TILE COMPANY, INC., PENNSYLVANIA

Free format text: RELEASED BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:CITICORP INDUSTRIAL CREDIT, INC.;REEL/FRAME:005770/0224

Effective date: 19870421

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

AS Assignment

Owner name: GENERAL ELECTRIC CAPITAL CORPORATION, A CORP. OF N

Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:005548/0167

Effective date: 19901029

AS Assignment

Owner name: NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY, NORTH CAROLINA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY, A DELAWARE CORPORATION, NOW NAMED ABESTOS CLAIMS MANAGEMENT CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:006768/0694

Effective date: 19930701

Owner name: NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY, NORTH CAROLINA

Free format text: PARTY RELEASING LIENS;;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL ELECTRIC CAPITAL CORPORATION, A NEW YORK CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:006768/0726

Effective date: 19930709

Owner name: GENERAL ELECTRIC CAPITAL CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: LICENSE;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY A CORP. OF DELAWARE;REEL/FRAME:006723/0785

Effective date: 19930630

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12

AS Assignment

Owner name: NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT AND RELEASE, SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF MORTGAGE OF PATENTS AND PATENT LICENSES;ASSIGNOR:GENERAL ELECTRIC CAPITAL CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:007153/0387

Effective date: 19940912

AS Assignment

Owner name: NATIONSBANK, N.A. (CAROLINAS), NORTH CAROLINA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY, A DE CORP.;REEL/FRAME:007661/0624

Effective date: 19950920

AS Assignment

Owner name: NATIONAL GYPSUM PROPERTIES LLC, NORTH CAROLINA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY, A DELAWARE CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:010539/0326

Effective date: 19991230

AS Assignment

Owner name: NATIONAL GYPSUM PROPERTIES, LLC, A CORPORATION OF

Free format text: RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BANK OF AMERICA, N.A., AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT, FORMERLY NATIONSBANK, N.A. (CAROLINAS), A NATIONAL BANK;REEL/FRAME:010676/0273

Effective date: 19991109

AS Assignment

Owner name: BANK OF AMERICA, N.A., NORTH CAROLINA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:NATIONAL GYPSUM PROPERTIES, LLC;REEL/FRAME:011770/0536

Effective date: 20010423

AS Assignment

Owner name: NEW NGC, INC., D/B/A NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY, NORT

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:BANK OF AMERICA, N.A.;REEL/FRAME:018260/0145

Effective date: 20060905

Owner name: NATIONAL GYPSUM PROPERTIES, LLC, NORTH CAROLINA

Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:BANK OF AMERICA, N.A.;REEL/FRAME:018260/0145

Effective date: 20060905