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US3931404A - High dosage orally administrable cephalosporin antibiotic preparations - Google Patents

High dosage orally administrable cephalosporin antibiotic preparations Download PDF

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Publication number
US3931404A
US3931404A US05421605 US42160573A US3931404A US 3931404 A US3931404 A US 3931404A US 05421605 US05421605 US 05421605 US 42160573 A US42160573 A US 42160573A US 3931404 A US3931404 A US 3931404A
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US
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Prior art keywords
tablets
high
preparation
dosage
percent
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Expired - Lifetime
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US05421605
Inventor
Werner Fulberth
Dietrich Hiller
Alfred Muller
Gerhard Ross
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Hoechst AG
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Hoechst AG
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K9/00Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K9/20Pills, tablets, discs, rods
    • A61K9/2004Excipients; Inactive ingredients
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/54Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with at least one nitrogen and one sulfur as the ring hetero atoms, e.g. sulthiame
    • A61K31/542Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with at least one nitrogen and one sulfur as the ring hetero atoms, e.g. sulthiame ortho- or peri-condensed with heterocyclic ring systems
    • A61K31/545Compounds containing 5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] octane ring systems, i.e. compounds containing a ring system of the formula:, e.g. cephalosporins, cefaclor, or cephalexine

Abstract

High-dosage, orally administrable antibiotic preparations containing an antibiotic agent of the cephalosporin type and 5 to 15 % of a mixture of auxiliary agents, and process for preparing them.

Description

The present invention relates to high dosage antibiotic tablets, which are small in relation to the dose of active substance, of cephalosporins to be administered orally, for example cephalexin and cephaloglycin, and to a process for preparing them.

In oral therapy with antibiotics, higher doses are used in increasing degree in the treatment of infections in order to obtain rapidly sufficiently high levels of the drug in the blood of the patient.

It is not seldom that the antibiotic agent is administered in single doses of up to several grams.

Therefore, it is necessary to develop orally administrable drug forms of these antibiotics which have as high a content of antibiotic agent as possible.

Since in most cases antibiotics have a very disagreable bitter taste, drug forms must be chosen which can be swallowed whole without difficulty. They may also be additionally provided with a coating.

After ingestion, these tablets must rapidly disintegrate in the digestive tract and release the active substance for resorption.

The swallowability of higher-dose tablets can be facilitated by giving them a certain form (for example oval or oblong form).

Dosage unit forms of drugs which, as regards their size, can still be swallowed have maximum weights of about 0.25 to 3 g, depending on the bulk volume of the tablet mixture.

In order to obtain tablets with optimum properties and to ensure their preparation on modern high speed machines, the active substances, depending on their flow and compressing behavior, are normally combined according to the state of the art with auxiliary agents, the quantity of which is often higher than that of the active substance. In normal cases, quantities of auxiliary agents of 30% and more are necessary to impart on a medicinal substance good properties for tablet formation and to ensure good quality of the drug dosage form.

As auxiliary agents, there may be mentioned, for example:

Diluents such as lactose, sugar,

Binders such as starch, cellulose derivatives,

Disintegrators such as starch, ultraamylopectin,

Lubricants such as talc and magnesium stearate.

When formulating tablet mixtures, suitable auxiliary agents must be selected and used in such quantities that flowable mixtures or granulates are obtained which permit efficient production of tablets that have optimum properties with regard to disintegration, release of active substance, hardness, breakability and appearance.

With tablets containing a high dose of active substance, it is particularly important to keep the quantity of auxiliary substances low in order to avoid the tablets becoming too large. On the other hand, the tablets must show sufficient properties, in particular good disintegration and release of the active ingredient.

Cephalosporins and their derivatives, in particular cephalexin and cephaloglycin, have very poor flow characteristics. Even in a bottle, they tend to agglomeration and clot-formation owing to electrostatic charging, so that the expert can obtain mixtures or granulations which can be processed into tablets only by adding large amounts of auxiliary agents.

On the other hand, economical production of tablets on machines with high capacity requires mixtures and granulations containing the active ingredient which show a sufficient flow behavior also at a high speed of the tablet machine. Large matrices in oblong form must be filled uniformly to secure equal dosages. Capping and any other mechanical damage which occurs, especially with high compressing speeds, must be avoided. These disadvantages are overcome by the addition of high amounts of well flowing auxiliary agents.

Thus, an expert could not foresee that an advantageous, economical production of such tablets, i.e. tablets having a high content of active ingredient and a low content of auxiliary agents, would be possible.

Now, we have found a process for the economical preparation of high-dosage tablets of as small a size as possible with an antibiotic powder having poor flow characteristics and belonging to the cephalosporin type, wherein about only 5 to 15 % of a mixture of auxiliary agents, for example a mixture of starch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultraamylopectin, talc and/or magnesium stearate is added to the said active ingredients and the resulting mixture is granulated and compressed into tablets. If desired, these tablets may be provided with a suitable coating.

As antibiotic agents of the cephalosporin type, there are used in particular cephalexin and cephaloglycin.

The proportions of the above-mentioned active ingredients and auxiliary agents may be as follows:

     cephalosporin derivative                      85 - 95 %crystalline cellulose 10 - 2.5 %ultraamylopectin       3 - 1.5 %magnesium stearate     2 - 1 %orcephalosporin derivative                      85 - 93 %lactose                8 - 4 %ultraamylopectin       5 - 2 %magnesium stearate     2 - 1 %orcephalosporin derivative                      85 - 95.0 %starch or starch derivative                       8 - 2.6 %talc                   5 - 2.0 %magnesium stearate     2 - 0.4 %

Crystalline cellulose is a product obtained upon treatment of cellulose-containing materials.

Lactose serves as a tablet filler material.

Starch and starch derivatives are known as disintegrators.

Ultraamylopectin is a starch product which is obtained by the reaction of sodium alcoholate and halogenated fatty acid and starch. Owing to its swelling power it is used as tablet disintegrating agent.

Magnesium stearate and talc have been described in various pharmacopoeas as lubricants and antisticking agents.

If necessary, other auxiliary agents usually employed in the production of tablets may be added.

Of course, the mixtures of the invention may also be compressed into smaller tablets with lower dosage (for example, for children) or into larger tablets with higher dosage (for example, for vaginal administration or for animals).

The mixtures of the above-mentioned composition obtained after granulation are free flowing and can be processed on high-speed machines into high quality tablets at a rate of 3000 tablets per minute.

Depending on the solubility of the active ingredient in water, the tablets show in water or in artificial gastric juice of 37° C a disintegration time of a few minutes to 6 minutes at maximum.

For protection against environmental influences, for example humidity, light, etc. and in order to cover the taste, the tablets so produced may be provided with a film or dragee coating (if desired flavored) according to the processes usual in the pharmaceutic industry.

The following Examples illustrate the invention:

EXAMPLE 1:

Tablets of 500 mg or 1000 mg of cephalexin each.

______________________________________Composition:cephalexin         90.6 %including overdosagecrystalline cellulose              6.4 %ultraamylopectin   2.1 %magnesium stearate 0.9 %              100.0 %______________________________________

Preparation:

A mixture of the above-specified substances was prepared in a rapid mixer and a granulation having a grain size of between 2,0 and 0.3 mm was prepared.

The granulated mixture was compressed on a rotary tablet machine at a speed of 2000 to 3000 tablets/minute into convex oblong tablets with score.

The tablets were found to disintegrate in artificial gastric juice of 37° C within 3 minutes at maximum.

If desired, these dosage forms can be provided with a flavored film or dragee coating.

EXAMPLE 2:

Tablets of 500 mg or 1000 mg of cephalexin.

______________________________________Composition:cephalexin         90.7 %including overdosagelactose            6.3 %ultraamylopectin   2.1 %magnesium stearate 0.9 %.              100.0 %______________________________________

Preparation:

A mixture was prepared from the above-mentioned substances in a rapid mixer and a granulation was prepared having a grain size of between 2.0 and 0.3 mm.

The granulated mixture was compressed on a rotary tablet machine into convex oblong tablets with score at a speed of about 2000 to 3000 tablets per minute.

The tablets were found to disintegrate in artificial gastric juice of 37° C within 5 to 6 minutes at maximum.

If desired, these dosage forms can be provided with an optionally flavored film or dragee coating.

EXAMPLE 3:

Tablets of 500 mg or 1000 mg of cephalexin.

______________________________________Composition:cephalexin         93.0 %including overdosagemaize starch       3.5 %talc               3.0 %magnesium stearate 0.5 %              100.0 %______________________________________

Preparation:

A mixture was prepared from the above-mentioned substances in a rapid mixer and a granulation was prepared having a grain size of between 2.0 and 0.3 mm.

The granulated mixture was compressed on a rotary tablet machine into convex oblong tablets with score at a rate of about 2000 to 3000 tablets per minute.

The tablets were found to disintegrate in artificial gastric juice of 37° C within 5 to 6 minutes at maximum.

If desired, these dosage forms can be provided with an optionally flavored film or dragee coating.

Claims (7)

We claim:
1. An antibiotic preparation in compressed tablet form consisting essentially of cephalexin or cephaloglycin and from 5 to 15 percent, by weight of said preparation, of pharmaceutical excipients selected from the group consisting of starch, crystalline cellulose, lactose, ultraamylopectin, talc, and magnesium stearate.
2. A preparation as in claim 1 consisting essentially of
85 to 95 percent of a cephalosporin antibiotic,
10 to 2.5 percent of crystalline cellulose,
3 to 1.5 percent of ultraamylopectin, and
2 to 1 percent of magnesium stearate.
3. A preparation as in claim 1 consisting essentially of
85 to 93 percent of a cephalosporin antibiotic,
8 to 4 percent of lactose,
5 to 2 percent of ultraamylopectin, and
2 to 1 percent of magnesium stearate.
4. A preparation as in claim 1 consisting essentially of
85 to 95 percent of a cephalosporin antibiotic,
8 to 2.6 percent of starch,
5 to 2 percent of talc, and
2 to 0.4 percent of magnesium stearate.
5. A preparation as in claim 1 wherein said cephalosporin antibiotic is cephalexin.
6. As a dosage unit form for oral administration, a compressed tablet comprising from 0.25 g to 3 g of the preparation as in claim 1.
7. The method of making a dosage unit form for oral administration which comprises compressing from 0.25 to 3 g of the preparation as in claim 1 into tablet form.
US05421605 1972-12-06 1973-12-04 High dosage orally administrable cephalosporin antibiotic preparations Expired - Lifetime US3931404A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19722259646 DE2259646C2 (en) 1972-12-06 1972-12-06
DT2259646 1972-12-06

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US3931404A true US3931404A (en) 1976-01-06

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US05421605 Expired - Lifetime US3931404A (en) 1972-12-06 1973-12-04 High dosage orally administrable cephalosporin antibiotic preparations

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US (1) US3931404A (en)
JP (1) JPS5710843B2 (en)
BE (1) BE808302A (en)
CA (1) CA1038758A (en)
DE (1) DE2259646C2 (en)
FR (1) FR2209547B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1457546A (en)
NL (1) NL7315827A (en)

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4143129A (en) * 1975-10-11 1979-03-06 Lilly Industries Limited Cephalexin tablets
US4897270A (en) * 1985-09-30 1990-01-30 Glaxo Group Limited Pharmaceutical compositions
US5861141A (en) * 1994-12-13 1999-01-19 Lilly S.A. Pharmaceutical formulations of cefaclor
US20060127475A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2006-06-15 Ajinomoto Co., Inc. Nateglinide-containing preparation
WO2007017895A2 (en) * 2005-05-05 2007-02-15 Lupin Limited Stabilized oral pharmaceutical compositions of cephalosporins
US20070053979A1 (en) * 2003-05-06 2007-03-08 Nirmal Mulye Controlled release formulation of erythromycin derivatives

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4115563A (en) * 1977-03-14 1978-09-19 Sterling Drug Inc. Pharmaceutical steroid formulation
US5837292A (en) * 1996-07-03 1998-11-17 Yamanouchi Europe B.V. Granulate for the preparation of fast-disintegrating and fast-dissolving compositions containing a high amount of drug
EP1653925A1 (en) * 2003-08-11 2006-05-10 Advancis Pharmaceutical Corporation Robust pellet

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3573294A (en) * 1968-03-14 1971-03-30 Glaxo Lab Ltd 7 - (arylglyoxamido)cephalosporanic acids and their salts and alpha-carbonyl derivatives
US3624225A (en) * 1966-06-24 1971-11-30 Glaxo Lab Ltd Cephalosporin compositions

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL263687A (en) *
GB1132583A (en) * 1964-12-16 1968-11-06 Glaxo Lab Ltd Pharmaceutical compositions containing cephalosporins
DE2117762A1 (en) * 1970-11-06 1972-05-10 Takahashi Hitoshi

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3624225A (en) * 1966-06-24 1971-11-30 Glaxo Lab Ltd Cephalosporin compositions
US3573294A (en) * 1968-03-14 1971-03-30 Glaxo Lab Ltd 7 - (arylglyoxamido)cephalosporanic acids and their salts and alpha-carbonyl derivatives

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4143129A (en) * 1975-10-11 1979-03-06 Lilly Industries Limited Cephalexin tablets
US4897270A (en) * 1985-09-30 1990-01-30 Glaxo Group Limited Pharmaceutical compositions
US5861141A (en) * 1994-12-13 1999-01-19 Lilly S.A. Pharmaceutical formulations of cefaclor
US20070053979A1 (en) * 2003-05-06 2007-03-08 Nirmal Mulye Controlled release formulation of erythromycin derivatives
US8507000B2 (en) 2003-05-06 2013-08-13 Nostrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Controlled release formulation of erythromycin derivatives
US20060127475A1 (en) * 2003-08-08 2006-06-15 Ajinomoto Co., Inc. Nateglinide-containing preparation
US7732492B2 (en) 2003-08-08 2010-06-08 Ajinomoto Co., Inc. Nateglinide-containing preparation
WO2007017895A2 (en) * 2005-05-05 2007-02-15 Lupin Limited Stabilized oral pharmaceutical compositions of cephalosporins
WO2007017895A3 (en) * 2005-05-05 2007-04-19 Lupin Ltd Stabilized oral pharmaceutical compositions of cephalosporins

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE2259646A1 (en) 1974-06-12 application
BE808302A1 (en) grant
BE808302A (en) 1974-06-06 grant
NL7315827A (en) 1974-06-10 application
CA1038758A1 (en) grant
GB1457546A (en) 1976-12-01 application
CA1038758A (en) 1978-09-19 grant
JPS4986526A (en) 1974-08-19 application
FR2209547A1 (en) 1974-07-05 application
JP1120014C (en) grant
JPS5710843B2 (en) 1982-03-01 grant
FR2209547B1 (en) 1977-09-02 grant
DE2259646C2 (en) 1984-11-22 grant

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