US432280A - Metallurgical furnace - Google Patents

Metallurgical furnace Download PDF

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US432280A
US432280A US432280DA US432280A US 432280 A US432280 A US 432280A US 432280D A US432280D A US 432280DA US 432280 A US432280 A US 432280A
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hearth
stack
air
furnace
tuyeres
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27BFURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • F27B1/00Shaft or like vertical or substantially vertical furnaces
    • F27B1/10Details, accessories, or equipment peculiar to furnaces of these types
    • F27B1/21Arrangements of devices for discharging

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  • the upperpart of said shell is fastment of fine ores, sweepings, concentrates, &c. ened to the charging-#1001 31.
  • Surrounding to My invention consists in the construction the lower portion of the shaft are four nonand arrangement of the furnace embodying communicatingwater-jackets 5 6 7 8, resting a depressed hearth, a smelting-stack disposed npon'the walls and arch of the furnace 4 and above one end of said hearth and opening bound together by the bars 10, which pass over 1ts entire cross-sectional. area into said through straps 11 on the sides of jackets and x 5 hearth, and a roof extending from said stack are locked together, as shown in Fig. 1.
  • a water-pipe 15 which 2 5 said hearth and out at said escape-orifice, and delivers into a trough 16, and from said means for forcing an air-blast into the metal trough a pipe 17 may lead to a condenser (not accumulated on said hearth. shown) for the furnace-fumes or to any suit- My inventlon also consists in the construe able outlet.
  • Fig. 4 is a plan view, in Extending from each branch 19 are two latpartial section, on the lineY Yof Fig. 2.
  • Fig. eral pipes 20,' which enter cylindrical chamo 5 is a horizontal section through the waterbers 21.
  • Fig. 6 is a partial vertical section chamber extends downwardly a tube 22, and showing the hopper 32 and cover 38 in posithis tube enters the side of the inclined tube tion. 23,which communicates with a tuyere which Similar numbers of reference indicate like passes through the water-jacket and enters parts. the lower portion of the shaft, Fig.4.
  • the body of the furnace consists of two are four of these tuyeres, two' on each side of principal parts-a smelting-furnace and a rethe shaft, at 24, 25', 26,'and'27.
  • the outer end verberatory furnace-these being combined of each inclined tube 23 is plugged or proin a single structure, and having the metal vided with a removable cover 28, so that a no hearth and flue in common.
  • the shaft of the rod can be thrust down through the tuyere to 50 blast-furnace consists of a lower portion or clear out obstructions.
  • the and tube 22 is a charging-pipe 29, which pipe is carried upwardly and terminates in a fuunel 3O setinthe charging-floor 31.
  • a valve 35 is arranged in each funnel 30, and closes the opening of the latter into the pipe 2.). Extending downward through said pipe 29 and secured to the lower apex of each valve 35 is a pointed metal rod 36.
  • each valve-stem 34 is a hand-wheel 37.
  • the charging-hopper is provided with the usual bell-cover It will be seen that from the above-described construction the tuyeres 24:, 25, 26, and 27 act both as blast and charging openings. Fine ores, sweepings, tailings,coneentrates, &c., are placed in the funnels 30, and the valves 35, being opened, descend through the pipes 20 and enter the tuyere-pipes 23. Valves 39 in the pipes 20, then being also opened,the blast enters said pipes, meets said fine material as it falls from the chargingpipcs 29 and drives it through the pipes 23 and tuyeres 24, 25, 26, and 27 into the shaft.
  • a vertical pipe 41 communicates with branches i2, which lead to the lower tuyeres 43, 44, 45, and 46, these tuyeres also passing through the water-jackets. Valves +17 are provided in the pipes 42. Eight tuyeres therefore enter the shaft, four (24, 25, 2G, and 27) being disposed above the remaining set of four, a3, a4, 45, and 4:6.
  • the reverberatory hearth is inclosed in castiron plates 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, and 53, and the plate 48*, which is fastened to the front plates 48 49.
  • said plates are five tap-openings provided with slag-spouts 55, 56, and 57, a matte-spout 58, and a metal-spout 59.
  • the matte-tap 58 is at a higher level than the metal-tap 59.
  • the inside of the hearth-walls and bottom has a lining a, preferably composed of a mixture of powdered limestone and fire-clay, which, after being moistened, is firmly rammed in place. Above the hearth is an arch (50.
  • pipes 61 Extending down from the branch 19 of the air-trunk are pipes 61, which open into the hearth-chamber through the side walls, as shown at 62, Fig.
  • the gases from the hearth may be led to a condenser or any suitable stack after escaping from the opening at 63.
  • a weighed quantity of the mixture is placed in the funnels 30, and the valves 35 being opened and the blast turned on, this is projected in the manner already described through the tuyeres 2f 25 26 27 into the incandescent coke in the shaft. Fusion immediately begins, and before the mass reaches the lower set of tuyeres 43 44 45 40 it is in a molten state. At said lower tuyeres the liquefaction of the mixture is completed and the separation of metal, matte, and slag takes place, while the air furnished by said tuyeres causes a thorough combustion of the gases.
  • iron matte the matte supposed contains the reducible metals, gold, silver, copper, &e.,
  • the sulphur maybe carried off into a condenser as sulphurous-acid fumes, while the iron is absorbed by the slag as oxide, the slag being silicious for this purpose.
  • the reducible metals then collect in the lead bath at the bottom of the hearth. The time of tapping the rich lead at the spent 59 will depend upon the richness of the material smelted.
  • the slag and matte are drawn off from the remaining spouts.
  • I claim- 1 A depressed health, a smelting-stack disposed above one end of said hearth and opening over its entire cross-sectional areainto said hearth, means for closing the top of said stack,
  • a depressed heart-h having an inclined bottom, a smelting-stack disposed above the deepest portion of said hearth and opening into the same over its entire cross-sectional area, means for closing the top of said stack, and an arched roof extending from said stack and covering the remaining portion of said hearth, an escape-orifice being provided between said hearth at the end opposite to that covered by the stack and said roof, two tiers of air-inlet openings in said stack disposed at diiterent elevations and above the point of 'pipe 29, conical valve 35 in said funnel-opening, and rod 36, attached to said valve and inclosed in said pipe 20, substantially as described.

Description

(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 1.
R. F. NENNINGER.
METALLURGICAL PUBNAGE. No. 432,280. Patented July 15, 1890.
Fig-.1.
ig/ Ed m ATTORNEY 2 m e h S m e e h S 5 R N mm M Tu M I G NR w PL R E M m d 0 M 0 W Patented July 15, 1890.
ATTORNEY WITNESSES:
(No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 3.
R. F. NENNINGER.
I METALLURGICAL FURNACE. No. 432,280. Patented July 15', 1890.
WITNESSES:
(No Model.) 7 5 Sheets--Sheet 4.
R. F. NBNNINGER. METALLURGIGALFURNAOE.
No. 432,280. Patented Jiuy 15, 1890.
WITNESSES. M/VEA/TOR I BY I A), ATTOR/V y (No Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 5.
R. F. NENNINGER.
METALLURGICAL FURNACE. No. 432,280' Patented July 15, 1890.
- WITA'ESSES: INVENTOR fMW a: W
ATTORNEY.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ROBERT F. NENNINGER, OF NElVARK, NE l V JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO THE NE\V JERSEY FURNACE AND SMELTING COMPANY, OF NEW JERSEY.
M ETALLU RGlCAL FYU RNACE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 432,280, dated July 15, 1890. Application filed November 29, 1889. Serial No. 332.056; (No model.)
To aZ Z whom it may concern: lower portion of the shaft rests upon a fire- Be 1t known that I, ROBERT F. N ENNINGER, brick foundation, which also forms the side of Newark, Essex county, New Jersey, have walls of the metal hearth or crucible 3, Fig. 55 lnvented a new and useful Improvement in 3, of the reverberatory furnace 4. The upper Metallurgical Furnaces, of which the followportion 2 of the shaft is a square wrought- 18 f specification. iron shell supported by brackets upon the My lnvention relates to a new form of furcolumns 9, which in turn rest upon the supnace deslgned more especially for the treatports 41. The upperpart of said shell is fastment of fine ores, sweepings, concentrates, &c. ened to the charging-#1001 31. Surrounding to My invention consists in the construction the lower portion of the shaft are four nonand arrangement of the furnace embodying communicatingwater-jackets 5 6 7 8, resting a depressed hearth, a smelting-stack disposed npon'the walls and arch of the furnace 4 and above one end of said hearth and opening bound together by the bars 10, which pass over 1ts entire cross-sectional. area into said through straps 11 on the sides of jackets and x 5 hearth, and a roof extending from said stack are locked together, as shown in Fig. 1.
and covering the remaining portion of said 12 is a'wa ter-pipe leading from any suithearth, an escape-opening being provided beable source of supply. It communicates with tween said hearth at the end opposite to that each jacket by a tube, as 13. Each tube ex- 7 covered by the Stack and said roof, and two tends downwardly nearly to the bottom of 20 alr-lnlet openings in said stack disposed at the jacket and delivers water therein. In the different elevations above the point of j uncpipe 12'are valves, as 14, by which the suption of roof andstack, in combination with ply to each tube 13, and hence to each jacket, means for causing a downward draft to pass may be regulated. From the upper portion from said air-openings through said stack in of each jacket extends a water-pipe 15, which 2 5 said hearth and out at said escape-orifice, and delivers into a trough 16, and from said means for forcing an air-blast into the metal trough a pipe 17 may lead to a condenser (not accumulated on said hearth. shown) for the furnace-fumes or to any suit- My inventlon also consists in the construe able outlet.
tion and arrangement of the Water-jacket in g It will be apparent from the foregoing that 0 combination with other portions of the furthe water from the supply-pipe 12 constantly nace, and also in the apparatus for supplying circulates through the jackets 5 G '7 8 and pulverized fuel to the stack, all as hereinafter finally escapes at the pipe 17. specifically set forth and claimed. 18 is an air-trunk leading from a blower or In the accompanying drawings, Figurel is other source of air-supply, and having 3 5 a side elevation and partial section of my furbranches 19 supported on the columns 9 on nace. Fig. 2 is a front elevation. Fig. 3 is a each side of theupper portion 2 of the shaft. vertical section, and Fig. 4 is a plan view, in Extending from each branch 19 are two latpartial section, on the lineY Yof Fig. 2. Fig. eral pipes 20,'which enter cylindrical chamo 5 is a horizontal section through the waterbers 21. From the lower extremity of each 40 jackets, and Fig. 6 is a partial vertical section chamber extends downwardly a tube 22, and showing the hopper 32 and cover 38 in posithis tube enters the side of the inclined tube tion. 23,which communicates with a tuyere which Similar numbers of reference indicate like passes through the water-jacket and enters parts. the lower portion of the shaft, Fig.4. There 45 The body of the furnace consists of two are four of these tuyeres, two' on each side of principal parts-a smelting-furnace and a rethe shaft, at 24, 25', 26,'and'27. The outer end verberatory furnace-these being combined of each inclined tube 23 is plugged or proin a single structure, and having the metal vided with a removable cover 28, so that a no hearth and flue in common. The shaft of the rod can be thrust down through the tuyere to 50 blast-furnace consists of a lower portion or clear out obstructions.
smelting-chamber 1 and an upper portion or Extending downward into each chamber 21 shell 2, and is lined with fire-brick. The and tube 22 is a charging-pipe 29, which pipe is carried upwardly and terminates in a fuunel 3O setinthe charging-floor 31. There are therefore two funnels 30 located on each side of the hopper 32, which forms the chargingopening of the shaft.
Resting upon the charging-floor and extending over the funnels are bars or plates 33. The ends of said bars receive the threaded stems 34: of the double cone-valves The object of the rods 36 is to prevent the tubes 29 and 22 from becoming clogged with the comminuted charge. A valve 35 is arranged in each funnel 30, and closes the opening of the latter into the pipe 2.). Extending downward through said pipe 29 and secured to the lower apex of each valve 35 is a pointed metal rod 36.
At the upper extremity of each valve-stem 34: is a hand-wheel 37.
The charging-hopper is provided with the usual bell-cover It will be seen that from the above-described construction the tuyeres 24:, 25, 26, and 27 act both as blast and charging openings. Fine ores, sweepings, tailings,coneentrates, &c., are placed in the funnels 30, and the valves 35, being opened, descend through the pipes 20 and enter the tuyere-pipes 23. Valves 39 in the pipes 20, then being also opened,the blast enters said pipes, meets said fine material as it falls from the chargingpipcs 29 and drives it through the pipes 23 and tuyeres 24, 25, 26, and 27 into the shaft. From each branch 19 of the air-trunk a vertical pipe 41 communicates with branches i2, which lead to the lower tuyeres 43, 44, 45, and 46, these tuyeres also passing through the water-jackets. Valves +17 are provided in the pipes 42. Eight tuyeres therefore enter the shaft, four (24, 25, 2G, and 27) being disposed above the remaining set of four, a3, a4, 45, and 4:6.
The reverberatory hearth is inclosed in castiron plates 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, and 53, and the plate 48*, which is fastened to the front plates 48 49. In said plates are five tap-openings provided with slag- spouts 55, 56, and 57, a matte-spout 58, and a metal-spout 59. As shown in Fig. 3, the matte-tap 58 is at a higher level than the metal-tap 59. The inside of the hearth-walls and bottom has a lining a, preferably composed of a mixture of powdered limestone and fire-clay, which, after being moistened, is firmly rammed in place. Above the hearth is an arch (50. Extending down from the branch 19 of the air-trunk are pipes 61, which open into the hearth-chamber through the side walls, as shown at 62, Fig. The gases from the hearth may be led to a condenser or any suitable stack after escaping from the opening at 63.
Various smelting processes can be carried into effect in the apparatus above described, one of which I will now specify in order to exhibit its operation. A coke fire is started in the bottom of the shaft. \Vhen incandescent, a quantity of metallic lead is thrown in until the hearth is filled with melted metal. above the tap 58, as shown in Fig. (Joke is then put into the shaft up to the level of the charging-floor, and as soon as the charge becomes incandescent up to the upper set of tuyeres the furnace is ready to receive its ore and blast. Let it be supposed that a mixture of s\\"ecpings and ore concentrates (pyrites) pulverized and combined with proper fluxes is to be treated. A weighed quantity of the mixture is placed in the funnels 30, and the valves 35 being opened and the blast turned on, this is projected in the manner already described through the tuyeres 2f 25 26 27 into the incandescent coke in the shaft. Fusion immediately begins, and before the mass reaches the lower set of tuyeres 43 44 45 40 it is in a molten state. At said lower tuyeres the liquefaction of the mixture is completed and the separation of metal, matte, and slag takes place, while the air furnished by said tuyeres causes a thorough combustion of the gases. 111 this way the carbonic oxide due to the passage of the carbonic'acid gas through the large body of incandescent coke between the two sets of tuyeres is reconverted into carbonic acid and a large saving of fuel effected. This operation is carried on until sufficient matte is formed in the reverberatory hearth above the tap-opening at 58, Fig. 3, and then air is admitted into said matte through the blast-openin gs at 62. The air coming in contact with iron matte (the matte supposed contains the reducible metals, gold, silver, copper, &e.,) oxidizes the sulphur and iron, and the sulphur maybe carried off into a condenser as sulphurous-acid fumes, while the iron is absorbed by the slag as oxide, the slag being silicious for this purpose. The reducible metals then collect in the lead bath at the bottom of the hearth. The time of tapping the rich lead at the spent 59 will depend upon the richness of the material smelted. The slag and matte are drawn off from the remaining spouts.
It is of course to be understood that I do not limit myself to the use of my furnace as herein described, in which fine ores are charged through the upper tuyeres, because obviously I can insert the charge in the shaft through the hopper in the usual Way, and the valves 35 being closed simply deliver air through the tuyeres 24 to 2'7. \Vhere it is desired to restrict the furnace to such employment, the chambers 21 may be permanently closed above, and the funnels 30, tubes 29, and associated parts for charging in ore dispensed witl1,thus saving expense in construction. So, also, instead of delivering blast through the air-trunk 18, I may apply any suitable exhausting apparatus to draw air and fumes out at the flue-opening 63.
I claim- 1. A depressed health, a smelting-stack disposed above one end of said hearth and opening over its entire cross-sectional areainto said hearth, means for closing the top of said stack,
and a roof extending from said stack and covering the remaining portion of said hearth, an escape-opening being provided between said hearth at the end opposite to that covered by the stack and said roof, and two airinlet openings in said stack disposed at different elevations and above the point of junction of roof and stack, in combination with means for forcing the air through said openings, and thereby causing a draft to pass downward through said stack, over said hearth, and out at said escape-orifice, and means for forcing an air-blast into the metal accumulated on said hearth.
2. A depressed heart-h having an inclined bottom, a smelting-stack disposed above the deepest portion of said hearth and opening into the same over its entire cross-sectional area, means for closing the top of said stack, and an arched roof extending from said stack and covering the remaining portion of said hearth, an escape-orifice being provided between said hearth at the end opposite to that covered by the stack and said roof, two tiers of air-inlet openings in said stack disposed at diiterent elevations and above the point of 'pipe 29, conical valve 35 in said funnel-opening, and rod 36, attached to said valve and inclosed in said pipe 20, substantially as described.
4. In combination with a smelting-shaft 1, the bent air-supply pipe 23, having a detachable cover 28, and the charge-supply pipe 29, terminating within said air-supply pipe and above the angle thereof, substantially as described.
ROBERT F. NENNINGER.
Witnesses:
S. O. EDMoNDs, M. BoscH.
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2493642A (en) * 1944-06-06 1950-01-03 Ford Motor Co Cupola type furnace
US2688478A (en) * 1949-04-04 1954-09-07 Henry G Lykken Apparatus for reducing and smelting ore, producing gas, and generating power
US3318686A (en) * 1963-07-02 1967-05-09 Koppers Co Inc Method and apparatus for transporting particulate material to a metallurgical furnace
US3871632A (en) * 1972-08-02 1975-03-18 Engineered Metal Prod Modular divisible barrel-shaped shell for metallurgical furnaces

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2493642A (en) * 1944-06-06 1950-01-03 Ford Motor Co Cupola type furnace
US2688478A (en) * 1949-04-04 1954-09-07 Henry G Lykken Apparatus for reducing and smelting ore, producing gas, and generating power
US3318686A (en) * 1963-07-02 1967-05-09 Koppers Co Inc Method and apparatus for transporting particulate material to a metallurgical furnace
US3871632A (en) * 1972-08-02 1975-03-18 Engineered Metal Prod Modular divisible barrel-shaped shell for metallurgical furnaces

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