US417801A - Refrigerator car and chamber - Google Patents

Refrigerator car and chamber Download PDF

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US417801A
US417801A US417801DA US417801A US 417801 A US417801 A US 417801A US 417801D A US417801D A US 417801DA US 417801 A US417801 A US 417801A
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tank
apron
air
ice
chamber
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F25D3/00Devices using other cold materials; Devices using cold-storage bodies
    • F25D3/02Devices using other cold materials; Devices using cold-storage bodies using ice, e.g. ice-boxes
    • F25D3/04Stationary cabinets

Definitions

  • FIG. 1 is a plan view of my improved refrigerator-car, having its top removed so as to show the interior of the ice-chambers.
  • Fig. V2 is an end view of one of the ice-chambers as seen from the center of the car, the Various parts being' broken away so as to show one part behind the other and the air circulation, as indicated by the arrows.
  • FIG. 3 is a side elevation, in vertical section, ot' one end of a car on a plane taken at any point between the wall nearest the observer and the center of the car, and in it are also shown the opposite walls and air-tlues and air circulation, as indicated by the arrows.
  • the object of my invention is to produce a refrigerator car or chamber in which higher refrigeration may be obtained by means of ice and salt or like frigoritic compound than has heretofore been found practicable, owing to the fact that the difculties which are encountered in refrigeration by means of ice or refrigerating-mixtures placed in tanks are mainly due to the impossibility under ordinary circumstances of securing a suiiioient circulation of air in the chamber to be cooled, and to the fact that the moisture condenses upon the cold surfaces of the tank containing the refrigerating-mixture in a thick layer of frost or snow, so that no matter what degree of cold may be produced within the tank the air within the chamber to be cooled is only brought in contact with a surface having the temperature of melting snow.
  • kan ice-tank c having a short front wall g and a long back wall 'c2 c3 of which the upper part c2 is formed of open vwire-cloth or perforated sheet metal, and the lower part c3 of galvanized sheet-iron.
  • a slanting bottom To the said front and back walls and sides of the tank is attached a slanting bottom, of which the lower part o0 is formed of sheet metal and the upper part c of wire-cloth meshes or perforated sheet metal.
  • the sides c10 are preferably solid sheet metal throughout, but their upper parts may also be made of open-work, if so desired, down to on about a line with the lower end of the wire-cloth c2, and through said openings, when employed, a free-air circulation may be obtained from the storagechamber directly upon the ice, whereby said air is deprived of all its acquired moisture,
  • the lower ends of the sides om and the back c3 and the bottom o0 form a water-tight tank, which has an outlet e9, placed in one corner near or at the lowest point of the bottom to let out the water. Said outlet is opened and closed by means of a cock c5 passing through the corner tube c4.
  • the water derived from the ice may be drained ont through an opening 09, closed by the cock c5, into the pipe c6, and said pipe c5 passes through the drip-pipe cg, which latter passes through the bottom of and thereby serves to discharge the water from the driptrough c7.
  • the drain and drip .pipes are placed in the most efficient position, and at the same time are the most effect'ually out of the way from injury, and by the one passing through the other they each give support and strength to the other, and are strengthened by the parts to which they are attached.
  • Said apron e extends back to about over and some distance above the center of the driptrough c7, which is placed against or near the end wall of the room, and at the front it extends to or somewhat beyond the wall g', and fits closely against the side walls of the car, where it rests on cleats f.
  • the drip-trough c7 is made wide and deep and inclined to one side of the room, and in its lower end is placed a discharge-pipe o8, leaving an annular space between it and the pipe c6 to let out the water caught on the aprons d and e, and discharged int-o the said trough.
  • the apron e acts as a roof to catch and discharge all dripping water into the drip-trough, andl said apron e, by reason of its being both a non-conductor and itting to the side walls of the storage-room and closely to the driptrough at its lower edge, and the upper edge thereof extending ⁇ high up and to nearthe top of the storage-room, between temperatures of wide difference, gives excellent inducement for strong currents of air circulation moving as shown by the arrows.
  • ⁇ One or more holes g may also be cut in the top of the front wall g so as to allow a circulation of air through them directly upon the ice.
  • the ice-tank is illed from the top through the opening Z9. Vhen a greater degree ot cold is desired than can be obtained from melting ice alone, salt or other frigoriic substances may be used upon the ice.
  • the water therefrom fills the lower and water-tight part-of the tank and overows it through the lower openings in c', which are placed a little lower Vthan the lower edge of the wire-cloth c2 in the back wall of the tank, so as to cause the cold liquid to splash upon the apron d, and thereby flow over a large surface, and also to thereby at the same time agitate the air, both by its motion in the tank and :its flow on the apron, and thereby, further, both by its cold temperature and motion, cause and augment the cold-air circulation due to the construction herein shown.
  • the water ruiming from the melting ice which rests on the meshes of the bottom c forms icicles between the said bottom and the apron d, which said icicles together form a very large area of ice-surface, against which the warm-air currents from above impinge in their downward passage and are divided into numerous small currents, which are thus quickly and completely cooled and deprived of their moisture, and which then pass on uninterrupted through the aforesaid clear space under the bottom e0 and out into the storage-room.
  • an ice-tank suspended from the ceiling in such a manner as to leave between said ice-tank and chamberwalls a free air-space on each side of said tank extending to the ceiling, said ice-tank being provided with a short front Wall and a long back wall, which, together with the side walls, are connected by an inclined bottom,

Description

(No Model.) 2 sheets-sheet 1.
A W. ZIMMERMAN. 1
RBFRIGBRATUR. GAR 0R CHAMBER. l No. 417,801. Patented Dec.- 24, 1889.
wifneSSS @www UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ARNOLD NV. ZIMMERMN, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR TO THE ZIINIMERMAN REFRIGERATOR COMPANY, OF ILLINOIS..
REFRIGERATOR CAR AND CHAMBER.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 417,801, dated December 24,1889.
Application filed January 26, 1888. Serial" No. 261,981. (No model.l
\ To @ZZ whom t may concern.-
Be it known that I, ARNOLD W. ZIMMER- MAN, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Refrigerator Cars and Chambers, which are fully set 'forth in the following' specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming a part hereof, and in whiehf Figure l is a plan view of my improved refrigerator-car, having its top removed so as to show the interior of the ice-chambers. Fig. V2 is an end view of one of the ice-chambers as seen from the center of the car, the Various parts being' broken away so as to show one part behind the other and the air circulation, as indicated by the arrows. Fig. 3 is a side elevation, in vertical section, ot' one end of a car on a plane taken at any point between the wall nearest the observer and the center of the car, and in it are also shown the opposite walls and air-tlues and air circulation, as indicated by the arrows.
Like letters refer to like parts.
The object of my invention is to produce a refrigerator car or chamber in which higher refrigeration may be obtained by means of ice and salt or like frigoritic compound than has heretofore been found practicable, owing to the fact that the difculties which are encountered in refrigeration by means of ice or refrigerating-mixtures placed in tanks are mainly due to the impossibility under ordinary circumstances of securing a suiiioient circulation of air in the chamber to be cooled, and to the fact that the moisture condenses upon the cold surfaces of the tank containing the refrigerating-mixture in a thick layer of frost or snow, so that no matter what degree of cold may be produced within the tank the air within the chamber to be cooled is only brought in contact with a surface having the temperature of melting snow.
It is the object of my invention to remedy both these objections by creating sufliciently strong currents of air in the chamber and by preventing the deposition of snow or frost upon the heatrabsorbing surfaces.
The general principles of construction involved in my invention are the following: I construct an ice-tank of any suitable form, which has an inclined bottom. The upper portion of that bottom is perforated, the lower portion imperforate. Beneath and parallel or approximately parallel to this inclined bottom I arrange an apron of anysuitable material which is a good conductor of heatsay sheet-iron. This apron neither at the upper end nor at the lower end is connected with the ice-tank in any way such as to interfere with the passage of air, and is placed at a suitable distance from the said bottom, such as will leave an air duct or channel between the bottom of the tank and this apron, open at both the upper and the lower end. Below and parallel or approximately parallel to this apron of cond noting material I place a second apron of some material which is a non-conductor of heat, such as wood. This is'pl'aeed at a suitable distance from the iirst apron so as to leave a second air duct or channel between the two, also open at top audbottom. As a result of this construction the air which is in the air ducts or channelsis rapidly cooled and flows down and out at the lower end, thus setting up a current and a circulation ot' air. This current is materially accelerated by the water and brine-if saltis used on the ice-which drops through the upper portion of the bottom which is perforated, and falling on the metallic apron runs down the same and drops olf the lower edge into a drip-trough. The water, also, which vcollects in the bottom of the tank and rises to a level with the lower edge of the perforated portion pours through these openings down upon the apron, and thus acts to accelerate the current of air. lVhen the tank is in a refrigerator-car, the uneven motion of the ear causes this action to occur intermittently, and the water swashes over in considerable quantities at a time, which has a beneficial iniiuence in producing the desired air-currents. of air through the ducts or channels is ot a sufficient rapidity to prevent the deposition of moisture upon the bottom of the tank or the metallic apron, and the latter are kept in the most efficient condition for absorbing heat As a consequence, the current IOO from the air-currents; Moreover, this arrangement presents a largel amount of cooling-surface to the air-currents. The metallic apron is kept at a low temperature by its proximity to the ice-tank, and especially by the constant dripping upon it of the brine, and the air has access to both sides of the apron. Thus is produced a doublel current of air, which is rapidly cooled and delivered in a united stream from the lower mouths of the air ducts or channels and `tl'ows out into the chamber which is to be refrigerated.
I will now specifically describe a construction which shall embody the principles and accomplish the objects above set out.
' At each end of the room or car a, I suspend under the roof, on beams 7L, ory cleats, or other like device, kan ice-tank c, having a short front wall g and a long back wall 'c2 c3 of which the upper part c2 is formed of open vwire-cloth or perforated sheet metal, and the lower part c3 of galvanized sheet-iron. To the said front and back walls and sides of the tank is attached a slanting bottom, of which the lower part o0 is formed of sheet metal and the upper part c of wire-cloth meshes or perforated sheet metal. The sides c10 are preferably solid sheet metal throughout, but their upper parts may also be made of open-work, if so desired, down to on about a line with the lower end of the wire-cloth c2, and through said openings, when employed, a free-air circulation may be obtained from the storagechamber directly upon the ice, whereby said air is deprived of all its acquired moisture,
and is, at the same time, cooled down to the lowestvpossible point attainable from the refrigerating agent.
The lower ends of the sides om and the back c3 and the bottom o0 form a water-tight tank, which has an outlet e9, placed in one corner near or at the lowest point of the bottom to let out the water. Said outlet is opened and closed by means of a cock c5 passing through the corner tube c4.
The water derived from the ice may be drained ont through an opening 09, closed by the cock c5, into the pipe c6, and said pipe c5 passes through the drip-pipe cg, which latter passes through the bottom of and thereby serves to discharge the water from the driptrough c7. By this construction the drain and drip .pipes are placed in the most efficient position, and at the same time are the most effect'ually out of the way from injury, and by the one passing through the other they each give support and strength to the other, and are strengthened by the parts to which they are attached.
A short distance (one to several inches) below the bottom 00 c', and about parallel with it, is a sheet-lnetal apron d, extending about as far as the side walls c10 on the sides, and from the back wall c3 to the front wall g', which is preferably suspended from the icetank; and at about a like distance below said apron CZ is supported an aprone, of wood or other non-conducting material, also about parallel with the apron d and bottom o0 c. Said apron e extends back to about over and some distance above the center of the driptrough c7, which is placed against or near the end wall of the room, and at the front it extends to or somewhat beyond the wall g', and fits closely against the side walls of the car, where it rests on cleats f. The drip-trough c7 is made wide and deep and inclined to one side of the room, and in its lower end is placed a discharge-pipe o8, leaving an annular space between it and the pipe c6 to let out the water caught on the aprons d and e, and discharged int-o the said trough.
i By providing two aprons d and e, and making the outer one of wood or other non-conducting material, all condensation vand therefore dripping from-the outer or underside of said apron d into the storage-roomk is prevented.
The apron e acts as a roof to catch and discharge all dripping water into the drip-trough, andl said apron e, by reason of its being both a non-conductor and itting to the side walls of the storage-room and closely to the driptrough at its lower edge, and the upper edge thereof extending` high up and to nearthe top of the storage-room, between temperatures of wide difference, gives excellent inducement for strong currents of air circulation moving as shown by the arrows. `One or more holes g may also be cut in the top of the front wall g so as to allow a circulation of air through them directly upon the ice.
Around the outside of the side wallsc10 and back wall c2 c3 there is an air-space for the free circulation of air around. -and into the ice-tank, as indicated by the arrows, which, after cooling to the full capacity of the refrigerating agent, descends through saidairspaces, and thereby aids and increases the current formed and directed by the apron e. It is not necessary, however, for the operation of my invention that there should be such openings as these, since the unaided action of the air ducts or channels, as' previously described, is sufficient to set up a circulation of air in the chamber or car and bring all of it in contact with the refrigerating-surfaces.
In practice the ice-tank is illed from the top through the opening Z9. Vhen a greater degree ot cold is desired than can be obtained from melting ice alone, salt or other frigoriic substances may be used upon the ice. As the ice melts, the water therefrom fills the lower and water-tight part-of the tank and overows it through the lower openings in c', which are placed a little lower Vthan the lower edge of the wire-cloth c2 in the back wall of the tank, so as to cause the cold liquid to splash upon the apron d, and thereby flow over a large surface, and also to thereby at the same time agitate the air, both by its motion in the tank and :its flow on the apron, and thereby, further, both by its cold temperature and motion, cause and augment the cold-air circulation due to the construction herein shown. The air-space between the tank-bottom e0 and apron (l would soon 'lill up with ice formedl from the moisture, as before mentioned, but for the rapidity of the currents produced and the fact that by the overflow of the brine or liquid over the upper edge of the bottom e0, the said space is kept clear and the air-currents uninterrupted.
It is a well-known fact that the `moisture condensing, and thus forming thick frost on the outside of a closed sheet-metal ice-tank, forms such a good non-conductor that no greater degree of cold can be secured in the storage-room than that of melting ice, no matter how powerful the frigorific agent within it may be, as the force of the greater degree of cold is expended in forming the frost on outside of the tank obtained from the moisture in the refrigerating-chamber; but by the construction herein shown anddescribed the air has direct access to the bare frigoriiic substance at all times, which the circulating air is bound to find and to the water or brine ilowing through the perforations in the bottom of theice-tank and dripping` on the metallic apron, so that by this construction and generation of air-currents the storageroom can be quickly and permanently cooled to the full temperature of any frigoriiic agent, which may be very far below the freezingpoint. The water ruiming from the melting ice which rests on the meshes of the bottom c forms icicles between the said bottom and the apron d, which said icicles together form a very large area of ice-surface, against which the warm-air currents from above impinge in their downward passage and are divided into numerous small currents, which are thus quickly and completely cooled and deprived of their moisture, and which then pass on uninterrupted through the aforesaid clear space under the bottom e0 and out into the storage-room.
That I claim isl. In a refrigerator-ear, an ice-tank suspended from the ceiling in such a manner as to leave between said ice-tank and chamberwalls a free air-space on each side of said tank extending' to the ceiling, said ice-tank being provided with a short front wall and a longback wall, which, together with the side walls, are connected by an inclined bottom, which latter is perforated in its upper part,
while its lower part, together with thebbaek and side walls of the tank, forms aWater-tight receptacle, a metal apron suspended below and vparallel to said tank-bottom, and a second apron of wood or other non-conducting material arranged below and parallel to said apron, said second apron being fitted to and supported in the .side walls of the apartment, and a drip-trough under its lower edge, substantially as specified.-
2. In a refrigerator-car, an ice-tank suspended from the ceiling in such a manner as to leave between said ice-tank and chamberwalls a free air-space on each side of said tank extending to the ceiling, said ice-tank being provided with a short front Wall and a long back wall, which, together with the side walls, are connected by an inclined bottom,
which latter is perforated in its upper part, while iis lower part, together wit-h the back and side walls of the tank, forms a Water-tight receptacle, a metal apron suspended below and parallel to said tank-bottom, a second apron of wood or other non-conducting material arrangedbelow and parallel to said apron, said second apron being iitted to and supported in the walls of the chamber, a drip- `trough under its lower edge, and a drain-pipe from said ice-tank provided with a cock, said drain-pipe being passed through a drip-pipe of said drip-trough, substantially' as speciiied.
3. The combination of an ice-tank having an inclined bottom imperforate at its lower portion and foraminous at its upper portion with a ductbeneath it into and through which the drip from the interior of the ice-tank and air from the refrigerating-chamber pass, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
4. In a refrigerating apparatus, the combination of an ice-tank which has an inclined bottom imperforate below and foramin'ous above, an apron of conducting material arranged beneath and parallel or approximately parallel to the bottom of taid tank, and a second apron of non-conducting material arranged below and parallel or approximately parallel to the iirst apron, so that there shall be air-duets between these aprons and between the first apron and the bottom of the ice-tank, all substantially as described.
ARNOLD XV. ZIMMERMAN.
Vitnesses:
CHARLES A. RoBINsoN, FRED F. BENNETT.
IOO
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2429078A (en) * 1945-04-02 1947-10-14 Standard Railway Equipment Mfg Refrigerant container for railway cars

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2429078A (en) * 1945-04-02 1947-10-14 Standard Railway Equipment Mfg Refrigerant container for railway cars

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