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Oxidation catalyst

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US3956181A
US3956181A US05393732 US39373273A US3956181A US 3956181 A US3956181 A US 3956181A US 05393732 US05393732 US 05393732 US 39373273 A US39373273 A US 39373273A US 3956181 A US3956181 A US 3956181A
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Robert K. Grasselli
Arthur F. Miller
Wilfrid G. Shaw
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Standard Oil Co
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    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/70Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper
    • B01J23/76Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36
    • B01J23/84Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36 with arsenic, antimony, bismuth, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, polonium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, technetium or rhenium
    • B01J23/85Chromium, molybdenum or tungsten
    • B01J23/88Molybdenum
    • B01J23/887Molybdenum containing in addition other metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36
    • B01J23/8878Chromium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/70Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper
    • B01J23/76Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36
    • B01J23/84Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36 with arsenic, antimony, bismuth, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, polonium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, technetium or rhenium
    • B01J23/85Chromium, molybdenum or tungsten
    • B01J23/888Tungsten
    • B01J23/8885Tungsten containing also molybdenum
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J27/00Catalysts comprising the elements or compounds of halogens, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, phosphorus or nitrogen; Catalysts comprising carbon compounds
    • B01J27/14Phosphorus; Compounds thereof
    • B01J27/186Phosphorus; Compounds thereof with arsenic, antimony, bismuth, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, polonium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, technetium or rhenium
    • B01J27/188Phosphorus; Compounds thereof with arsenic, antimony, bismuth, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, polonium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, technetium or rhenium with chromium, molybdenum, tungsten or polonium
    • B01J27/19Molybdenum
    • B01J27/192Molybdenum with bismuth
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C253/00Preparation of carboxylic acid nitriles
    • C07C253/24Preparation of carboxylic acid nitriles by ammoxidation of hydrocarbons or substituted hydrocarbons
    • C07C253/26Preparation of carboxylic acid nitriles by ammoxidation of hydrocarbons or substituted hydrocarbons containing carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds, e.g. unsaturated aldehydes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C45/00Preparation of compounds having >C = O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms; Preparation of chelates of such compounds
    • C07C45/27Preparation of compounds having >C = O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms; Preparation of chelates of such compounds by oxidation
    • C07C45/32Preparation of compounds having >C = O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms; Preparation of chelates of such compounds by oxidation with molecular oxygen
    • C07C45/33Preparation of compounds having >C = O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms; Preparation of chelates of such compounds by oxidation with molecular oxygen of CHx-moieties
    • C07C45/34Preparation of compounds having >C = O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms; Preparation of chelates of such compounds by oxidation with molecular oxygen of CHx-moieties in unsaturated compounds
    • C07C45/35Preparation of compounds having >C = O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms; Preparation of chelates of such compounds by oxidation with molecular oxygen of CHx-moieties in unsaturated compounds in propene or isobutene
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C5/00Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing the same number of carbon atoms
    • C07C5/42Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing the same number of carbon atoms by dehydrogenation with a hydrogen acceptor
    • C07C5/48Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing the same number of carbon atoms by dehydrogenation with a hydrogen acceptor with oxygen as an acceptor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C51/00Preparation of carboxylic acids or their salts, halides or anhydrides
    • C07C51/16Preparation of carboxylic acids or their salts, halides or anhydrides by oxidation
    • C07C51/21Preparation of carboxylic acids or their salts, halides or anhydrides by oxidation with molecular oxygen
    • C07C51/25Preparation of carboxylic acids or their salts, halides or anhydrides by oxidation with molecular oxygen of unsaturated compounds containing no six-membered aromatic ring
    • C07C51/252Preparation of carboxylic acids or their salts, halides or anhydrides by oxidation with molecular oxygen of unsaturated compounds containing no six-membered aromatic ring of propene, butenes, acrolein or methacrolein
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2523/00Constitutive chemical elements of heterogeneous catalysts
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/50Improvements relating to the production of products other than chlorine, adipic acid, caprolactam, or chlorodifluoromethane, e.g. bulk or fine chemicals or pharmaceuticals
    • Y02P20/52Improvements relating to the production of products other than chlorine, adipic acid, caprolactam, or chlorodifluoromethane, e.g. bulk or fine chemicals or pharmaceuticals using catalysts, e.g. selective catalysts
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S585/00Chemistry of hydrocarbon compounds
    • Y10S585/8995Catalyst and recycle considerations
    • Y10S585/906Catalyst preservation or manufacture, e.g. activation before use

Abstract

Catalysts containing at least nickel or cobalt, chromium, bismuth and molybdenum have been found to be especially useful for the ammoxidation of olefins, the oxidation of olefins and the oxidative dehydrogenation of olefins.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The ammoxidation of olefins, oxidative dehydrogenation of olefins and oxidation of olefins with catalysts similar to those of the present invention are known. See for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,642,930; 3,414,631, Ser. No. 85,722 filed Oct. 30, 1970, and U.S. Pat. No. 3,576,764.

The catalysts of the present invention have a composition different from those of the art and are very selective catalysts even at high temperatures.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is a catalyst composition having the empirical formula

A.sub.a D.sub.b Ni.sub.c Co.sub.d Cr.sub.e Bi.sub.f Mo.sub.12 O.sub.x

Wherein

A is an alkali metal, Tl, In, Ag, Cu, rare earth or mixture thereof; and

D is P, As, Sb, Sn, Ge, B, W, Th,

V, ti, Si or mixture thereof;

And wherein

a and b are 0-4;

c and d are 0 to 20 with c + d greater than or equal to 0.1;

e is 0.1 to about 10;

f is about 0.01 to 6; and

x is the number of oxygens required to satisfy the valence requirements of the other elements present.

These catalysts have been found to be especially useful for the ammoxidation, oxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation of olefins.

The central aspect of the present invention is the catalyst. The catalyst can be any of the catalysts delimited by the general formula above. Preferred are those catalysts that contain an alkali metal and those catalysts that contain both nickel and cobalt.

The catalysts of the invention are conveniently prepared by any of the methods associated with the similar oxidation catalysts in the art. Among the methods of combining the elements of the catalyst are the coprecipitation of soluble salts from a solution and the mixing of salts or oxides of the various compounds. After the elements of the catalyst are combined, the preparation of the catalyst is completed by calcination of the catalyst at an elevated temperature. Temperatures between about 200° and about 700°C. are most suitable.

Specific preparations of catalysts of the invention are shown in the Specific Embodiments. These preparations are given preferred catalysts of the invention.

The catalysts of the invention may be used as pure catalytic material or they may be used in the supported form. Suitable support materials include silica, alumina, titania, zirconia, boron phosphate and the like. The use of catalysts supported on silica is preferred.

The catalysts of the invention have utility for a broad range of oxidation, ammoxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation reactions. Preferred are the ammoxidation of propylene or isobutylene, the oxidation of propylene or isobutylene and the oxidative dehydrogenation of olefins containing about 4 to about 10 carbon atoms.

The reactions in which the catalysts of the invention are utilized are well known. Essentially, the invention with respect to these processes is the use of the new catalyst of the invention within the parameters of the known process. Broadly, the processes all utilize molecular oxygen, preferably air, in the reactant feed, and the reactions are normally conducted within the range of about 200° to about 600°C. with temperatures of about 300°C. to about 500°C. being preferred. The reactant ratios may vary as the different reactions are conducted but generally range within about 5 to about 15 moles of air per mole of olefin.

The reactions can be run at atmospheric, superatmospheric or subatmospheric pressures using contact times of a fraction of a second to 20 seconds or more. The reactions can be run in a fixed-bed or fluid-bed reactor. In a fluid-bed reactor, the catalyst is normally used in the form of pellets, tablets or spheres and the like. In a fluid-bed reactor, the catalyst is small particles, such as microspheroids, that are fluidized in the reaction.

As noted above, the catalysts of the invention are very selective even at high temperatures. Thus, high temperatures can be used in the reaction without a substantial adverse effect on the desired yield of the reaction. The catalysts exhibit high per pass conversions to useful products at high reactant through-put.

SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS EXAMPLES 1 - 15 Ammoxidation of propylene

A reactor was constructed of a stainless tube having an inside diameter of 0.8 cm., an inlet for reactants and an outlet for products. The reactor had a catalytic reaction zone having a volume of 5 cc. and was externally heated.

Various catalyst compositions containing 80% active catalytic ingredients and 20% SiO2 were prepared as follows:

EXAMPLES 1-3 K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiP0.5 Mo12 Ox

In 30 cc. of warm water 31.8 g. of ammonia heptamolybdate, (NH4)6 Mo7 O24.4H2 O, were dissolved and 26.8 g. of 40% silica sol were added. With constant stirring, the mixture was slowly heated for about 5 minutes, and 0.9 g. of 85% phosphoric acid, 10.9 g. of nickel nitrate, Ni(NO3)2.6H2 O and 19.7 g. of cobalt nitrate, Co(NO3)2.6H2 O, were sequentially added. Heating and stirring were continued for a few minutes.

Separately, an aqueous mixture containing 18.0 g. of chromium nitrate, Cr(No3)3.9H2 O, 7.2 g. of bismuth nitrate, Bi(NO3)3.5H2 O and 0.19 g. of a 45% solution of potassium hydroxide was prepared. This second mixture was slowly added to the first slurry on a hot plate. After the addition was complete, the heat was increased until the mixture started to thicken. The resultant thick paste was dried in a drying oven at 120°C. with occasional stirring. The dried catalyst was then heat treated at 550°C. for 20 hours.

EXAMPLES 4 and 5 K0.1 Ni2 Co4 Cr3 BiMo12 Ox

In 60 cc. of warm water 63.56 g. of ammonium heptamolybdate was dissolved and 50.90 g. of 40% silica sol was added to form a slurry.

Separately, 9.00 g. chromium oxide, CrO3, 14.55 g. bismuth nitrate, 34.93 g. of cobalt nitrate, 17.45 g. nickel nitrate and 3.03 g. of a 10% solution of potassium nitrate were combined in an aqueous mixture. The aqueous mixture was slowly added to the slurry, and the resultant mixture was heated on a hot plate until it began to thicken. The paste was dried at 120°C. and then calcined at 550°C. for 16 hours.

EXAMPLES 6 and 7 K0.1 Ni7 Cr3 BiP0.5 Mo12 Ox

A slurry was made by dissolving 63.56 g. of ammonium heptamolybdate in 60 cc. of warm water and adding 52.95 g. of 40% silica sol and 3.46 g. of a 42.5% solution of phosphoric acid.

Separately, in a small amount of water on a hot plate 9.00 g. of chromium oxide, 61.07 g. of nickel nitrate, 3.03 g. of a 10% solution of potassium nitrate and 14.55 g. of bismuth nitrate were dissolved. The resultant solution was slowly added to the slurry with heating. When the mixture started to thicken, it was removed from the hot plate and placed in an oven at 120°C. The dried material was heated at 290°C. for 3 hours, at 425°C. for 3 hours and at 550°C. for 16 hours.

EXAMPLES 8 and 9 K0.1 Co7 Cr3 BiP0.5 Mo12 Ox

The catalyst was prepared in exactly the same way as Examples 6 and 7 except that 61.12 g. of cobalt nitrate was substituted for the nickel nitrate.

EXAMPLE 10 Ge0.5 K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiMo12 Ox

An aqueous slurry was prepared using 63.56 g. of ammonium heptamolybdate, 53.28 g. of 40% silica sol and 1.57 g. of germanium oxide, GeO2.

An aqueous solution was formed using 9.00 g. chromium oxide, 14.55 g. bismuth nitrate, 39.29 g. cobalt nitrate, 21.80 g. of nickel nitrate and 3.03 g. of a 10% solution of potassium nitrate. The combining of the mixtures, drying and calcination were conducted as shown in Examples 6 and 7.

EXAMPLES 11 Sn0.5 K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiMo12 Ox

The catalyst was prepared as shown in Example 10 substituting 1.75 cc. of stannic chloride, SnCl4, for the germanium oxide.

EXAMPLE 12 B0.5 K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiMo12 Ox

The catalyst was prepared as shown in Example 10 substituting 0.93 g. of boric acid for the germanium oxide.

EXAMPLE 13 W0.5 K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiMo12 Ox

The catalyst was prepared as shown in Example 10 substituting 4.05 g. (NH4)6 W7 O24.6H2 O for the germanium oxide.

EXAMPLE 14 V0.5 K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiMo12 Ox

The catalyst was prepared as described in Example 10 substituting 1.75 g. of NH4 VO3 for the germanium oxide and 22.24 g. chromium acetate, Cr(C2 H3 O2)3.H2 O for the chromium oxide.

EXAMPLE 15 Cu0.1 K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiP0.5 Mo12 Ox

The catalyst was prepared as shown in Example 10 except that chromium acetate was added as in Example 14, and 3.46 g. of a 42.5% solution of phosphoric acid was added in place of the germanium oxide and 0.72 g. of Cu(NO3)2.3H2 O was added to the second solution.

In preparation for use, the catalysts were ground and screened to give a 20 to 35 mesh fraction. Five cc. of this catalyst was placed in the catalytic reactor, and the ammoxidation of propylene was conducted using a feed of propylene/ammonia/air/steam of 1/1.1/10/4 and an apparent contact time of 6 seconds. The results of these experiments are shown in Table I. It will be noted that even though the temperature is increased, the selectivity remains remarkably stable. It would be expected that at these high temperatures, the selectivity would rapidly decline.

The results are stated in the following terms: ##EQU1##

                                  Table I__________________________________________________________________________AMMOXIDATION OF PROPYLENE                        Results, %                                     Single PassExampleCatalyst          Temp.°C.                        Conversion                              Selectivity                                     Yield__________________________________________________________________________1    K.sub.0.1 Ni.sub.2.5 Co.sub.4.5 Cr.sub.3 BiP.sub.0.5 Mo.sub.12O.sub.x           420   62.4  89     55.72    "                 440   88.7  83     73.93    "                 460   95.9  81     77.84    K.sub.0.1 Ni.sub.2 Co.sub.4 Cr.sub.3 BiMo.sub.12 O.sub.x                  440   85.5  75     63.95    "                 460   95.7  71     68.36    K.sub.0.1 Ni.sub.7 Cr.sub.3 BiP.sub.0.5 Mo.sub.12 O.sub.x                  440   93.9  79     74.27    "                 460   98.2  78     76.78    K.sub.0.1 Co.sub.7 Cr.sub.3 BiP.sub.0.5 Mo.sub.12 O.sub.x                  440   61.3  82     50.49    "                 460   74.7  80     591910   Ge.sub.0.5 (K.sub.0.1 Ni.sub.2.5 Co.sub.4.5 Cr.sub.3 BiMo.sub.12O.sub.x)          460   88.3  77     68.211   Sn.sub.0.5 ( ")   "     90.3  71     64.412   B.sub.0.5 ( ")    "     89.9  76     68.413   W.sub.0.5 ( ")    "     96.4  76     73.414   V.sub.0.5 ( ")    "     100   76     75.815   Cu.sub.0.1 P.sub.0.5 ( ")                  "     99.1  80     78.8__________________________________________________________________________
EXAMPLES 16-24 Oxidative dehydrogenation of butene

The catalyst prepared for Examples 1-3 was heat treated for an additional three hours at 650°C. To the reactor, as described above, was charged 2.5 cc. of the catalyst. A feed of butene-1/air/steam of 1/11/4 was passed over the catalyst for an apparent contact time of 1 second.

The results are given in Table II. The conversion and selectivity figures given ignores the isomerization of butene-1 to butene-2 by calculating butene-2 as unreacted reactant.

              Table II______________________________________OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OF BUTENE-1      Results, %                               Single PassExample  Temp.,°C.            Conversion                      Selectivity                               Yield______________________________________16     350       48.4      99       48.117     400       70.1      99       69.318     420       77.3      98       76.419     440       83.8      94       79.020     460       89.0      93       82.721     480       92.6      91       84.622     500       95.5      87       83.1 23.sup.1  400       78.6      98       76.8 24.sup.2  440       92.4      93       85.5______________________________________ .sup.1 feed: 1 butene-1/27 air/4 steam contact time 1.5 sec. .sup.2 no steam added
EXAMPLES 25-39 Oxidative dehydrogenation of butene-1 with various catalysts

The catalysts prepared as described in Examples 1-15 were used to oxidative dehydrogenate butene-1 using a feed of butene-1/air/steam of 1/11/4 and an apparent contact time of one second. The results are shown in Table III.

                                  Table III__________________________________________________________________________OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OF BUTENE-1                        Results, %                                     Single PassExampleCatalyst          Temp,°C.                        Conversion                              Selectivity                                     Yield__________________________________________________________________________25   K.sub.0.1 Ni.sub.2 Co.sub.4 Cr.sub.3 BiMo.sub.12 O.sub.x                  420   77.7  93     72.426   "                 440   85.8  92     79.027   K.sub.0.1 Ni.sub.7 Cr.sub.3 BiP.sub.0.5 Mo.sub.12 O.sub.x                  420   82.7  94     78.128   "                 440   87.6  91     80.029   K.sub.0.1 Co.sub.7 Cr.sub.3 BiP.sub.0.5 Mo.sub.12 O.sub.x                  420   77.3  83     63.930   "                 440   79.8  81     64.531   K.sub.0.1 Ni.sub.2.5 Co.sub.4.5 Cr.sub.3 BiP.sub.0.5 Mo.sub.12O.sub.x           420   78.6  96     75.732   "                 440   86.0  95     81.533   Ge.sub.0.5 (K.sub.0.1 Ni.sub.2.5 Co.sub.4.5 Cr.sub.3 BiMo.sub.12O.sub.x)          "     79.2  94     74.334   Sn.sub.0.5 ( ")   "     81.5  91     73.835   B.sub.0.5 ( ")    "     80.3  95     76.336   W.sub.0.5 ( " )   "     83.8  95     79.837   V.sub.0.5 ( ")    "     87.3  77     67.638   Cu.sub.0.1 P.sub.0.5 (")                  "     90.0  96     86.3 39* "                 "     92.4  93     85.5__________________________________________________________________________ *no steam added to feed
EXAMPLE 40 Catalyst without alkali metal

A catalyst was prepared according to the method for the catalyst of Examples 1-3 except that potassium was omitted from the preparation. The catalyst had the formula 80% Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiP0.5 Mo12 Ox + 20% SiO2.

In the same manner as described above, butene-1 was oxidatively dehydrogenated using a feed of 1 butene-1/11 air/4 steam at 420°C. and an apparent contact time of one second. The conversion of the butene-1 was 84.1%, the selectivity to butadiene was 87% and the single pass yield was 73.2%

EXAMPLE 41 Tin containing catalyst

A catalyst of the formula 80% Sn0.5 K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr2.5 BiP0.5Mo120x and 20% SiO2 was prepared in a manner substantially the same as the catalyst for Example II except that the amount of chromium was reduced and phosphoric acid was added to the solution.

In an oxidative dehydrogenation of butene-1 using 11 moles of air per mole of butene-1 and no steam at 440°C. and a contact time of one second, the conversion was 90.8%, the selectivity was 91% and the per pass conversion was 82.7%.

EXAMPLE 42 Preparation of acrolein and acrylic acid

A catalyst prepared according to Example 15 was used for the oxidation of propylene using a feed of propylene/ air/steam of 1/11/4. At a temperature of 400°C. and a contact time of 6 seconds, the conversion was 82.8%, the selectivity to acrolein and acrylic acid was 85%, the single pass yield to acrolein was 66.7% and the single pass yield to acrylic acid was 3.5%.

EXAMPLE 43 Preparation of methacrylonitrile

In the same manner as described for the ammoxidation of propylene, isobutylene was reacted to form methacrylonitrile. Using a reactant feed of isobutylene/ammonia/air/steam of 1/1.5/10/4 at a temperature of 400°C. and an apparent contact time of 6 seconds, the single pass yield of methacrylonitrile was 56.9%

In the same manner as described by the examples above butene-2 or isoamylene is oxidatively dehydrogenated with similar results. Also, in the same manner, isobutylene is oxidized to methacrolein using the catalysts of the invention.

Claims (6)

We claim:
1. A catalyst composition having the empirical formula
A.sub.a D.sub.b Ni.sub.c Co.sub.d Cr.sub.e Bi.sub.f Mo.sub.12 O.sub.x
wherein
A is an alkali metal, Tl, In, Ag, Cu, rare earth metal or mixture thereof; and
D is P, As, Sb, Sn, Ge, B, W, Th, V, Ti, Si or mixture thereof;
and wherein
a and b are 0-4;
c and d are 0 to 20 with c + d greater than or equal to 0.1;
e i 0.1 to about 10;
f is about 0.01 to 6; and
x is the number of oxygens required to satisfy the valence requirements of the other elements present.
2. The catalyst of claim 1 which contains an alkali metal.
3. The catalyst of claim 1 which contains potassium.
4. The catalyst of claim 1 which contains nickel and cobalt.
5. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein the catalyst is K0.1 Ni2.5 Co4.5 Cr3 BiP0.5 Mo12 Ox.
6. The catalyst of claim 4 contains copper.
US05393732 1973-09-04 1973-09-04 Oxidation catalyst Expired - Lifetime US3956181A (en)

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US05393732 US3956181A (en) 1973-09-04 1973-09-04 Oxidation catalyst

Applications Claiming Priority (15)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US05393732 US3956181A (en) 1973-09-04 1973-09-04 Oxidation catalyst
DE19742440329 DE2440329C2 (en) 1973-09-04 1974-08-22
JP9780274A JPS5064191A (en) 1973-09-04 1974-08-26
NL7411580A NL186138C (en) 1973-09-04 1974-08-30 A process for the oxidative dehydrogenation of an olefin, and a process for the ammoxidation of propylene or isobutylene.
FI257074A FI62959C (en) 1973-09-04 1974-09-03 Oxidationskatalysator innehaollande Krom
CA 208346 CA1048481A (en) 1973-09-04 1974-09-03 Chromium-containing catalysts useful for oxidation reactions
DK465074A DK146583C (en) 1973-09-04 1974-09-03 Method for ammoxidation or oxidation of propylene or isobutylene, or for the dehydrogenation of alkenes with 4-10 carbon atoms and a catalyst for use in the method
FR7429941A FR2242146B1 (en) 1973-09-04 1974-09-03
ES429744A ES429744A1 (en) 1973-09-04 1974-09-03 A process for preparing a composition ca- talitica.
GB3864674A GB1473530A (en) 1973-09-04 1974-09-04 Chromium-containing catalysts useful for oxidation reactions
BE148198A BE819533A (en) 1973-09-04 1974-09-04 Catalysts containing chromium
US05532097 US4174354A (en) 1973-09-04 1974-12-18 Oxidative dehydrogenation using chromium-containing catalysts
US05532096 US3993680A (en) 1973-09-04 1974-12-18 Ammoxidation using chromium-containing catalysts
FI751394A FI63217C (en) 1973-09-04 1975-05-13 Foerfarande Foer ammoxidering of isobutene propen eller
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US4108918A (en) * 1975-09-18 1978-08-22 The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company Oxidative dehydrogenation of olefins to diolefins
US4162234A (en) * 1974-07-22 1979-07-24 The Standard Oil Company Oxidation catalysts
US4167516A (en) * 1977-02-10 1979-09-11 Denka Chemical Corporation Preparation of dicarboxylic anhydrides
US4190556A (en) * 1973-07-19 1980-02-26 Standard Oil Company Production of unsaturated nitriles using catalysts promoted with various metals
US4202826A (en) * 1977-02-10 1980-05-13 Denka Chemical Corporation Process for preparing anhydride from alkanes
US4322368A (en) * 1979-12-28 1982-03-30 The Standard Oil Co. Copper-promoted antimony phosphate oxide complex catalysts
US4336409A (en) * 1980-04-22 1982-06-22 Nippon Zeon Co. Ltd. Process for producing conjugated diolefins
US4397771A (en) * 1975-01-13 1983-08-09 The Standard Oil Co. Oxidation catalysts
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US5158923A (en) * 1990-05-21 1992-10-27 Scientific Design Company, Inc. Phosphorous/vanadium oxidation catalyst
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US20070021296A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Catalyst for the oxidation of a mixed aldehyde feedstock to methacrylic acid and methods for making and using same
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US7649112B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2010-01-19 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Integrated plant for producing 2-ethyl-hexanol and methacrylic acid and a method based thereon
US20100249482A1 (en) * 2007-10-02 2010-09-30 Young Min Chung Method of preparing multicomponent bismuth molybdate catalysts comprising four metal components and method of preparing 1,3-butadiene using said catalysts
US20110064627A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2011-03-17 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation A quench column apparatus for separating methacrolein from methacrylic acid in a gas phase product from the partial oxidation of isobutene
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US8722940B2 (en) 2012-03-01 2014-05-13 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation High molybdenum mixed metal oxide catalysts for the production of unsaturated aldehydes from olefins
US8921257B2 (en) 2011-12-02 2014-12-30 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Dual function partial oxidation catalyst for propane to acrylic acid conversion
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US4190556A (en) * 1973-07-19 1980-02-26 Standard Oil Company Production of unsaturated nitriles using catalysts promoted with various metals
US4162234A (en) * 1974-07-22 1979-07-24 The Standard Oil Company Oxidation catalysts
US4397771A (en) * 1975-01-13 1983-08-09 The Standard Oil Co. Oxidation catalysts
US4108918A (en) * 1975-09-18 1978-08-22 The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company Oxidative dehydrogenation of olefins to diolefins
US4108919A (en) * 1975-09-18 1978-08-22 The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company Oxidative dehydrogenation of olefins to diolefins
US4052332A (en) * 1976-04-20 1977-10-04 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Catalyst regeneration with impregnation of bismuth and molybdenum
US4101448A (en) * 1976-05-14 1978-07-18 The Standard Oil Company Catalyst compositions especially useful for preparation of unsaturated acids
US4115441A (en) * 1976-05-14 1978-09-19 The Standard Oil Company Catalyst compositions especially useful for preparation of unsaturated acids
US4083805A (en) * 1976-06-30 1978-04-11 The Standard Oil Company Preparation of methacrylic acid from methacrolein
US4167516A (en) * 1977-02-10 1979-09-11 Denka Chemical Corporation Preparation of dicarboxylic anhydrides
US4105586A (en) * 1977-02-10 1978-08-08 Denka Chemical Corporation Oxidation catalysts and process for preparing anhydride from alkanes
US4202826A (en) * 1977-02-10 1980-05-13 Denka Chemical Corporation Process for preparing anhydride from alkanes
US4556731A (en) * 1977-07-28 1985-12-03 The Standard Oil Company Process for the oxidation of olefins using catalysts containing various promoter elements
US4322368A (en) * 1979-12-28 1982-03-30 The Standard Oil Co. Copper-promoted antimony phosphate oxide complex catalysts
US4423281A (en) * 1980-04-04 1983-12-27 Nippon Zeon Co. Ltd. Process for producing conjugated diolefins
US4336409A (en) * 1980-04-22 1982-06-22 Nippon Zeon Co. Ltd. Process for producing conjugated diolefins
US4444906A (en) * 1981-06-08 1984-04-24 The Standard Oil Company Method for the preparation of high activity phosphomolybdic acid based catalysts
US4558028A (en) * 1982-12-22 1985-12-10 Nippon Shokubai Kagaku Kogyo Co., Ltd. Catalyst for production of methacrylic acid
US4855275A (en) * 1988-02-18 1989-08-08 The Standard Oil Company Catalyst performance improvement via separate boron addition
US5158923A (en) * 1990-05-21 1992-10-27 Scientific Design Company, Inc. Phosphorous/vanadium oxidation catalyst
US5262548A (en) * 1990-05-21 1993-11-16 Scientific Design Company, Inc. Phosphorous/vanadium oxidation catalyst
US7999133B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2011-08-16 Sabic Basic Industries Corporation Methods for making unsaturated acids using catalysts for methacrolein oxidation
US20070021630A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Catalyst for methacrolein oxidation and method for making and using same
US20070021629A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Catalyst for methacrolein oxidation and method for making and using same
US7649111B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2010-01-19 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Catalyst for the oxidation of a mixed aldehyde feedstock to methacrylic acid and methods for making and using same
US7649112B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2010-01-19 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Integrated plant for producing 2-ethyl-hexanol and methacrylic acid and a method based thereon
US7732367B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2010-06-08 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Catalyst for methacrolein oxidation and method for making and using same
US20100240925A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2010-09-23 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Methods for making unsaturated acids using catalysts for methacrolein oxidation
US8889088B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2014-11-18 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Integrated plant for producing 2-ethyl-hexanol and methacrylic acid
US20100260647A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2010-10-14 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Integrated plant for producing 2-ethyl-hexanol and methacrylic acid
US7851397B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2010-12-14 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Catalyst for methacrolein oxidation and method for making and using same
US20100323882A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2010-12-23 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Methods for preparing catalysts for methacrolein oxidation
US20070021296A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2007-01-25 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Catalyst for the oxidation of a mixed aldehyde feedstock to methacrylic acid and methods for making and using same
US7923404B2 (en) 2005-07-25 2011-04-12 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Methods for preparing catalysts for methacrolein oxidation
US20110064627A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2011-03-17 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation A quench column apparatus for separating methacrolein from methacrylic acid in a gas phase product from the partial oxidation of isobutene
US20100249482A1 (en) * 2007-10-02 2010-09-30 Young Min Chung Method of preparing multicomponent bismuth molybdate catalysts comprising four metal components and method of preparing 1,3-butadiene using said catalysts
US8410328B2 (en) * 2007-10-02 2013-04-02 Sk Innovation Co., Ltd. Method of preparing multicomponent bismuth molybdate catalysts comprising four metal components and method of preparing 1,3-butadiene using said catalysts
WO2012005837A1 (en) * 2010-07-09 2012-01-12 Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited Process for producing olefin oxide
WO2012005835A1 (en) * 2010-07-09 2012-01-12 Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited Process for producing olefin oxide
WO2012009056A1 (en) * 2010-07-10 2012-01-19 Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited Process for producing olefin oxide
US8921257B2 (en) 2011-12-02 2014-12-30 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation Dual function partial oxidation catalyst for propane to acrylic acid conversion
US8722940B2 (en) 2012-03-01 2014-05-13 Saudi Basic Industries Corporation High molybdenum mixed metal oxide catalysts for the production of unsaturated aldehydes from olefins
US9399606B2 (en) 2012-12-06 2016-07-26 Basf Se Catalyst and process for the oxidative dehydrogenation of N-butenes to butadiene

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FR2242146B1 (en) 1980-10-24 grant
NL7411580A (en) 1975-03-06 application
ES429744A1 (en) 1977-06-16 application
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BE819533A1 (en) grant

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