US3858180A - System for automatically reading symbols - Google Patents

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US3858180A
US3858180A US00225839A US22583972A US3858180A US 3858180 A US3858180 A US 3858180A US 00225839 A US00225839 A US 00225839A US 22583972 A US22583972 A US 22583972A US 3858180 A US3858180 A US 3858180A
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counter
number
image
means
intersections
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US00225839A
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A Spanjersberg
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Nederlanden Staat
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Nederlanden Staat
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/20Image acquisition
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/20Image acquisition
    • G06K9/2009Construction of image pick-up using regular bi-dimensional dissection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/36Image preprocessing, i.e. processing the image information without deciding about the identity of the image
    • G06K9/38Quantising the analogue image signal, e.g. histogram thresholding for discrimination between background and foreground patterns
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/36Image preprocessing, i.e. processing the image information without deciding about the identity of the image
    • G06K9/46Extraction of features or characteristics of the image
    • G06K9/50Extraction of features or characteristics of the image by analysing segments intersecting the pattern segments obtained by the intersection of the pattern with a scanning pattern, e.g. random scanning, circular scanning

Abstract

A system for automatically reading symbols, preferably figures, which are hand-written on an information carrier in an arrangement of squares provided on the information carrier. The images of these symbols are converted by an image convertor of glass fiber bundles to fit a camera tube screen where they are scanned vertically, quantized, and encoded to determine the size and numerical locations of intersections of the scanning beam with the lines in each symbol in each rectangle. This information is then processed by being stored and first roughly classified according to the maximum number of these intersections per symbol, each of which classes are then more specifically classified by being further processed as to the location of the mergings of the intersections, if any, in the upper, lower, right, and/or left part of the symbols, as well as determining the shape, length and/or width of the lines in certain of the symbols for their specific recognition, or identification. This recognized information then may be used for punching a code into the information carrier. If desired, the processor of this information can be located remote from the viewer and punching apparatus.

Description

United States Patent [191 Spanjersberg Dec. 31, 1974 SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATICALLY READING SYMBOLS [75] Inventor: Arie Adriaan Spanjersberg,

Leiderdorp, Netherlands 22 Filed: Feb. 14, 1972 21 Appl. No.: 225,839

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Primary ExamineF-Paul J. Henon Assistant Examiner-Robert F, Gnuse Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Hugh Adam Kirk 5 7] ABSTRACT A system for automatically reading symbols, preferably figures, which are hand-written on an information carrier in an arrangement of squares provided on the information carrier. The images of these symbols are converted by an image convertor of glass fiber bundles to fit a camera tube screen where they are scanned vertically, quantized, and encoded to determine the size and numerical locations of intersections of the scanning beam with the lines in each symbol in each rectangle. This information is then processed by being stored and first roughly classified according to the Feb. 19, 1971 Netherlands 7102210 maximum numbe of these intersections per symbol,

each of which classes are then more specifically classi- U.S-

F, Y fled being further processed as to the location of [5 Int. Cl. the mergings of the intersections any in the upper of Search F lower right and/ r left part of the ymbols as well as 4 determining the shape, length and/or width of the lines Referemes Cited in certain of the symbols for their specific recognition, UNITED STATES PATENTS or identification. This recognized information then 3,123,804 3/1964 Kamentsky 340/1463 R my be used for Punching a Code into the information 3,134 732 5 19 5 Haynes 340 14 3 F carrier. If desired, the processor of this information 3,225,329 12/1965 Rabinow 340/ 146.3 F can be located remote from the viewer and punching 3,346,845 WI 1967 Fomenko 340/ 146.3 Y apparatus. 3,611,267 l0/l971 Edling 340/1463 Y t 35 Claims, 55 Drawing Figures TIE llIVlSllllL 5- WE tv. 5 mm cmrtu "ioufliiifim. E li? mm 3%}? (ms, in mcsm (m. 20) (m. 26) (m. 9) (mm DETECTING DEVICE (FIG. 14)

lllllllllf nunun [IUENTED W3 1 9 4 SHEEI 0% OF 35 IMAGE LINE 1 fig. I00

WHITE BLACK "H fig. IOb

PATENTEU 3.858.180

SHEET 87W 35 CROSS-SECTION GLASS FIBRE fig. l5

PATENTEUUEB31 I974 SHEET OBUF 35 fig.l6a

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i i g. 16b

P VIDEO SIGNAL FORM ARRIVES IN FRONT OF THE CAMERA 1 VERTICAL SYNC PULSE FUR [IUD FIELD 20 m SEC (uzumsec smRE ' TRANSFER m PROCESSOR TRANSFER IMAGE LINES PATENTEO 3 1 1974 SHEET lUOF 35 STORING SIGNAL OUTPUT TRIGGER TrT LINE s vuc PULSE cwcx PULSES k PATENTED 1 I974 3,858,180 saw 12 0F 35 fig. Zla

mmmum I914 3.858.180

SHE 13UF 35 NUMBER UT ENG 0F INTERSEIITIGNI INTERSEGTIGNS END [IF INTERSEGTIGN 2 ENG OF H 9 22 INTERSECTION 3 TIIRGUGII Au [ADDRESS COUNTER 2 M HJ W M M G W m m H I m m m IF F m m a w m m m. I m D H m 2 2 z c MI I ll H n 7 5 l n 7 m H 2 T mumvj V W .H T m H 2 flw Tl H FIIII n" n w SHEET BEGINNING OF I INTERSEGTIGN I BEGINNIVNG [1F INTERSECTION 2 BEGINNING OF INTERSECTION 3 REGISTER W3 SHEET 15 OF 35 IMAGE LINE 1 IMAGE LINE 3 III I I I I I I I IIIIII|I IIII|IIII I I I I I IIIIIIIIIIII F'AIEIIIEU W3 I LINE svm; PULSES I ELUEKPULSES k I I I I I l I numn BATE u1 I I I I s I I I I IIIIIIIII DIVIUER 1 DIVIIIER 2 I IL 31' IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII VIDEO IIIIIIII I I g 24 I I I I I i I Is PATENTED I I974 SHEET 170E 35 .I' 024 ELL 125 I III III 11 H II III! III 1111 20 BLO 1260 I680 FRAMES WITH THE ADDRESS IIIDIIIATIDII DE THE FIRST WDRD DF EAlII-I FIRST IIDLIIMII DF EAIZII FRAME Iig; 27

mEmEnBm 1 I874 T 3,858,180

SHEET 180! 35 TABLE SIGNIFICANT LARGEST SYMBOL NUMBER OF mrensecnuus BLANK SQUARE I 0 w I F] H 1 x 4 b 7 i C 2 Y fig.28

Claims (35)

1. A system for reading symbols, preferably figures, which may be hand-written on an information carrier (form), an arrangement of rectangles being provided on the information carrier (form), one rectangle for each symbol to be entered, characterized in that the width-to-height ratio per rectangle is equal to the width-to-height ratio of the photosensitive surface of the camera tube used for parallel scanning of the symbols, and the width-toheight ratio of the total surface area to be read on the carrier is converted to the width-to-height ratio of the photosensitive surface of the camera tube by means of an image convertor comprising a plurality of glass fiber bundles, the number and shape of which correspond with the number and shape of the rectangles to be read on the carrier, which glass fiber bundles are bent together such that the end face has a width-to-height ratio corresponding with the width-to-height ratio of the photosensitive surface of the camera tube, and characterized in that the entire surface area of a form to be scanned is scanned in one cycle after the image conversion by means of a television camera producing series pulses, that the image comprising an even plurality of rectangles formed by the image convertor is vertically scanned by p image lines of one field of the selected type while ignoring the other field, that the alternate rectangles are scanned by the alternate fractions of an image line of this one field and the intermediate rectangles are scanned by the intermediate fractions of the next image line of this one field, and that the number of vertical image elements (q) (image points) per image line is selected substantially equal to the number of effective image lines (p/2) and the information detected by an image line in an effective rectangle is converted into numerical values by means of an encoding device, which numerical values are formed by the encoded values of the numbers of the detected characteristic image elements (image points) in the columns (image lines) and of the characteristic columns, and which numerical values obtained in an effective rectangle are transferred to a transfer device in the period of time immediately following the scanning of that rectangle.
2. A system in accordance with claim 1, characterized in that the rows of squares on the form to be read are converted to four rows of four rectangles each by means of the image convertor.
3. A system in accordance with claim 2, characterized in that the cross-section of the glass fibres in the bundles is a regular hexagon and the hexagons in the end face are stacked such that the parts, into which the hexagons intersected by an image scan line are divided by the line, are equal from fibre face to fibre face, the scanning preferably being realized by means of vertical lines.
4. A system in accordance with claim 3, characterized in that the number of vertical image lines is chosen such that the thinnest vertical line written will always be scanned by at least two successive vertical image scan lines of one field of odd or even lines. l
5. A system in accordance with claim 4, characterized in that means are present for effectively using one of the two possible field types and, after the carrier (form) to be scanned has arrived and lies still in front of the camera tube and after a sync pulse introducing a field of the selected type has appeared, and means for suppressing the storing during at least two field times and for effecting the storing immediately after these two field times during the next field time.
6. A system in accordance with claim 1, characterized in thAt the period of time in which the information of the information carrier can be stored (the storing time) is determined by a circuit comprising: a first divider (divider-by-two a, FIG. 20), controlled by the vertical sync pulses, the polarity at the output of the divider-by-two indicating whether the next field is even or odd; a trigger (Tr1) controlled by a pulse derived from the transport of the form; a second divider (divider b) controlled by the cooperation of the first divider and the trigger (Tr1) via a logic circuit (E1), which divider b is switched at the beginning of each even field; a third divider (dividerc) controlled by the dividerb; a logic circuit (E2) connected to an output of each one of the three dividers, a pulse determining the end of the storing time appearing at the output of this logic circuit; a clock pulse generator (G) actuated via a second trigger (Tr2) by the cooperation of the line sync pulses and the pulses determining the storing time, the trigger being reset at points of time derived from clock pulse dividing circuits (FIG. 23); a pulse shaper (D1) controlled by the pulses determining the storing time and having its output connected to inputs of the trigger (Tr1), the divider b and the divider c, which pulse shaper produces reset pulses by means of which the circuit is reset into the initial position.
7. A system in accordance with claim 6, characterized in that for each column (one-fourth image line) of each square it is detected whether the column contains black image elements, the number of intersections being counted and stored in numerical form and the number of the image elements of the beginning and end of each intersection being stored.
8. A system in accordance with claim 7, characterized in that for each column (image line) the data to be stored comprise the number of intersection, the number of the image elements of the beginning and end of intersection 1, intersection 2 and intersection 3, which data are stored in three words having a maximal number of 12 bits each.
9. A system in accordance with claim 8, characterized in that the largest number of intersections per column is stored in two bits, by means of which it can be subsequently expressed:
10. A system in accordance with claim 9, comprising a first counter (counter 1, FIG. 23) controlled by the clock pulse generator (G, FIG. 20) which counter has a number (n) of positions corresponding with the number (q) of image elements per one-fourth of the vertical deflection line (column); a first divider (divider-by-two 1) controlled by the pulses of the first counter via a logic circuit (E4), which divider is switched after n pulses have appeared, a second divider (divider-by-two 2) controlled by the line sync pulses, which divider is switched upon each appearance of the line sync pulses; a combination of logic circuits (E5, E6, O1, E7) connected to the outputs of the first and the second divider and connected to the output of the clock pulse generator, groups of n pulses (shift pulses sk) appearing at the output of this combination during the first and third quarter of the vertical image line for the odd image lines of the odd field and during the second and fourth quarter of the vertical image line for the even image lines of the odD field; a second counter (counter 2) controlled by dividing pulses of the first counter (counter 1); a logic circuit (E8) connected to the outputs of the second counter and to a dividing pulse output of the first counter, pulses (e) appearing at the output of this logic circuit and controlling the clock pulse generator (G, FIG. 20).
11. A system in accordance with claim 10, characterized by a circuit for detecting the beginning and end of an intersection (white-black/black-white transitions), the number of intersections, and for counting the intersections in each image line of each square, comprising: a limiter to which the video signal is applied; a shift register (shift register 1) connected to the output of the limiter and controlled by the shift pulses sk; a trigger (Tr3) connected to the output of the limiter and that of the shift register via a plurality of logic circuits (E9, E10); two pulse shapers (PV1, PV2, respectively) each connected to an output of the trigger, a pulse appearing at the respective outputs of these pulse shapers at the beginning (PV2) and end (PV1), respectively, of an intersection; a counter (counter 3) connected to the pulse shaper (PV2) via a logic circuit (E29), the outputs of this counter indicating in binary code the number of intersections detected per group of n shift pulses sk; a separator circuit (US) having its inputs x, y, directly connected to the outputs of the counter 3 and having its inputs x'', y'' connected to the outputs of counter 3 via inverting amplifiers, one of the outputs (sn3) being connected to the counter (counter 3) via the logic circuit (E29); three registers (W1, W2, W3) connected via logic circuits (E17 - E26, E37 - E46, E47 - E56) to the outputs of the first counter (counter 1) and connected via logic circuits (E11, E12, E13, E14, E15, E16) to the pulse shapers (PV1, PV2) and to the outputs of the separator circuit (US), so as to store the instantaneous counter positions of the counter (counter 1) in the respective register at the beginning and end of an intersection; the register (W1) being further connected to the outputs of the second counter (counter 3) via logic circuits (E27, E28) and to the outputs of the first counter (counter 1) via the logic circuit (E4), so as to store the count of the number of intersections of the counter (counter 3) in the respective register.
12. A system in accordance with claim 1, characterized in that the words containing encoded information as regards the image elements of a column lastly scanned by a vertical deflection line, which information is stored in registers (W1, W2, W3, FIG. 23), are transferred to a processor via a transfer device immediately upon the termination of an effective scanning of a column; which transfer device comprises a trigger (Tr4, FIG. 26) controlled via a logic circuit (E35) by pulses originating from the clock pulse counter (counter 1, FIG. 21) after division, as well as by pulses originating from the line sync oscillator after division, which trigger applies a pulse to a processor so as to initiate an intervention; a first counter (counter 4, FIG. 26) controlled by pulses from the processor appearing upon termination of each intervention by means of which the contents of one register are transferred; a combination of logic circuits (COL, FIG. 26) connected to the outputs of the registers (W1, W2, W3) and to the outputs of the first counter (counter 4), under the control of which logic circuits the outputs of the registers are successively connected to the input channels of the processor (D0 - D11, respectively), while after the transfer of the information from the registers to the processor the trigger (Tr4) is reset by means of pulses originating from the processor and from the first counter (counter 4); a second counter (counter 5) controlled by pulses originating from the processOr, by means of which counter the contents of the registers are supplied at the correct addresses in the processor.
13. A system in accordance with claim 12, characterized in that means are provided by means of which first information as regards the number of the columns and the number of intersections occurring per column(per figure) is derived from the total stock of numerical data per square, and that an extract is taken from this information comprising the numbers of those columns showing a change of the number of intersections, by means of which a classification in groups is realized.
14. A system in accordance with claim 13, characterized in that, starting from the classification in groups as to the number of intersections, a further subdivision per groups is effected, starting from specific shapes of specific figures, and the shape is found by a comparison with numerical values of image points of the figure which are characteristic of a specific shape.
15. A system in accordance with claim 14, characterized in that the number of intersections is scanned from column to column of image elements per square (per figure), and 0, 1, 2, 3 and ''''more than 3'''' intersections, respectively, are temporarily stored in an encoding device, from which information an extract is derived such that only that column is included in the final extract in which a change of the number of intersections occurs, after which per square (per figure) the ''''significant'''' largest number of intersections is stored, by means of which a classification in four groups is realized, the significant largest number of intersections being 0, 1, 2 or 3, the number of intersections not = 1 being considered significant if this number of intersections is present in at least four successive columns.
16. A system in accordance with claim 15, characterized in that the representation of information as regards the beginnings and ends of the intersections is such that one word contains both the position of the beginning and that of the end, but that by means of ''''masking'''' the positions of the beginnings and ends, respectively, can be obtained separately, the numerical value of the ends being shifted a fixed number of positions with respect to the numerical value of the beginnings.
17. A system in accordance with claim 16, characterized in that in the case of a symbol in the group showing one intersection first the middle column is found of the series of columns showing one intersection, the number of this middle column being subsequently determined and stored, while when the series comprises an even number of columns this number is made odd by adding one, and when the middle column found does not show an intersection (number of intersections 1, a local interruption) the adjacent left-hand column showing one intersection is appointed as middle column.
18. A system in accordance with claim 17, characterized in that, column by column, the number and beginning and end is determined of the intersected columns on the right-hand side and on the left-hand side, respectively, of the column appointed as middle column, in such a manner that when a beginning in a column is higher (provides a smaller value) than in the preceding column, the number of this last column with the value pertaining to the beginning of the intersection is stored while removing the storage of the relative data of the preceding column in such a manner that the highest position of the beginning of an intersection on the right-hand side and on the left-hand side, respectively, of the middle column is established, at the same time the number of the respective column being known, and in a similar manner the lowest position, of the end of an intersection on the right-hand side and on the left-hand side, respectively, of the middle column is established, while determining the number of the respective column by means of which the representation of certain information (shapes of figures) is compressed.
19. A system in accordance with claim 18, characterized in that by means of at least the compressed representation a program is formed for classifying a plurality of symbols of the group having one intersection (group X) by means of a decision diagram containing minimal conditions which should be met in order to be read (accepted), the paths in the diagram being determined by measuring the differences and/or ratios of the numerical values as regards the image point of the intersections stored in the representation, and furthermore by measuring the width-to-height ratio of the symbol, each time differences of two numerical values of respective characteristic points being determined.
20. A system in accordance with claim 19, characterized in that data as regards the shape of the figure are derived from the numerical values stored of the image elements of the read figures, which numerical values comprise the numbers of columns and numbers of image elements relating to the read figure, which data are contained in a decision diagram, in which the paths are determined by measuring the characteristic differences of specific numerical values for classifying a number of figures of the group (group Y) of figures having a largest number of intersections equal to two, in which the following situations are determined: whether there is one region or whether there are two regions showing two intersections, whether the merging of ''''two'''' intersections to ''''one'''' intersection takes place on the left-hand side and/or on the right-hand side, the merging point being stored so as to determine whether the merging takes place at the proper level, whether vertical strokes are present on the left-hand side and on the right-hand side of the symbol, whether the symbol is curved on the left-hand side and/or the second intersection runs horizontally.
21. A system in accordance with claim 20, characterized in that a classification is effected in the group having maximally three intersections (group Z) by means of a decision diagram containing conditions for the minimal number of occupied columns, in which the middle column of the region showing three intersections is found and the position is determined of the second intersection in the middle column, by means of which an upper and a lower part of the symbol is established, and after which it is determined in the thus obtained four quadrants whether and where the two uppermost intersections merge to form one intersection on the upper right-hand side and on the upper left-hand side, respectively, and whether and where the two lowermost intersections merge to form one intersection on the lower left-hand side and on the lower right-hand side, respectively, the number of the respective column and the number of the respective image point being stored.
22. An apparatus for reading symbols written in a plurality of similarly shaped rectangles on an information carrier comprising: a. a video camera having a photosensitive rectangular screen having the same width-to-height ratio as each of said symbol rectangles, and an electron beam for scanning said screen by one field of parallel image lines to produce a series of impulses, b. bundles of glass fibers for transferring the images of said symbols in said plurality of rectangles simultaneously to said screen, c. means for alternately selecting alternate image lines of said one field for scanning alternate rectangles transferred to said screen, d. means for dividing each image line into elements equal to half the number of image lines per screen, whereby alternate rectangles are scanned by the alternate fractions of an image line of this one field and the intermediate rectangles are scanned by the intermediate fractions of the next image line of this one field, e. encoding means for converting the information detected in each image line into a numerical value corresponding to the element on said screen and in its corresponding rectangle on said screen, and f. means fOr transferring said numerical values immediately after scanning each rectangle to a transfer device.
23. An apparatus according to claim 22 wherein said screen has transferred thereto four rows of four rectangles in each row.
24. An apparatus according to claim 22 wherein said glass fibers each have equal hexagonal cross-sections which cross-sections are divided by said scan lines.
25. An apparatus according to claim 22 wherein the thinnest written lines are scanned by at least two successive image lines.
26. An apparatus according to claim 22 wherein said means for alternately selecting image lines comprises a divider circuit.
27. An apparatus according to claim 22 wherein said means for dividing said scan lines into elements comprises a clock pulse generator.
28. An apparatus according to claim 22 wherein said means for dividing said scan lines into rectangles comprises counter circuits.
29. An apparatus according to claim 22 including means for quantizing said impulses produced by said scanning lines.
30. A system according to claim 29 wherein said means for quantizing said impulses includes a clock impulse generator means for dividing each scan line into a plurality of bits.
31. A system according to claim 22 wherein said rectangles on said carrier are printed in a different color than said symbols, and wherein said camera comprises a filter for said color printing of said rectangles.
32. A system according to claim 22 wherein said image lines are black and the absence of said image lines is white.
33. A system according to claim 22 wherein said means for encoding includes divider means, counter means, and register means.
34. A system according to claim 22 wherein said means for encoding for said impulses comprises means for forming words of not more than twelve bits for indicating the locations of the beginning and the ending of an intersection of an image line.
35. A system according to claim 34 wherein said words comprise binary numbers corresponding to successive parts of one vertical scan line.
US00225839A 1971-02-19 1972-02-14 System for automatically reading symbols Expired - Lifetime US3858180A (en)

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US4106060A (en) * 1975-12-15 1978-08-08 Rca Corporation Electronic mail box
US4218673A (en) * 1976-10-19 1980-08-19 Hajime Industries, Ltd. Pattern matching method and such operation system
EP0386704A2 (en) * 1989-03-06 1990-09-12 Minolta Camera Kabushiki Kaisha Photographic system capable of recording therein photographing data and reading out the same and film structure for use in the photographic system
US4989258A (en) * 1987-09-09 1991-01-29 International Business Machines Corporation Character recognition apparatus
US6112205A (en) * 1996-07-18 2000-08-29 Sony Corporation Data processing equipment and method for classifying data into classes in accordance with a plurality of thresholds for quantizing data
US20040245339A1 (en) * 2003-06-03 2004-12-09 Gravic, Inc. Multi-level optical mark reading
US20110176736A1 (en) * 2010-01-15 2011-07-21 Gravic, Inc. Dynamic response bubble attribute compensation
US8412004B2 (en) 2010-10-15 2013-04-02 Gravic, Inc. Dynamic response form symbology processing

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US3225329A (en) * 1963-10-30 1965-12-21 Control Data Corp Optical logic reading machine
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Cited By (13)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4106060A (en) * 1975-12-15 1978-08-08 Rca Corporation Electronic mail box
US4218673A (en) * 1976-10-19 1980-08-19 Hajime Industries, Ltd. Pattern matching method and such operation system
US4989258A (en) * 1987-09-09 1991-01-29 International Business Machines Corporation Character recognition apparatus
EP0386704A2 (en) * 1989-03-06 1990-09-12 Minolta Camera Kabushiki Kaisha Photographic system capable of recording therein photographing data and reading out the same and film structure for use in the photographic system
EP0386704A3 (en) * 1989-03-06 1991-05-22 Minolta Camera Kabushiki Kaisha Photographic system capable of recording therein photographing data and reading out the same and film structure for use in the photographic system
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NL148421B (en) 1976-01-15
DE2207539A1 (en) 1972-09-07
SE393698B (en) 1977-05-16
NL7102210A (en) 1972-08-22
FR2131354A5 (en) 1972-11-10
BE779541A (en) 1972-06-16
BE779541A1 (en)
CH562479A5 (en) 1975-05-30
JPS5334694B1 (en) 1978-09-21
DE2207539B2 (en) 1975-10-16
GB1345686A (en) 1974-01-30

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