US3921614A - Compressed gas operated gun having variable upper and lower pressure limits of operation - Google Patents

Compressed gas operated gun having variable upper and lower pressure limits of operation Download PDF

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US3921614A
US3921614A US80992069A US3921614A US 3921614 A US3921614 A US 3921614A US 80992069 A US80992069 A US 80992069A US 3921614 A US3921614 A US 3921614A
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chamber
piston
projectile
valve
slide
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John E Fogelgren
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HAYBRO CO
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HAYBRO CO
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41BWEAPONS FOR PROJECTING MISSILES WITHOUT USE OF EXPLOSIVE OR COMBUSTIBLE PROPELLANT CHARGE; WEAPONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F41B11/00Compressed-gas guns, e.g. air guns; Steam guns
    • F41B11/60Compressed-gas guns, e.g. air guns; Steam guns characterised by the supply of compressed gas
    • F41B11/62Compressed-gas guns, e.g. air guns; Steam guns characterised by the supply of compressed gas with pressure supplied by a gas cartridge
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B5/00Cartridge ammunition, e.g. separately-loaded propellant charges
    • F42B5/02Cartridges, i.e. cases with charge and missile

Abstract

A compressed gas operated hand gun includes an annular firing chamber defined between the sides of a main piston and the wall of a bore, the forward end of the piston cooperating with an annular valve seat which communicates with a projectile-holding chamber. In a cocked position the piston is held in sealing engagement with the valve seat by a trigger assembly and is biased in an opposite direction by the gas pressure in the firing chamber. Upon actuation of the trigger assembly the piston moves away from the valve seat and releases the charge of gas against the projectile. A fresh charge of gas is introduced into the firing chamber automatically from a high pressure gas chamber by a piston valve assembly concentrically disposed in the main piston and operated in response to gas pressure in the high pressure chamber.

Description

United States Patent Fogelgren COMPRESSED GAS OPERATED GUN HAVING VARIABLE UPPER AND LOWER PRESSURE LIMITS OF OPERATION //8 29 I i 41 93 i E 98 94 7 2 //a Mo 9 Z3 25 i 0/ Z l .96 24 i 94 1 1 Nov. 25, 1975 Primary Examiner-Richard C. Pinkham Assistant Examiner-R. T. Stouffer Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Cushman, Darby and Cushman ABSTRACT A compressed gas operated hand gun includes an an nular firing chamber defined between the sides of a main piston and the wall of a bore, the forward end of the piston cooperating with an annular valve seat which communicates with a projectileh0lding chamber. In a cocked position the piston is held in sealing engagement with the valve seat by a trigger assembly and is biased in an opposite direction by the gas pressure in the firing chamber. Upon actuation of the trigger assembly the piston moves away from the valve seat and releases the charge of gas against the projectile. A fresh charge of gas is introduced into the firing chamber automatically from a high pressure gas chamber by a piston valve assembly concentrically disposed in the main piston and operated in response to gas pressure in the high pressure chamber.
9 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures US. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet 2 of4 3,921,614
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mvmon F5662 area/v cfa/sw ATTORNEYS U.S. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet 3 of4 3,921,614
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wwa /Q US. Patent Nov. 25, 1975 Sheet4 0f4 3,921,614
' J0. zg/Lzy/e. 2 g" INVENTOR day/Y5 5am MMZM ,JM Q%MQM ATTORNEYS COMPRESSED GAS OPERATED GUN HAVING VARIABLE UPPER AND LOWER PRESSURE LIMITS OF OPERATION The present invention relates to projectiles and to a device for launching same and more particularly to a compressed gas operated gun which may be utilized with various types of projectile assemblies and at various gas pressures to provide a gun having varying ranges of operation and to provide a non-lethal or lethal weapon. as desired.
In view of steadily rising crime rates and of the increased need for crime control devices which are both effective for controlling crime and non-lethal in application, the gas-operated gun and associated projectiles of this invention provide an extremely effective means for controlling individual criminals or rioters without the danger of loss of life which is often present in the use of present day weapons or riot control devices. At the same time, however, situations do exist where the use of a lethal weapon is required in order to most safely protect the interests of the community and this invention also provides for such a device.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a projectile launching device which may be adjusted to provide a lethal or non-lethal weapon, as desired.
Another object is to provide a compressed gasoperated gun which is adapted to fire various types of projectiles.
A further object of the invention is to provide a compressed gas operated gun which has a variable lower pressure limit of operation and a variable upper pressure limit of operation.
Still another object is to provide a compressed gas operated gun which is simple to operate and easy to maintain.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a compressed gas operated gun having an adjustable effective range.
Other objects and features of the invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art as the disclosure is made in the following description of a preferred embodiment of the invention as illustrated in the accompanying sheets of drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is an elevation view of the compressed gas operated gun;
FIG. 2 is a side view, partly in section of the gun of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view of the gun of FIG. 1 taken along the lines 33;
FIG. 4 is a side view in section of a projectile assembly;
FIG. 5 is a side view in section of a modified projectile assembly;
FIG. 6 is a side view in section of another modification of the projectile assembly of this invention;
FIG. 7 is a side view in section of still another modification of the projectile assembly of this invention;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary perspective view of the camming mechanism for inserting a compressed gas cartridge;
FIG. 9 is a sectional view of the mechanism illustrated in FIG. 8 taken along the line 9-9;
FIG. 10 is a side view of the cartridge support;
FIG. 11 is a top view of the cartridge support;
FIG. I2 is a front view of the cartridge support;
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of the shaft bearing associated with the cartridge support.
With reference now to the drawings. wherein like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts 5 throughout the several views. there is shown in FIG. 1 the gun including a handle portion 22 having a compartment therein for receiving a compressed gas cartridge (not shown) which may be adjusted in position by the cam assembly as described in more detail with reference to FIGS. 813. The gun includes a housing portion 26, a magazine 28, which may be readily affixed to the projectile holding section of the gun by means of projections 32 which are adapted to fit through holes 34. The launching tube 36 is located forward of the projectile holding section or projectile receiving chamber and acts to steady the projectile as it is ejected from the gun.
With reference now to FIG. 2 the housing 26 is integrally connected to the handle member 22 which defines a cartridge chamber 24. A hollow pin member 25 extends into the chamber 24 with the hollow portion thereof in communication with the chamber and with a channel 29. The channel, in turn, opens into a cavity 31 which is defined by the housing 26 and adjustable member 33 including seal 35 and seal 37. Hollow tubular member 38 extends into the cavity 31 and is affixed within the bore 40 of piston member 42. A spring 44 is located between the rearward portion of the piston member 42 and a shoulder portion 46 of the housing 26 so as to normally maintain the piston member 42 in a forward position. I
A first chamber 48 is defined by the piston member 42 and by seals 50 and 52 while an aperture 54 is located within the piston member 42 in communication with the bore 40 thereof and chamber 48. The piston member 42 is also characterized by the important feature wherein the rearward portion of the piston member has a greater cross-sectional area than the forward portion so that fluid under pressure within the first chamber 48 acts on the differential areas to enable the rearward movement of the piston member in operation of the device.
Thus, the gun can be said to include a first valve means which comprises the first chamber 48 as defined by the seals 50 and 52 and the piston member 42, the hollow tubular member 38, spring member 44, the cavity 31 as defined by the adjustable member 33 and seal 35 in conjunction with seal 37.
Associated with the first valve means is a second valve means which includes a slide member 56 and a valve seat 58 associated therewith wherein the slide member is normally in substantially gastight relationship with the seat at the forward portion of the slide member and wherein the rearward portion of the slide member is in substantially gastight relationship with the housing 26. These gas-tight fittings are provided by first and second gaskets or O-rings 60 and 62 embracing the rearward and the forward portions of the slide member 56, respectively.
A second chamber 64 is defined by the slide member 56 together with housing 26 and valve seat 58 and the slide member includes a hollow channel 66therein which opens into the second chamber and which is associated with the first valve means to open into the first chamber to selectively enable the release of compressed fluid from the first chamber to the second chamber. The slide member 56 is also characterized by a rearward portion which has a greater cross-sectional area than the forward portion thereof whereby fluid pressure acting on the differential areas enables the rearward movement of the slide member with respect to the housing 26 and the valve seat 58.
Forward of the slide member 56 is a tubular cavity 68 which is partially defined by the valve seat 58. At the forward end of this tubular cavity is projectile seal 70 which is fixed in position adjacent to the valve seat member 58 by means of the retainer 72. Located forward of the projectile seal 70 is the projectile assembly holding area and the means for holding the projectile assembly in position prior to the ejection of the projectile from the gun.
As illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, the projectile assem blies, each including a projectile and a projectile case may be fed into the projectile assembly holding area by means of magazine 28 which is readily interchangeable and which may be releasably affixed to the projectile assembly receiving section in various ways, such as by means of projections 32 which may be inserted into the hole or indentation 34 within the housing 26. The projectile assemblies are fed from the magazine 28 up into the projectile assembly receiving chamber so that a flange 74 which extends into the projectile assembly receiving chamber engages the rearward and upper portion of the projectile casing 112. Simultaneously, a projection 76 extending into the forward portion of the projectile assembly receiving chamber engages the upper and forward portion of the projectile section of the projectile assembly so that the projectile assembly is seated within the projectile chamber. in addition, guide means or tracks 78, as illustrated in H6. 3, are integral with the forward wall of the projectile assembly receiving chamber and act to guide the projectile assembly upward from the magazine and into contacting relationship with the flange 74 and the projection 76. The guide means are spaced apart a distance substantially equal to the diameter of the projectile portion of the projectile assembly and include arcuate surfaces 80 which substantially conform to the outer surface of the projectile casing. ln addition, the projection 76 includes an upper arcuate surface 82 which is defined by a radius substantially equal to the radius of the inner surface of the projectile casing and the lower surface 84 of the projection 76 is defined by a radius substantially equal to the radius of the projectile portion of the projectile assembly. The projectile assembly is thus maintained in the projectile assembly receiving chamber in a position ready for firing of the projectile portion with the remaining projectile assemblies located in the magazines 28 forcing the projectile assembly to remain in its fixed position within the chamber, or if the projectile assembly located within the chamber is the last one a spring (not shown) within the magazine 28 acts on the underside of the projectile assembly to maintain it in its fixed position within the projectile assembly recieving chamber.
The gun also includes trigger means associated with the first and second valve means, or arming means, wherein the trigger means include a scar 88 which is rotatably affixed to the handle 22 and which is normally spaced apart from the slide member 56 at the surfaces 90. A trigger mechanism is associated with the sear 88 to cause the rotation of the sear in a generally clockwise direction, as illustrated in FIG. 2, and the mechanism includes the trigger 92 rotatably affixed to the handle 22 by the pin 93 and maintained in a normally forward position by the trigger spring 94 which engages the projection 99 on the extension member 96. The extension member 96 rearwardly extends from the trigger 92 and rotatably affixed thereby by pin member 97. The member 96 normally contacts the surface 98 of the sear 88 and is adapted to slide along the surface 98 upon the depression of the trigger 92 until the member 96 engages the groove portion 100 of the sear to cause the clockwise rotation of the sear.
The force from the trigger spring 94 normally maintains the trigger 92 in the forward position while at the same time acting on the projection 99 to force that portion of the member 96 in a generally downward direction so that the rearward portion of the member 96 is maintained in contact with the surface 98 of the sear 88. As the trigger is pulled towards the left, as illustrated in FIG. 2, the pin member attached to the trigger is also moved in a generally leftward and upward direction so that the trigger spring maintains its force against the projection 99 and the member 96 tends to maintain its contact with the surface 98. As the trigger is depressed further, the member 96 moved into the groove 100 of the sear 88 and the sear is caused to rotate in a generally clockwise direction. This movement of the sear and trigger assembly continues until the sear has rotated to a sufficient degree so that the surface thereof reaches the position where the force from the slide member 56, as explained infra, overcomes the resistance of the sear and moves over the top portion of the sear forcing the sear to a still greater clockwise position. At the same time, the member 96 is caused to leave the groove and to come into contact with the extended portion 101 of the sear. Since slide member 56 is moving very rapidly aft, the movement of sear 88 accelerates considerably in excess of the normal movement of member 96 and the portion 101 kicks member 96 downwardly and clear of the sear. The inertia thus imparted to member 96 causes it to clear the sear while the sear is quickly returned to the position shown in FIG. 2.
The movement of the slide member 56 toward the rear and back to its normal position and the recharging of the chamber 64 occurs extremely rapidly so that a space between the surfaces 90 of the sear 88 and of the slide member 56 is necessary in order to enable the sear to be returned to its normal position by the sear spring after the firing of a projectile has occurred and before the slide member 56 is placed under sufficient pressure to force it to the rear again. Thus, the dwell time of the slide member 56 in the forward or normal position as, illustrated in FIG. 2 is so short that without the presence of a gap between the surface 90 the sear could never be returned to its normal position and the gun would only be capable of firing a single round.
In operation of the compressed gas operated gun, a compressed gas cartridge (not shown) is placed within the cartridge receiving chamber 24 and is forced upwardly against the hollow pin member 25 by movement of the camming member 21, the details of which will be described infra with relation to FIGS. 1 and 8-13. Upon puncturing of the cartridge by the pin member 25, gas passes upward through the hollow pin member and through a filter 102 located across the channel 29 so as to keep the gas in a compressed state and to prevent a marked temperature drop of the gas. The gas then passes through channel 29 and into the cavity 3] from which point it passes down the hollow portion of the tubular member 38 into the bore 40 of piston member 42 through aperture 54 and into the first chamber 48. The gun. as shown in FIG. 2 is in the normal position prior to being armed by the admission of compressed gas and the positions of the various elements of the gun are shown as they appear when the pressure is at atmospheric within the various chambers.
After the compressed gas has entered the first chamber 48, it acts against the larger and smaller crosssectional areas of the piston member 42 and because the rearward cross-sectional area of the member 42 is greater than the forward cross-sectional area of the member, the force of the compressed gas causes the piston member 42 to move leftwardly against the force of the spring member 44. If the pressure of the gas provided is sufficient whereby the force of the gas against the greater cross-sectional area of the member 42 is larger than the combined forces of the spring member 44 and the force of the compressed gas against the forward and smaller cross-sectional area of the member 42, rearward movement of the piston member 42 results and the forward portion 108 thereof moves rearwardly with respect to the seal 52. As the spring member 44 is compressed, the forward force of the spring increases. Thus, the pressure of the gas within the first chamber 48 must be sufficiently great in order to cause the piston member 42 to move to the rear a distance sufficient to allow the forward surface 108 of the member 42 to move to the left of the seal 52 before the compressed gas is allowed to pass from the first chamber 48 between the member 42 and the seal 52 into channel 66 and finally into the second chamber 64. If the pressure of the gas is not great enough, the force against the larger cross-sectional area of the member 42 will not be great enough to overcome the counter pressure caused by the pressure of the gas against the smaller forward cross-sectional area of the member 42 and the pressure of the spring member 44. In this case, the forward surface 108 of the member 42 will not be moved rear wardly of the seal 52 and the compressed gas will not be allowed to escape into the second chamber 64. As a result, the gun cannot be fired. Thus, depending upon the characteristics of the spring member 44 and of the size and cross-sectional areas of the piston member 42, a lower pressure limit of operation of the gun can be established below which it will be impossible to fire a projectile or even to release compressed gas into the projectile receiving chamber. Thus, the pressure must be at least of a predetermined value in order that the forward surface 108 of the member 42 can be moved rearwardly of the seal 52. If the pressure is not sufficiently great to accomplish this, the gun will be unable to fire and actuating the trigger mechanism will have no effect on the firing of a projectile.
In the event that the gas pressure is sufficient to cause the face 108 to be moved to the rear of seal 52, the seal 52 acts as a surge arrester for use on the first shot when the gun is originally at atmospheric pressure prior to the pressurization of the chambers. As gas rushes into the smaller chamber 48, the presence of the seal 52 causes a time delay in the moving of piston member 42 towards the left of the seal so that this delay prevents a surge of gas into the larger chamber 64 with a resulting lessening of the shock effect.
Assuming that the gas pressure is sufficient to cause the face 108 to be moved to the rear of seal 52, the forward force on the smaller cross-sectional surface area of the member 42 no longer exists and all the force of the compressed gas within the first chamber 48 is exerted on the larger surface area of the member 42 so that the piston member is thrust against the force of the spring member 44 in a rearward direction and the ho]- low tubular member 38 is also moved in a rearward direction as the compressed gas rushes from the first chamber 48 to the second chamber 64. As the hollow tubular member 39 continues to move in a rearward direction, gas flow continues from the cartridge (not shown) through the needle member 25, the cavity 31, the tubular member 38, bore 40, first chamber 48, hollow channel 66 to the second chamber 64 so that the pressure of the gas within the second chamber is continually increasing. Simultaneously, the piston member 42 and the hollow tubular member 38 affixed thereto are being moved in a rearward direction by the force of the compressed gas within the first chamber 48 and this movement continues until the hollow tubular member 38 is thrust into sealing engagement with the seal 35 so that gas can no longer pass through the hollow member 38 from the cavity 31. Thus, the upper pressure limit of operation of the gun is controlled by adjusting the normal distance between the adjustable member 33 and the associated seal 35 and the hollow tubular member 38. By increasing the normal distance between the seal 35 and the tubular member 38 a greater gas pressure is required within chamber 48 in order to overcome the force of the spring 44 and to enable the tubular member 38 to move leftwardly into sealing engagement with the seal 35, while conversely if the distance between the seal 35 and the hollow tubular member 38 is reduced a smaller gas pressure is required within chamber 48 in order to overcome the opposing force of spring 44 and to enable the tubular member 38 to come into sealing engagement with the seal 35. Therefore, this arrangement of the seal 35 in spaced relationship with the tubular member 38 uniquely provides for an adjustable control of the upper pressure limit of operation of the gun and this adjustment may be readily accomplished by merely provided a member (not shown) which can extend beyond the housing 26 to enable the movement of the adjustable member 33.
When the compressed gas is contained within the second chamber 64 the force of the gas acts upon the differential areas of the slide member 56 wherein the rearward portion of the slide member is of a greater cross-sectional area than the forward portion thereof so as to provide a resultant force to the left or rear of the gun whereby the slide member 56 is forced to the left and into contact with sear 88 at the surfaces 90. At this point the gun is fully armed and is ready to fire upon actuation of the trigger mechanism.
Assuming that a projectile assembly is properly located within the projectile assembly receiving chamber 30 as previously explained, the trigger 92 may be forced to the rear so as to overcome the force of the trigger spring 94 and to cause the member 96 to engage the channel portion 100 of the sear 88 as previously described. This causes the clockwise rotation of the sear, as illustrated in FIG. 2, to overcome the force of the sear spring which acts to normally maintain the sear in the position illustrated in FIG. 2. When the sear 88 is rotated, the force of the compressed gas within second chamber 64 on slide member 56 causes the slide member to be forced rearwardly and over the sear so that the compressed gas is released into the chamber 68 at an extremely high velocity. The projectile casing 112 is located with a small space between the rearmost portion thereof and the forward edge of projectile seal 70 so that when the compressed gas is forced into the chamber 68 it has the effect of moving the flanged portion 114 of the seal 70 to the right at the same time that it forces the projectile casing 112 against the face of the seal 70 so as to form a very tight seal therebetween. The compressed gas rushes through the aperture 116 of the projectile assembly to act upon the rearward face of the projectile portion 122 and to force the projectile portion out through the launching tube 36.
Because the slide member 56 is forced to the rear very rapidly by the compressed gas as it is released from the second chamber 64, the piston member 42 is also forced to the left very rapidly because of the frictional contact between the member 42 and the slide member 56. As a result, the seal 35 must be of sufficient longitudinal dimension so that the hollow tube member 38 does not contact the end portion 118 of the adjustable member 33 when the piston member 42 and the hollow tube member 38 are thrust to the left.
After the compressed gas has been expelled from the second chamber 64, the pressure is momentarily reduced therein as is the pressure within the first chamber 48. As a result, the force of the spring member 44 causes the piston member 42 and slide member 56 to be moved to the right and into the position shown in FIG. 2 with the sear 88 being returned to the position illustrated by the action of the sear spring 110 and before the next rearward movement of the slide member 56 because of the presence of the space between the surface 90 as previously described.
As the pressure within the compressed gas cartridge (not shown) which is located within the handle 22 and the cartridge chamber 24 is reduced there may not be enough pressure on the last attempted shot to force the piston member 42 a sufficient distance to the left so that the surface 108 thereof will clear the leftward portion of the seal 52 and, as a result, the second chamber 64 will not receive any compressed gas. Thus, any residual gas remaining in the second chamber 64 upon removal of the compressed gas cartridge from the handle will pass from the chamber 64 back through the channel 66 under the lip of the seal 52 and into chamber 48. The gas within this chamber will then pass back through the hollow tube member 38 and out through the pin member 25 to the atmosphere so that the gun is completely depressurized.
As previously described, when each of the projectile assemblies is placed in its final position within the projectile assembly receiving chamber 30 to be fired, the projectile portion 122 extends forwardly beyond the projectile casing 112 and engages the underside 84 of the projection 76. Upon the firing of the projectile portion 122, its contact with the surface 84 is no longer present so that the projectile casing 112 is permitted to move upwardly and in a generally forward direction over the projection 76 to be expelled by residual gas pressure from the projectile assembly receiving chamber area, and by the upward force of the magazine spring (not shown). The movement of the next projectile assembly into place for firing also aids in this expulsion.
While at the present time it is contemplated that the compressed gas utilized in the gun will be under a pressure of less than 1000 psi. no maximum pressure limitation upon the gun of this invention is contemplated. Parts may be made thicker, or of stronger materials to handle any practical pressure.
FIG. 4 shows a projectile assembly which may be utilized with the gun of this invention as illustrated wherein the projectile casing 112 is hollow and includes a large forward open end and a relatively smaller opening 116 in the rearward portion of the casing. The projectile portion includes an outer member 132, which may be of plastic or other suitable material. fitted within the casing 112. Holding and guiding means including a pin 134 and the member 136 are affixed to the forward end of the outer member in such a way as to be separated therefrom upon detonation of the projectile portion. Mass means 138 is located within the guiding member 136 and is held in place by means of the pin 134 which is inserted within the indentation 140 within the mass means. The guiding member 136 also includes at least one air vent 140 and a firing charge chamber 142 having a firing charge therein. Attached to the forward portion of the guiding member 136 is a firing pin mechanism including a firing pin 144 imbedded in a protective covering 146. A primer means is located within the mass means 138 and at the rearward portion thereof adjacent to an aperture 148 within the mass means. The primer means may be of simple construction and may include a thin brass case 150, an anvil 152 and a primer charge 154. A load chamber 156 is defined by the outer member 132 and the guiding member 136 and may contain various types of loads such as tear gas, dye, flash powder, wadding, etc.
Upon expulsion of the bullet portion of the projectile from the shell casing the pin 134 falls away since it is no longer held in place by the projectile case and the projectile travels to the target. While the projectile is traveling through the air, the mass member 138 is forced rearwardly by the movement of the projectile. When the projectile strikes the target, the mass member 138 is forced forwardly by inertia so that the mass member and the primer means move forward upon impact and the primer means contacts the firing pin 144 to detonate the primer charge 154. This, in turn ignites the firing charge within the chamber 142 through the aperture 148 to explode the outer member 132 of the projectile and to separate the outer member from the guide member 136 to enable the load to be discharged in a generally forward direction. The vent 140 within the guide member 136 enables the release of air and so facilitates the forward movement of the mass member 138 upon impact with the target. In the event that the load includes a layer of flash powder 158 along the rear portion of the outer member 132, the remainder of the load chamber 156 is filled with wadding which may be of styrofoam or other appropriate material. The firing charge then ignites the flash powder 158 to result in a large flash and an explosive effect.
FIG. 5 illustrates the projectile assembly used as a buckshot shell. The projectile casing 112 encloses a body member 160 which is fitted within the casing. A frontal member 162 is fitted to the body member by a hook or other fastening means at 164. The body member 160 and the frontal member 162 define a load chamber 166 and the body member and frontal member are attached so as to be readily separable in flight to enable the load to escape from the chamber and to proceed to the desired target. In this case. the load includes a plurality of buckshot pellets or plastic pellets and upon ejection of the projectile portion the frontal member and the body member, both being of relatively light weight, fall away from one another so as to enable the pellets to proceed alone to the target.
FIG. 6 illustrates a projectile assembly which may be utilized with the gun wherein a portion of the compressed gas utilized to expel the projectile portion is stored within the projectile portion itself and is used to expel the load upon striking the target. The projectile assembly includes a projectile casing 112 and a projectile portion including an outer member 170 fitted within the casing. The outer member includes a rearward wall portion 172 and a valve means, which may preferably be a ball check valve 174. However, other one-way valves may be used. A guide member 176 is coupled to the forward end of the outer member 170 and a holding pin 178 extends through the guiding member 176 and into contact with a groove 180 in mass member 182 whereby the mass member is normally held in place. The guiding member 176 includes a projecting portion 184 which includes apertures 186 and wherein the apertures are sealed with material. such as wax 188. The mass member 182 also includes a projecting portion which is normally inserted within the projecting portion 184 to seal the apertures 186. A second plurality of apertures 190 are also located around the periphery of the guiding member 176 which are in communication between the outer surface of the guiding member 176 and the inner surface thereof, and a sealing member 192 is attached to the forward end of the guiding member 176. In addition, a movable piston member 194 is movably mounted within guide tracks or other suitable means (not shown) on the outer member 170 and together with the outer member and the guiding member 176 defines load chamber 196 which contains the load to be delivered to the target.
If, for example, 300 psi were used in ejecting the projectile portion from the casing of the projectile assembly, the pressurized gas would pass through the channel 200 and through the check valve 174 which reduces the pressure by a predetermined factor, for example to approximately to 30 psi. When the projectile portion leaves the casing, the check valve retains the pressure within the chamber 202. When the projectile portion strikes the target, the mass member 182 moves forward from inertia since the pin member 178 has fallen away in flight and the pressure behind the movable piston member 194 forces it forward and the load within the chamber 196 forward to break the sealing material 188 covering apertures 186. This, in turn, allows the load to pass through the apertures 186 and around the mass member to pass through the second plurality of apertures 190 along the circumference of the guiding means 176. This projectile assembly has the advantage that no noise is involved in the delivery of the load to the target and no explosion is necessary.
FIG. 7 illustrates a projectile assembly which includes a projectile casing 112 and a projectile portion having first and second members 206 and 208, respectively. which are fitted together at the point 210 and within the casing. The member 208 includes an aperture through which a holding pin 212 extends into contact with a groove in mass member 214 whereby the mass member is normally held in place. Padding or other cushioning material 216, e.g. cotton. is located rearwardly of the chamber formed by the members 206 and 208 and a glass or otherwise breakable vial or container 218 is fitted within the same chamber with its rearward portion in contact with the padding 216 and the forward portion thereof located within the mass member 214. The forward member 208 includes a firing pin assembly 220 which may be nothing more than a blunt object capable of breaking the container 218 upon contact therewith. In addition, the member 208 includes a plurality of apertures or vents 222 located at the forward portion thereof wherein each of the vents may be covered with a fine mesh 224 to prevent particles from the container 218 from escaping after the container has been broken upon impact with the target area. A container 218 contains the load which is desired to be delivered to the target area, and if desired, may be charged with a compressed gas which has been fed into the container via the projection 226 which is sealed to provide the container with a charged load.
The operation of the projectile assembly of FIG. 7 is similar to the operation of the assemblies previously described. When the projectile portion leaves the projectile casing 112 the force of inertia causes the container to move rearwardly and to be cushioned by the padding 216 so that the container is not broken. Because the casing 112 is no longer present around the projectile portion of the assembly, the holding pin 212 falls away in flight but the mass member 214 will remain essentially in the position illustrated in FIG. 7 because of the forces of inertia. However, when the projectile portions strike the target, the mass member 214 moves forward as does the container 218 so that the forward portion of the container comes into contact with the firing pin assembly 220 and the container is broken. As a result, the load within the container is allowed to escape from the container through the vents 222 so that the load is delivered to the target area. If it is desired to prevent fragments of the broken container 218 from passing to the target area, the mesh screens 224 may be loacted within each of the apertures 222; however. the use of the screens is optional and they would not be included if fragments of the broken container 218 could be permitted to enter the target area or if the container was of such a construction as to prevent the forming of loose fragments upon its rupture.
The camming assembly generally indicated at 21 in FIG. 1 is illustrated in more details in FIGS. 8-13 and includes a pin member 250 which is secured to a portion of the handle 22. A rotatable portion 252 of the handle includes bosses 254 and 256 which are integrally connected to the portion 252 and wherein the boss 254 includes a keyway 258 while the boss 256 includes a drilled hole (not shown). A shaft bearing 260 having a key 262 integral therewith also includes aperture 264 which extends longitudinally through the shaft bearing and at a position away from the axial center of the bearing. A cartridge support member 266 has a drilled hole 268 therein which is of a size to enable the member 266 to slidably engage the outer portion of the shaft bearing 260. The pin member 250 is fixed with respect to the handle 22 and is placed through the aperture 264 in the shaft bearing member 260 as illustrated in FlGS. 8 and 9, and the key 262 is fit into the keyway 258 while the circular cross-section of the shaft bearing member 260 is fitted into the drilled hole (not shown) of the boss 256. The cartridge support member 266 is also placed so that the shaft bearing member 260 passes through the hole 268 and the cartridge support member 266 is thus in slidably engaging relationship with the shaft bearing member 260.
This arrangement provides for the quick and easy insertion of a compressed gas cartridge into the chamber 24 of the handle and although the pressure required for the pin member 25 to puncture the compressed gas cartridge may be at least as great as 40 pounds of pressure it is extremely easy by the use of the camming system to rapidly insert the cartridge and to puncture it with pin 25 so that the gun can be quickly armed or rearmed.
In the operation of the camming assembly, the inserting of the cartridge into the chamber and the puncturing of the cartridge by the pin 25 the handle portion 252 is opened and pivots about the pin member 250 as do the bosses 254 and 256 and the shaft bearing member 260. The cartridge support member 266 is slidably engaged by the shaft bearing member 260 so that the support member 266 may remain generally in the chamber 24 as the handle portion 252 is rotated outwardly therefrom. The cartridge (not shown) may then be inserted within the base portion thereof fitting into the support member 266. The handle portion 262 to gether with the bosses 254 and 256 and the shaft bear ing assembly 260 are then rotated about the pin member 250 in order to close the chamber 24 and at the same time because of the location of the pin member 250 in a position not at the center of the shaft bearing member 260 a camming action occurs so as to force the cartridge upwardly and into contact with the hollow pin 25 which punctures the cartridge. At this point the gun arms itself and is ready to fire.
While for riot control a preferred load for the projectiles is tear gas, the scope of this invention covers any material which is adapted to be projected in a projectile as described, and included among such materials, for example, are carbon tetrachloride, explosives, napalms, smoke-producing compounds, marking powders, dyes, insecticides, various plant killing compounds, bacteria of various types, radioactive tracer substances, odor producing substances, diatomaceous earth or selected combinations of these.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
What is claimed is:
l. A device for launching a projectile portion of a projectile assembly, comprising:
means for holding said projectile assembly;
first valve means having a first chamber and operable by fluid pressure acting on different areas of said first valve means to release compressed fluid to arm said device;
second valve means having a second chamber and in selective operative relationship with said first valve means, said second valve means being biased by fluid pressure of said released compressed fluid in said second chamber acting on differential areas of said second valve means toward a position to pass the compressed fluid into said holding means to force at least a portion of said projectile assembly from said device; and
trigger means associated with said second valve means and having a first position latching said sec ond valve means against said bias and a second position releasing said second valve means for causing the ejection of said portion of said projectile assembly from said device.
2. A projectile launching device as in claim 1 wherein said first chamber is operatively associated with said second chamber to selectively release compressed fluid into said second chamber.
3. A projectile launching device as in claim 2 having a housing rigidly associated with said holding means, said second valve means including:
a valve seat attached to said housing;
a slide member movably associated with said valve seat and with said housing and normally in substantially gas-tight relationship with said seat and said housing whereby said slide member, said housing and said seat define said second chamber;
said slide member having a hollow channel therein opening into said second chamber and associated with said first valve means to open into said first chamber to enable the release of compressed fluid from said first chamber to said second chamber.
4. A projectile launching device as in claim 3 wherein the rearward portion of said slide member is of a greater cross-sectional area than the forward portion of said slide member whereby fluid pressure acting on said differential areas enables the rearward movement of said slide member with respect to said housing and said seat.
5. A projectile launching device as in claim 4 including a first O-ring embracing the rearward portion of said slide member to sealingly engage said housing and a second O-ring embracing the forward portion of said slide member to sealingly engage said seat.
6. A projectile launching device as in claim 3 wherein said first valve means includes:
piston means in slideably engaging relationship with said slide member;
said piston means including an aperture therein opening into said first chamber and a bore opening into said aperture;
the rearward portion of said piston means having a greater cross-sectional area than the forward portion of said piston means whereby fluid pressure acting on said differential areas enables the rearward movement of said piston means with respect to said slide member.
7. A projectile launching device as in claim 6 wherein said first valve means further includes:
spring means oriented between said housing and said piston means to control the rearward movement of said piston means;
a first gasket atfixed within said slide member;
said piston means being in slideable relationship with said first gasket and in normally substantially gastight relationship therewith;
a second gasket affixed within said slide member and rearwardly of said first gasket;
whereby said piston means, said first and second gaskets and said spring means act together to determine the lower pressure limit of operation of said device, wherein said piston means moves rearwardly a sufficient distance to enable compressed fluid to pass from said first chamber to said second chamber only when the pressure of said fluid is of a predetermined valve as determined by the properties of said spring means and the forces from said fluid on the forward and rearward cross-sectional areas of said piston means.
8. A projectile launching device as in claim 7 wherein said first valve means further includes:
hollow tubular means longitudinally affixed within the bore of said piston means and extending rearwardly of said piston means;
gasket means adjustable in position within said housing and in a direction corresponding to the longitudinal orientation of said tubular means;
said tubular means movable with said piston means to sealingly engage said adjustable gasket means and to prevent fluid from passing into said first and second chambers when the pressure of said fluid within said chambers reaches a predetermined 9. A projectile launching device as in claim 3 wherein said trigger means includes:
a sear rotatably affixed to said housing and in normally spaced apart relationship with respect to said slide member; and
a trigger mechanism associated with said sear for causing rotation of said sear upon operation of said mechanism to enable the rearward movement of said slide member under influence of pressurized fluid in said second chamber.

Claims (9)

1. A device for launching a projectile portion of a projectile assembly, comprising: means for holding said projectile assembly; first valve means having a first chamber and operable by fluid pressure acting on different areas of said first valve means to release compressed fluid to arm said device; second valve means having a second chamber and in selective operative relationship with said first valve means, said second valve means being biased by fluid pressure of said released compressed fluid in said second chamber acting on differential areas of said second valve means toward a position to pass the compressed fluid into said holding means to force at least a portion of said projectile assembly from said device; and trigger means associated with said second valve means and having a first position latching said second valve means against said bias and a second position releasing said second valve means for causing the ejection of said portion of said projectile assembly from said device.
2. A projectile launching device as in claim 1 wherein said first chamber is operatively associated with said second chamber to selectively release compressed fluid into said second chamber.
3. A projectile launching device as in claim 2 having a housing rigidly associated with said holding means, said secoNd valve means including: a valve seat attached to said housing; a slide member movably associated with said valve seat and with said housing and normally in substantially gas-tight relationship with said seat and said housing whereby said slide member, said housing and said seat define said second chamber; said slide member having a hollow channel therein opening into said second chamber and associated with said first valve means to open into said first chamber to enable the release of compressed fluid from said first chamber to said second chamber.
4. A projectile launching device as in claim 3 wherein the rearward portion of said slide member is of a greater cross-sectional area than the forward portion of said slide member whereby fluid pressure acting on said differential areas enables the rearward movement of said slide member with respect to said housing and said seat.
5. A projectile launching device as in claim 4 including a first O-ring embracing the rearward portion of said slide member to sealingly engage said housing and a second O-ring embracing the forward portion of said slide member to sealingly engage said seat.
6. A projectile launching device as in claim 3 wherein said first valve means includes: piston means in slideably engaging relationship with said slide member; said piston means including an aperture therein opening into said first chamber and a bore opening into said aperture; the rearward portion of said piston means having a greater cross-sectional area than the forward portion of said piston means whereby fluid pressure acting on said differential areas enables the rearward movement of said piston means with respect to said slide member.
7. A projectile launching device as in claim 6 wherein said first valve means further includes: spring means oriented between said housing and said piston means to control the rearward movement of said piston means; a first gasket affixed within said slide member; said piston means being in slideable relationship with said first gasket and in normally substantially gas-tight relationship therewith; a second gasket affixed within said slide member and rearwardly of said first gasket; whereby said piston means, said first and second gaskets and said spring means act together to determine the lower pressure limit of operation of said device, wherein said piston means moves rearwardly a sufficient distance to enable compressed fluid to pass from said first chamber to said second chamber only when the pressure of said fluid is of a predetermined valve as determined by the properties of said spring means and the forces from said fluid on the forward and rearward cross-sectional areas of said piston means.
8. A projectile launching device as in claim 7 wherein said first valve means further includes: hollow tubular means longitudinally affixed within the bore of said piston means and extending rearwardly of said piston means; gasket means adjustable in position within said housing and in a direction corresponding to the longitudinal orientation of said tubular means; said tubular means movable with said piston means to sealingly engage said adjustable gasket means and to prevent fluid from passing into said first and second chambers when the pressure of said fluid within said chambers reaches a predetermined maximum value as determined by the rearward cross-sectional area of said piston means, the characteristics of said spring means and the distances between said tubular member and said adjustable gasket means.
9. A projectile launching device as in claim 3 wherein said trigger means includes: a sear rotatably affixed to said housing and in normally spaced apart relationship with respect to said slide member; and a trigger mechanism associated with said sear for causing rotation of said sear upon operation of said mechanism to enable the rearward movement of said slide member under influence of pressurized fluid in saId second chamber.
US80992069 1969-03-24 1969-03-24 Compressed gas operated gun having variable upper and lower pressure limits of operation Expired - Lifetime US3921614A (en)

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US10948269B2 (en) 2018-12-04 2021-03-16 Wrap Technologies Inc. Perimeter security system with non-lethal detainment response

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