US3841312A - Electrode arrangement - Google Patents

Electrode arrangement Download PDF

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US3841312A
US3841312A US34615473A US3841312A US 3841312 A US3841312 A US 3841312A US 34615473 A US34615473 A US 34615473A US 3841312 A US3841312 A US 3841312A
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electrode arrangement
electrode
post
stud
central post
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E Corasanti
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Cons Med Equip
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Assigned to CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT, THE reassignment CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT, THE SECURITY INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ASPEN LABORATORIES, INC. (CO CORPORATION), BIRTCHER MEDICAL SYSTEMS, INC. (CA CORPORATION), CONMED ANDOVER MEDICAL, INC. (NY CORPORATION), CONMED CORPORATION (NY CORPORATION), CONSOLIDATED MEDICAL EQUIPMENT INTERNATIONAL, INC. (NY CORPORATION), ENVISION MEDICAL CORPORATION, (CA CORPORATION), LINVATEC CORPORATION (FL CORPORATION), NDM, INC. (NY CORPORATION)
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Measuring bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/0408Electrodes specially adapted therefor
    • A61B5/0416Electrodes specially adapted therefor connected by means of snap fasteners
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Measuring bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/0408Electrodes specially adapted therefor

Abstract

This is an electrode arrangement particularly useful in providing a reliable electrical contact to be made to the skin of a person or animal in order to permit, for example, an electroencephalogram or electrocardiogram reading to be made by means of an EEG or ECG system connected to the electrode arrangement. The electrode arrangement utilizes an elongated post and an apertured ring having a plurality of tabs for making a strong mechanical attachment to the post. Also disclosed is a combined electrode arrangement and adhesive pad assembly. A feature of this combination is the use of the electrode arrangement described above in combination with the use of a pair of electrically conductive irregular shaped gel pads with the gel pads being located on opposite sides of the flange associated with the post of the electrode arrangement. The gel pad configuration provides a short electrical contact path to be created between the skin of the animal or person that is being monitored and the electrode post.

Description

United States Patent [1 1 Corasanti 14 1 Oct. 15, 1974 ELECTRODE ARRANGEMENT [7 5] Inventor: Eugene Corasanti, New Hartford,

221 Filed: Mar. 29, 1973 2 1 Appl. No.: 346,154

[52] US. Cl. l28/2.06 E, 128/2.1 E, 128/417, 128/D1G. 4 [51] Int. Cl A6111 5/04 [58] Field of Search 128/2.06 E, 2.1 E, DIG. 4, 128/416-418, 404, 410-411; 339/258 A, 257, 214, 95 S, 11, 253 R FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,227,691 311960 France I28/2.06 E

675,494 12/1963 Canada "128/417 Primary Examiner Richard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Lee S. Cohen Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Larson, Taylor and Hinds [5 7 ABSTRACT This is an electrode arrangement particularly useful in providing a reliable electrical contact to be made to the skin of a person or animal in order to permit, for example, an electroencephalogram or electrocardio gram reading to be made by means of an EEG or ECG system connected to the electrode arrangement. The electrode arrangement utilizes an elongated post and an apertured ring having a plurality of tabs for making a strong mechanical attachment to the post. Also disclosed is a combined electrode arrangement and adhesive pad assembly. A feature of this combination is the use of the electrode arrangement described above in combination with the use of a pair of electrically conductive irregular shaped gel pads with the gel pads being located on opposite sides of the flange associated with the post of the electrode arrangement. The gel pad configuration provides a short electrical contact path to be created between the skin of the animal or person that is being monitored and the electrode post.

5 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures PATENTED 1 51914 3,841 1,3 12

PRIOR 24 20 ART 26 FIG. I 47 34 24 48 32 28 PRIOR 20 ART -49 3o 30 FIG.7 46

22 26 22 FIG. 2 38 44 4O 42 38 2 J J 36 FIG. 8 4s 36 FIG. 3 36 38 44 44 44: W

FIG. 4

FIG. 5

ELECTRODE A t BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates generally to the field of electrode arrangements and, more particularly, relates to the field of electrode arrangements useful for EEG and ECG systems. i

2. Description of the Prior Art In the past, various electrode arrangements were de veloped for use with electrocardiogram systems in order to permit electrocardiograms to be made that are sensitive to the heart beat of a person or animal.

One of these prior art electrode arrangements utilized a two piece post and stud arrangement. The stud was the male, and the post was the female portion of the electrode which fitted over the stud and provided electrical contact between the post and the stud due to the physical metal contact between the metal post and the metal stud. A number of disadvantages were associated with this prior art type of electrode arrangement. For example, one disadvantage was that the stud, which had a flange portion to provide a means for making electrical contact to the skin of a person or animal would not always make good electrical contact to the post due to the location or trapping of dielectric material between the post and stud which frequently occured because the post and stud were mechanically and electrically connected together after the stud was forced through a dielectric adhesive pad.

Another disadvantage associated with the stud of the prior art is that it was generally difficult to uniformly electroplate this element with silver because it utilized a hollow stud member which was less expensive to manufacture. However, the inner portion of the hollow stud member could not be easily silverplated which resulted in it being a source of contamination for the electrode gel material that found its way into the hollow portion of the stud. Additionally, the post and the stud arrangement of the prior art electrode device utilized in EEG or ECG systems frequently came apart in an electrical sense and did not maintain a good stable electrical contact due to the failure to hold a good electrical contact fit between the post and stud.

A need existed for a reliable, low cost, disposable electrode arrangement that could be utilized for EEG and ECG systems which would consistently provide a good electrical contact to the skin of the person or animal being tested, and which would maintain this good electrical contact despite natural or accidental movements in areas around the electrode arrangement when attached to the person or animal being tested.

A need also existed for providing a combined electrode arrangement and adhesive pad assembly which could both provide a reliable electrical contact to the skin of the person or animal being tested and a low resistance, short electrical path between the skin and the electrode arrangement.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION An objective of this invention is to provide an improved electrode arrangement.

It is another object of this invention to provide an improved electrode arrangement for use in making contact to the skin of a person or animal.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide a combination electrode arrangement and adhesive pad assembly for use in insuring good, low resistance electrical contact to be made to the skin of a person or animal being tested.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES FIG. l is an exploded elevational view in cross section of the post and stud electrode arrangement of the prior art with the post and stud separated from each other prior to assembly of the post onto the stud.

FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. I with the post and stud connected together to provide complete electrode arrangement.

FIG. 3 is a sectional view in elevation showing the one piece stud and an apertured ring in mechanical contact with the stud in a manner which permits the one piece stud to provide direct electrical connection to an electrode associated with the electrical system EEG or ECG connected to the electrode arrangement.

FIG. 4 is a top view showing the metal ring of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a side elevational view in cross section showing the raised or angularly displaced tabs of the metal ring of FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is a cross section view, in elevation, showing a gel pad mounted on the stud of FIG. 3.

FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 6 showing the stud and gel pad after the stud has been inserted through an opening in an adhesive pad that is applied to the skin of the person or animal being tested.

FIG. 8 is a view similar to FIG. 7 showing the apertured metal ring in place over the stud and serving the function of holding together, between the flange of the stud and the metal ring, the gel pad and the adhesive pad.

FIG. 9 is a view similar to FIG. 8 showing a second gel pad placed over the flange portion of the stud and in electrical contact with the gel pad located on the other side of the flange portion of the stud.

FIG. 10 is a bottom view of the complete assembly of FIG. 9 showing the adhesive pad, both gel pads, and the flange of the stud (shown in dotted form).

Referring to the Prior Art electrode arrangement of FIG. 1, a stud 20 is shown having a flange 22 and an extension member 24 having a hollow inner portion 26. Post 28 contains a flange 30 and a hollow, door knob shaped element 32 which serves to provide both mechanical and electrical contact to the electrode connector associated with an EEG or ECG electronic system.

Referring to'FIG. 2, the stud 20 and post 28 are shown mechanically and electrically connected together in order to provide electrical contact between the outer portion of the extension member 24 of the stud 20 and the inner portion of the hollow, door knob shaped element 32 of the post 28. Dielectric material caught between the stud 20 and and the post 28 prevented a good reliable electrical contact to be made between these two elements.

FIG. 3 is an elevational view, in section, showing the electrode arrangement of this invention wherein a single, solid, unitary stud 34 is shown having a flat flange 36 and a solid elongated extension member 38 which together with the flange 36 are formed as a one piece element. A door knob shaped portion 40 associated with the extension member 38 of the stud 34 is used for the purpose of providing a good electrical contact to the connecting electrode of the EEG or ECG system similar in function as the door knob shaped portion of the post of the prior art electrode arrangement of FIGS. 1 and 2. An apertured metal ring 42 is shown in mechanical contact with the elongated extension member 38 of the stud 34.

With reference to the apertured metal ring 42, FIG. 4 is a top view showing the metal ring 42 without the stud 34. As can be seen from FIG. 4, the metal ring 42 contains an aperture configured in a manner which provides for metal tabs 44. Any number of tabs can be used, however, in the arrangement of FIG. 4, four metal tabs spaced 90 apart from each other has been found to be ideally suited to providing a good metal fastening attachment to be made between the apertured metal ring 42 and the stud 34. While a metal ring 42 is preferred, other materials can be used to form the apertured ring 42.

Referring to FIG. 5, the metal ring 42 is shown in cross section from the side to emphasize the angular displacement of the metal tabs 44 from the plane of the ring 42. The angle displacement of the metal tabs 44 is to provide essentially a spring loaded connection between the elongated member 38 of the stud 34 and the metal ring 42 in order to prevent the metal ring 42 from becoming accidentally disengaged or removed from the stud due to forces exerted on the metal ring 42 or the stud 34. Particularly useful to maintain the ring 42 on the stud 34 is the flat edged contact portions of the metal tabs 44 which dig in and securely grip the stud 34 to prevent accidental disengagement between the stud 34 and the ring 42.

FIG. 6 is a view showing the first step in the process of assembling the electrode arrangement of the invention onto an adhesive pad which is to be attached to the skin of a person or animal being tested or monitored with an EEG or ECG system. In FIG. 6 through FIG. 10, the same reference numerals used in FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 are repeated in order to maintain clarification of the description of the invention. With reference to FIG. 6, an electrically conductive gel pad 46 is mounted on the flange 36 of the stud 34. The extension member 38 is pushed preferably through the central portion of the gel pad 46 to provide the arrangement shown in FIG. 6. The gel pad 46 is made of material that is commonly known in the industry as containing an electrically conductive solution so that the pad performs the function of providing a good, low resistance, electrical contact to be made to the flange 36 of the stud 34.

Referring to FIG. 7, this figure shows the assembly after the extension member 38 of the stud 34 has been inserted through opening 47 in an adhesive pad 48. The adhesive pad 48 is used to provide a good adhesive contact of the electrode arrangement of this invention to the skin of a person or animal being tested. The adhesive pad 48 has a strongly adherent coating located on the bottom portion 49 which is the surface portion of the pad 48 that contacts the skin of the person or animal.

Referring to FIG. 8, this figure illustrates the electrode arrangement containing the apertured metal ring 42 with its metal tabs 44 shown in contact with the elongated extension member 38 of the stud 34 in combination with the adhesive pad 48 and the gel pad 46. Accordingly, the apertured metal ring 42 provides a very firm and strong mechanical connection to the elongated extension member 38 of the stud 34, thereby electrically conductive gel pad 46 between the flange of the apertured metal ring 42 and the flange 36 of the stud 34.

Referring to FIG. 9, this is a view similar to that of FIG. 8 with the addition of a second gel pad 50 shown covering the exposed flat, bottom surface portion of the flange 36 of the stud 34. As can be seen with reference to FIG. 9, the electrically conductive gel pad 50 is in electrical contact with the bottom surface portion of the flange 36 and is also in electrical contact with the electrically conductive gel pad 46 located on the other side of the flange 36 of the stud 34. Thus, in the event of movement of the person or animal being tested with the electrode arrangements of this invention, the flange 36 may move directly out of contact with the gel pad 50. However, electrical contact is continuously made to the flange 36 by means of the electrical contact between the gel pad 50 and the gel pad 46 in the circular overlapping region located around the outer portion of t h e flange 36 of the stud 34.

' With reference to FIG. 10, the gel pads 50 and 46 are shown to contain four arms (a four star configuration) with each of the arms of gel pad 50 being located out of phase (interleaved) with the arms of gel pad 46. A dotted circle 52 defines the outer portion of the flange 36 of the stud 34 which is located behind the gel pad 50 and between the gel pad 50 and the gel pad 46. The use of the interleaved or out of phase arrangement shown in FIG. 10 for the gel pads 50 and 46 provides an excellent low resistance contact path to be made between the skin of the person or animal being tested or probed with the electrode arrangement of this invention. Regardless of whether the flange 36 of the stud 34 retreats or moves away from the gel pad 50, the gel pad 50 can still provide electrical contact between the skin 'of the person or animal being tested because of electrical contact to the gel pad 46.

In this manner, since the overlap or contact regions between the gel pads 46 and 50 are much closer to the flange 36 of the stud 34, the skin of the person or animal being tested is closer to the probe or electrode flange position of the stud 34. This is due to the noncircular configurations of the pads 46 and 50 which permits the skin to be positioned closer to the center of the pads 46 and 50 than could otherwise be achieved by using circular pads which would not provide the recess portion provided by the areas that are not overlapped between the gel pads 46 and 50. These star shaped gel pads assure a short low resistance, electrically conductive path to be made from the skin to the electrode stud. Preferably, the stud 34 is made of a brass material such as one containing nickel like a product of Anaconda called Nickel Silver. It has been found that this material provides a good base for a silver plating operation and is also very resistant to erorangements may be devised without departing from the v spirit and scope of the invention.

I claim:

sensing heart beats comprising, in combination, an electrode including a generally circular base flange and a solid integral upstanding central post, said base flange and solid integral upstanding central post being coated with conductive silver, gel pad means covering the bottom surface of the base flange and extending outwardly beyond the outer periphery of said flange; an adhesive pad having a central aperture receiving said central post, said adhesive pad being disposed adjacent the upper surface of said base flange, and retainer means having a central aperture receiving said central post and-retaining said adhesive pad on said electrode below said retainer means and above said base flange, said gel pad being maintained in contact with the base flange of said electrode by adherence between the outer peripheral portions of the 'gel pad and the adhesive pad, the adhesive pad extending peripherally outwardly beyond the gel pad for adherence with the skin of a patient, the upper end of said central post being electrically exposed on the upper end portion thereof above said re- 7 tainer means soas to be adaptedto be directly connected with the electrode connector of an EEG or ECG system.

2. An electrode arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said retainer means includes a plurality of tabs extending inwardly towards said central aperture.

3. An electrode arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said retainer means includes four tabs spaced apart in a circular configuration, said'tabs being angularly displaced with respect to the plane of said retainer means by said central post.

4. An electrode arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said central post includes a knob shaped portion on the upper end to provide means for connecting said central post with an electrode connector of an EEG or ECG system.

5. An electrode arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said circular base flange and said solid integral upstanding central post are made of a material forming a base for an adherent silver encapsulating coating whereby said silver coating provides electrical connection with said gel pad and with an electrode connector of an EEG or ECG system.

Claims (5)

1. An electrode arrangement for use as a probe for sensing heart beats comprising, in combination, an electrode including a generally circular base flange and a solid integral upstanding central post, said base flange and solid integral upstanding central post being coated with conductive silver, gel pad means covering the bottom surface of the base flange and extending outwardly beyond the outer periphery of said flange, an adhesive pad having a central aperture receiving said central post, said adhesive pad being disposed adjacent the upper surface of said base flange, and retainer means having a central aperture receiving said central post and retaining said adhesive pad on said electrode below said retainer means and above said base flange, said gel pad being maintained in contact with the base flange of Said electrode by adherence between the outer peripheral portions of the gel pad and the adhesive pad, the adhesive pad extending peripherally outwardly beyond the gel pad for adherence with the skin of a patient, the upper end of said central post being electrically exposed on the upper end portion thereof above said retainer means so as to be adapted to be directly connected with the electrode connector of an EEG or ECG system.
2. An electrode arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said retainer means includes a plurality of tabs extending inwardly towards said central aperture.
3. An electrode arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said retainer means includes four tabs spaced 90* apart in a circular configuration, said tabs being angularly displaced with respect to the plane of said retainer means by said central post.
4. An electrode arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said central post includes a knob shaped portion on the upper end to provide means for connecting said central post with an electrode connector of an EEG or ECG system.
5. An electrode arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said circular base flange and said solid integral upstanding central post are made of a material forming a base for an adherent silver encapsulating coating whereby said silver coating provides electrical connection with said gel pad and with an electrode connector of an EEG or ECG system.
US34615473 1973-03-29 1973-03-29 Electrode arrangement Expired - Lifetime US3841312A (en)

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DE19742415414 DE2415414A1 (en) 1973-03-29 1974-03-29 Electrode for application to the skin in medical analysis and electrical processes, for example in an electroencephalogram
SE7404251A SE7404251L (en) 1973-03-29 1974-03-29
FR7411462A FR2222987A1 (en) 1973-03-29 1974-03-29

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Cited By (30)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3989035A (en) * 1975-08-04 1976-11-02 Stemmen Laboratory, Inc. Disposable medical electrode
US4029086A (en) * 1975-08-11 1977-06-14 Consolidated Medical Equipment, Inc. Electrode arrangement
US4112941A (en) * 1977-01-06 1978-09-12 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Electrode and magnetic connector assembly
US4117846A (en) * 1976-05-07 1978-10-03 Consolidated Medical Equipment Skin conducting electrode and electrode assembly
US4182346A (en) * 1977-06-02 1980-01-08 Biomedical International Company Electrode
US4441501A (en) * 1982-03-08 1984-04-10 Ndm Corporation Medical electrode
US4444194A (en) * 1982-03-08 1984-04-24 Ndm Corporation Medical electrode assembly
US4638807A (en) * 1985-08-27 1987-01-27 Ryder International Corporation Headband electrode system
US4640289A (en) * 1983-11-14 1987-02-03 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Biomedical electrode
US4727881A (en) * 1983-11-14 1988-03-01 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Biomedical electrode
EP0276661A2 (en) * 1987-01-16 1988-08-03 Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd. Electrocardiographic electrode
US4787390A (en) * 1987-04-15 1988-11-29 Scovill Japan Kabushiki Kaisha Electrode sensor
US4798642A (en) * 1983-11-14 1989-01-17 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of making a biomedical electrode
US4855077A (en) * 1988-04-20 1989-08-08 Takiron Co., Ltd. Sticking agent of ionic-conductive polymer
WO2002007597A1 (en) * 2000-07-25 2002-01-31 Medicotest A/S An electromedical electrode with a snap connecting means
US6415170B1 (en) 1996-12-09 2002-07-02 3M Innovative Properties Company Biomedical electrode and method for its manufacture
EP1324693A1 (en) * 2000-10-02 2003-07-09 Axelgaard Manufacturing Company, Inc. Floating electrode
US20040008124A1 (en) * 2001-12-14 2004-01-15 Schaefer Philip Raymond System and method for method transmission of electrical signals in imperfectly-conducting media
US20040073131A1 (en) * 2000-12-28 2004-04-15 Z-Tech (Canada) Inc. Electrical impedance method and apparatus for detecting and diagnosing diseases
US6845272B1 (en) 1999-05-25 2005-01-18 Medicotest A/S Skin electrode
US6937907B2 (en) * 2000-09-18 2005-08-30 Cameron Health, Inc. Subcutaneous electrode for transthoracic conduction with low-profile installation appendage and method of doing same
US20060173373A1 (en) * 2005-02-02 2006-08-03 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Bio signal measuring apparatus and method
US20080076998A1 (en) * 2003-12-01 2008-03-27 Z-Tech (Canada) Inc. Breast electrode array and method of analysis for detecting and diagnosing diseases
US20090227857A1 (en) * 2008-03-06 2009-09-10 Chuck Rowe Biomedical electrode
US20140187063A1 (en) * 2012-12-31 2014-07-03 Suunto Oy Male end of a telemetric transceiver
US8831720B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2014-09-09 Cameron Health, Inc. Method of implanting and using a subcutaneous defibrillator
US9138589B2 (en) 2001-11-21 2015-09-22 Cameron Health, Inc. Apparatus and method for identifying atrial arrhythmia by far-field sensing
US9144683B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2015-09-29 Cameron Health, Inc. Post-shock treatment in a subcutaneous device
JP2015533098A (en) * 2013-09-16 2015-11-19 コーニンクレッカ フィリップス エヌ ヴェKoninklijke Philips N.V. Biomedical electrode
US9308377B1 (en) 2000-12-15 2016-04-12 Vortant Technologies, Llc System and method for transmission of electrical signals in imperfectly-conducting media

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Cited By (41)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3989035A (en) * 1975-08-04 1976-11-02 Stemmen Laboratory, Inc. Disposable medical electrode
US4029086A (en) * 1975-08-11 1977-06-14 Consolidated Medical Equipment, Inc. Electrode arrangement
US4117846A (en) * 1976-05-07 1978-10-03 Consolidated Medical Equipment Skin conducting electrode and electrode assembly
US4112941A (en) * 1977-01-06 1978-09-12 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Electrode and magnetic connector assembly
US4182346A (en) * 1977-06-02 1980-01-08 Biomedical International Company Electrode
US4444194A (en) * 1982-03-08 1984-04-24 Ndm Corporation Medical electrode assembly
US4441501A (en) * 1982-03-08 1984-04-10 Ndm Corporation Medical electrode
US4727881A (en) * 1983-11-14 1988-03-01 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Biomedical electrode
US4798642A (en) * 1983-11-14 1989-01-17 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of making a biomedical electrode
US4640289A (en) * 1983-11-14 1987-02-03 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Biomedical electrode
US4638807A (en) * 1985-08-27 1987-01-27 Ryder International Corporation Headband electrode system
EP0276661A2 (en) * 1987-01-16 1988-08-03 Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd. Electrocardiographic electrode
EP0276661A3 (en) * 1987-01-16 1988-08-24 Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd. Electrocardiographic electrode
US4938219A (en) * 1987-01-16 1990-07-03 Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd. Electrocardiographic electrode
US4787390A (en) * 1987-04-15 1988-11-29 Scovill Japan Kabushiki Kaisha Electrode sensor
US4855077A (en) * 1988-04-20 1989-08-08 Takiron Co., Ltd. Sticking agent of ionic-conductive polymer
US6415170B1 (en) 1996-12-09 2002-07-02 3M Innovative Properties Company Biomedical electrode and method for its manufacture
US6845272B1 (en) 1999-05-25 2005-01-18 Medicotest A/S Skin electrode
US20030178298A1 (en) * 2000-07-25 2003-09-25 Thomas Bassoe Electromedical electrode with a snap connecting means
WO2002007597A1 (en) * 2000-07-25 2002-01-31 Medicotest A/S An electromedical electrode with a snap connecting means
US9144683B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2015-09-29 Cameron Health, Inc. Post-shock treatment in a subcutaneous device
US7299092B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2007-11-20 Cameron Health, Inc. Subcutaneous electrode for transthoracic conduction with low profile installation appendage
US6937907B2 (en) * 2000-09-18 2005-08-30 Cameron Health, Inc. Subcutaneous electrode for transthoracic conduction with low-profile installation appendage and method of doing same
US8831720B2 (en) 2000-09-18 2014-09-09 Cameron Health, Inc. Method of implanting and using a subcutaneous defibrillator
EP1324693A4 (en) * 2000-10-02 2005-07-27 Axelgaard Mfg Company Inc Floating electrode
EP1324693A1 (en) * 2000-10-02 2003-07-09 Axelgaard Manufacturing Company, Inc. Floating electrode
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FR2222987A1 (en) 1974-10-25

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