US3835833A - Method for obtaining neurophysiological effects - Google Patents

Method for obtaining neurophysiological effects Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3835833A
US3835833A US29080472A US3835833A US 3835833 A US3835833 A US 3835833A US 29080472 A US29080472 A US 29080472A US 3835833 A US3835833 A US 3835833A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
signal
frequency
electric signal
signals
amplitude
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
A Limoge
Original Assignee
A Limoge
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents
    • A61N1/36Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents for stimulation
    • A61N1/36014External stimulators, e.g. with patch electrodes
    • A61N1/36021External stimulators, e.g. with patch electrodes for treatment of pain
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/32Applying electric currents by contact electrodes alternating or intermittent currents

Abstract

A method and apparatus for obtaining neurophysiological effects on the central and/or peripheral systems of a patient. Electrodes are suitably positioned on the body of the patient and a composite electric signal is applied at the electrodes. The composite signal is formed by the superpositioning of two signals: a first signal which is a rectified high-frequency carrier modulated in amplitude to about 100 percent by substantially square-shaped pulses whose duration, amplitude and frequency are chosen according to the neurophysiological effects desidered, and a second signal which has a relatively white noise spectrum. The mean value of the first electric signal has a predetermined sign which is opposite the sign of the mean value of the second electric signal.

Description

United States Patent 1191 Limoge METHOD FOR OBTAINING NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS [76] Inventor: Aime Limoge, 83 Rue Pierre Demours, Paris, France 75017 [22] Filed: Sept. 21, 1972 [21] Appl. No.: 290,804

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data 1451 Sept. 17, 1974 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Buchsbaum, Electronics World, Sept. 1963, pp. 27-29.

Primary Examiner-William E. Kamm Attorney, Agent, or FirmYoung & Thompson 7 ABSTRACT Sept. 24, 1971 France 71.34365 A method and apparatus for Obtaining neurophysiological effects on the central and/or peripheral sys- 52 us. or 128/1C, 12s/420, 128/422 mm of a Patient Electrodes are Suitably positioned [51] Int. Cl A6ln 1/36 on the body of the P and a composite electric 581 Field of Search 128/419 R, 420, 421, 422, Signal is applied at the electrodes The composite 123/1 C nal is formed by the superpositioning of two signals: a first signal which is a rectified high-frequency carrier 5 References Cited modulated in amplitude to about 100 percent by sub- UNTED STATES PATENTS stantially square-shaped pulses whose duration, ampli- 3 648 08 3/1 72 Ham 128 C tude}:I ancll freqtienfty are chosen according to tge neui rop ysio ogica e ects desidered, and a secon signa 3222 et al i which has a relatively white noise spectrum. The mean value of the first electric signal has a predetermined FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS sign which is opposite the sign of the mean value of 1,165,541 10/1969 Great Britain 128/1 C the second electric signal. 1,554,569 12/1968 France 128/1 C 1,088,607 10/1967 Great Britain 128/1 c 5 Clalms, 1 Drawmg Flgure SELECTION UNIT 1 KHZ osc CL iE R i 1F is 192...... H l COUNTER D e ix i's? i sE+%% 16 I HF OSCrs *4 g L +1 J FREQUENCY I 7 I SELECTOR l L RESETTlNG I RECT. AND I 1 AMPLIF. Z3 PEAK LIMITER b- N M|XER COLUMN uNiTs 7 COLUMN COLUMN 3 -AMPL. MOD. 25 RECT.

NOISE GEN.

CONST, CURRENT AMPLIFIER METHOD FOR OBTAINING NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention concerns a method and apparatus for obtaining neurophysiological effects by the application of electric currents to the central and/or peripheral nervous systems of the human body.

It is known that the application of electrical signals at electrodes placed at suitably chosen points on the body of a patient is capable of causing various effects such as general or local anaesthesia, sleep or relaxion of the subject depending on the location of the electrodes and the parameters defining the signal.

Among the various types of signals for obtaining such results, it has been established that the use of squareshaped pulses of suitable amplitude, frequency and period is particularly effective.

Such signals, may, however, cause bothersome secondary phenomena such as contractures, polarization or electrolysis effects which could be redhibitory in numerous cases.

With regard to these drawbacks, it has been proposed to use for similar applications a complex signal consisting of a rectified high-frequency signal which is about 100 percent amplitude modulated by low frequencysquare-shaped pulses which in the majority of cases enables the total elimination of the contractures remaining when the low frequency pulses shapes a direct current signal instead of the envelope of a rectified high frequency signal.

The effects so obtained are clearly superior to those of the former technique. Nevertheless, the rectified high-frequency signals modulated by low-frequency square-shaped pulses is not entirely satisfactory in all applications, because they do not enable the complete elimination of undesirable phenomena such as local electrolysis, disagreeable tingling or other unacceptable reactions necessitating the reduction of the current of the applied signals or the shortening of the length of application thereof.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention enables the reduction or even the complete elimination of undesirable secondary effects by reducing the mean value of the currents applied on which the said secondary effects directly depend, without substantially reducing the desired principal neurophysiological effects.

To this effect, the present invention provides a method for obtaining neurophysiological effects on the central and/or peripheral nervous systems of a patient, comprising positioning electrodes on the body of the patient, applying a composite electric signal at the electrodes formed by the superpositioning of a first and second electric signal, said first electric signal being a rectified high-frequency carrier modulated in amplitude to about 100 percent by substantially square-shaped pulses whose duration, amplitude and frequency are chosen according to the desired neurophysiological effects, the mean value of said first electric signal being of a predetermined signal said second signal having a relatively white noise spectrum, the sign of the mean value of said second electric signal being opposite that of the mean value of said first electric signal.

The white noise constituting the said second signal may have a substantially continuous spectrum ranging from 1 KHz to KHz and preferably between 20 and 60 KHz. Such a noise signal could be easily obtained by means of a gas discharge tube, a semi-conductor or other appropriate means.

As previously indicated, it has been observed throughout that the undesirable secondary effects of electrophysiological treatment are all the more accentuated when the average current passing through the electrodes applied to the body of the patient is increased.

In the method according to the invention, this average current intensity, whose value is the algebraic sum of the respective mean values of said first and second signals, is the difference between these mean values.

I was surprised to find that the presence of white noise which enables the reduction of the overall mean current strength, the electrolysis effects and the intolerance of the body, remains without any detriment to the effectiveness of the treatment. It is thought that this very advantageous property comes from the fact that the relatively continuous spectrum of the white noise signal avoids the generation of undesired possibly detrimental discrete beat frequencies from the pulse modulated carrier and the white noise signal, while being capable of bringing about by an appropriate choice of the limits of this continuous spectrum complementary neurophysiological effects resulting in a renforcementof the principal desired effect.

According to the intended application, the relative proportion of the noise component and the modulated high-frequency component may be advantageous between one-fourth and one-half in the majority of cases, this proportion designating the ratio of the mean current strength of these components.

The method according to the invention is particularly applicable to obtaining neurophysiological effects such as relaxation, sleep, general analgesia, local-regional anaesthesia, and general anaesthesia.

Its use is particularly advantageous when the current strength of the pulse modulated high-frequency signal whose average value is the product of the r.m.s. value of the high-frequency carrier by the mark-to-space ratio of the square-shaped low-frequency pulses must be rather large, as for example in the case of electroanalgesia or electro-anaesthesia treatments.

Also disclosed is a device for carrying out the method described above comprising a high-frequency signal generator, a low-frequency pulse generator, means for modulating the amplitude of the said high-frequency signals by the low-frequency pulses, a noise generator adapted to generate electric signals having a relatively continuous frequency spectrum and mixing means adapted to superimpose the modulated high-frequency signal generated by said modulation means and the signals from the noise generator for providing a composite signal with a mean amplitude proportional to the difference between the respective mean amplitudes of the modulated high-frequency signal and said noise signal.

Preferably, the apparatus comprises control means selectively adjusting certain or all parameters defining the composite output signal, i.e., the peak amplitude of the modulated high-frequency signal, the amplitude of the noise signal, the frequency of the high-frequency signal, the length and the spacing of the low frequency modulation pukes, as well as the spectrum of thesignal delivered by the noise generator.

Suitable switching means may beadvantageously provided to make available one or more elementary signals utilised to generate the above-defined composite signal at one of the outputs of the device. Indeed, it could be advantageous in certain electro-neurophysiological treatments to combine the application of composite signals according to the invention with signals of different characteristics simultaneously or sequentially with the composite signals, and it is therefore advantageous to provide a single device to generate these different signals.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The features and avantages of the present invention will be brought out in the description made herein by way of the example with reference to the accompanying drawing illustrating schematically a device according to the invention.

DESCRIPTION OFTI-IE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The device illustrated in the drawing comprises a low-frequency square pulse generator channel driven by an oscillator having 1 KHz frequency whose output signal after shaping by peak clipper 11 or other circuit adapted to generate straight-sided signals is applied to a selection unit 20 enabling the formation of low-frequency pulses whose length and frequency may be displayed by manual selectors 12 and 14 with three digits corresponding to units, tens and hundreds of the quantity displayed. These selectors are associated with the corresponding decimal stages of a digital counter 15 fed by the pulses issued from the peak clipper 11.

The width of the pulses available at the output 18 of the unit 20 is determined by the length of the conducting of an AND gate 16 controled by the selector 12, whereas the time interval between successive resettings of the counter 15 is determined by the selector 14 which acts to this end on the resetting circuit 17. On each resetting the resetting circuit causes the AND gate 16 to open. Thus at the output 18 there is a substantially square-shaped low-frequency pulse the width and period of which may vary by steps of 0.5 and 1 millisecond as a function of the adjustment of the selectors 12 and 14.

The pulses thus obtained amplitude modulate a highfrequency signal generated by an oscillator 21 whose frequency is adjustable, for example, between 100 KHz and 1 MHz. This signal passes through a rectifier peaklimiter 23 adapted to rectify one or both of the highfrequency half-cycles then is applied to an amplitude modulator 25 at the output 26 of which are available high-frequency signals whose envelope comprises the low-frequency pulses and whose polarity is constant owing to the prior rectification of the high-frequency carrier. Preferably, the degree of modulation is 100 percent; to this end the modulator could comprise an AND gate having inputs connected, as shown in the drawing, to the output 18 of the unit 20 and the output of the rectifier peak-limiter 23.

The device according to the invention comprises a noise generator 30 whose output signal after rectification is intended to be one of the two components of the output signal of the device. The generator 30 may be, for example, a suitable gas filled tube (not shown) or other means adapted to generate random signals in a relatively continuous spectrum. Preferably, these signals have a spectrum between 1 KHz and 60 KHz and a relatively uniform spectral distribution, such a distribution defining the signals which have been hereinabove referred to as relatively white noise signals. This spectrum may, for example, be defined by means of a suitable band-pass filter (not shown) which may be adjustable.

The signal generated by the noise generator 30 is rectified by a rectifier 31 over one or two half-cycles, and are then subtractively mixed with the modulated highfrequency signal available at the output of the modulator 25 by an amplifier-mixer 32 so as to obtain a composite signal having a mean current strength proportional to the difference of the mean current strength of its components.

Accordingly, the amplifier 32 may comprise an input stage (not shown) constituted by a differential amplifier having direct and reversed inputs 32a and 32b respectively connected to the output 26 of the modulator 25 and the output of the rectifier 31 through the intermediary of level adjusting means adapted to enable the adjustment of the relative proportion of the modulated high-frequency signal and the noise signal constituting the two components of the signal available at the output 33 of the amplifier-mixer 32 which comprises a final stage (not shown) adapted to provide the desired power of the composite signal obtained.

The electrodes for applying the composite signal to the patient are connected to two outputs terminals of the device, the electrode 35 of which is connected to the case of the apparatus whereas the other electrode 36 is connected to the output 33 through the intermediary of a constant current amplifier 37 associated with current adjusting means schematically respresented by a potentiometer 38.

The constant current amplifier 37 may comprise a circuit having an output impedance sufficiently large so as to provide an output current which only slightly varies with respect to changes in the load resistance formed by the portion of the body of the patient situated between the points of application of the electrodes.

As indicated above auxiliary outputs (not shown) may be provided for making available if necessary pure low-frequency pulses, non-modulated high-frequency signals, noise signals or even a DC. component.

What I claim is:

1. A method for obtaining neurophysiological effects on the central and/or peripheral nervous systems of a patient, comprising generating a high-frequency carrier, rectifying the high-frequency carrier, generating substantially square-shaped pulses whose duration, amplitude and frequency are chosen according to the desired neurophysiological effect, amplitude modulating to about percent the rectified high-frequency carrier with said pulses thereby producing a first electric signal, generating a relatively white noise spectrum signal, rectifying the relatively white noise spectrum signal thereby producing a second electric signal, the sign of the mean value of the second electric signal being opposite that of the mean value of said first electric signal, superposing said first and second electric signals to produce a composite electric signal having an average amplitude which is the difference between the average amplitude of said first and second electric signals, positioning electrodes on the body of the patient, and applying said composite electric signal at the electrodes.

2. A method according to claim 1, wherein said first and second signals each have polarities which are constant as a function of time.

3. A method according to claim 1, wherein the spectrum of the said relatively white noise is between 1 KHz and 60 KHz.

between one-fourth and one-half.

Claims (5)

1. A method for obtaining neurophysiological effects on the central and/or peripheral nervous systems of a patient, comprising generating a high-frequency carrier, rectifying the high-frequency carrier, generating substantially square-shaped pulses whose duration, amplitude and frequency are chosen according to the desired neurophysiological effect, amplitude modulating to about 100 percent the rectified high-frequency carrier with said pulses thereby producing a first electric signal, generating a relatively white noise spectrum signal, rectifying the relatively white noise spectrum signal thereby producing a second electric signal, the sign of the mean value of the second electric signal being opposite that of the mean value of said first electric signal, superposing said first and second electric signals to produce a composite electric signal having an average amplitude which is the difference between the average amplitude of said first and second electric signals, positioning electrodes on the body of the patient, and applying said composite electric signal at the electrodes.
2. A method according to claim 1, wherein said first and second signals each have polarities which are constant as a function of time.
3. A method according to claim 1, wherein the spectrum of the said relatively white noise is between 1 KHz and 60 KHz.
4. A method according to claim 3, wherein the spectrum of said relatively white noise is between 20 and 60 KHz.
5. A method according to claim 1, wherein the ratio between the mean current strength of said second signal and the mean current strength of said first signal is between one-fourth and one-half.
US3835833A 1971-09-24 1972-09-21 Method for obtaining neurophysiological effects Expired - Lifetime US3835833A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR7134365A FR2153190B1 (en) 1971-09-24 1971-09-24

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3835833A true US3835833A (en) 1974-09-17

Family

ID=9083412

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3835833A Expired - Lifetime US3835833A (en) 1971-09-24 1972-09-21 Method for obtaining neurophysiological effects

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US3835833A (en)
FR (1) FR2153190B1 (en)

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4018218A (en) * 1975-03-12 1977-04-19 Carlson James E Method and apparatus for sleep induction
US4071033A (en) * 1976-12-20 1978-01-31 Nawracaj Edward P Electrotherapeutic device with modulated dual signals
US4102347A (en) * 1976-12-03 1978-07-25 Yukl Tex N Electronic pain control system
US4121594A (en) * 1977-09-26 1978-10-24 Med General, Inc. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator
US4185640A (en) * 1977-07-29 1980-01-29 Moskovsky Oblastnoi Nauchno-Isslevovatelsky Institut Akusherstva I. Ginekologii Device for pulse current action on central nervous system
US4226246A (en) * 1977-05-27 1980-10-07 Carba Societe Anonyme Apparatus for maintaining the negative potential of human, animal, and plant cells
US4249537A (en) * 1979-05-18 1981-02-10 Chaconas Charles G Current controlled muscle stimulator
US4305402A (en) * 1979-06-29 1981-12-15 Katims Jefferson J Method for transcutaneous electrical stimulation
FR2493074A1 (en) * 1980-10-23 1982-04-30 Gorenje Tovarna Gospodinjske A control circuit for a therapeutic stimulator for the treatment of urinary incontinence
US4388929A (en) * 1980-12-11 1983-06-21 Vitafin N.V. Programmable pacer and method of external programming
EP0111229A2 (en) * 1982-12-08 1984-06-20 Neurotronic (1981) Ltee. Electric nerve stimulator device
US4503863A (en) * 1979-06-29 1985-03-12 Katims Jefferson J Method and apparatus for transcutaneous electrical stimulation
US4573449A (en) * 1983-03-08 1986-03-04 Warnke Egon F Method for stimulating the falling asleep and/or relaxing behavior of a person and an arrangement therefor
EP0592851A2 (en) * 1992-09-25 1994-04-20 Symtonic S.A. Method and system for applying low energy emission therapy
US5387231A (en) * 1992-07-21 1995-02-07 Sporer; Patsy Electrotherapy method
US5577990A (en) * 1993-12-28 1996-11-26 Nusa Widjaja Trophotropic response method
US5643173A (en) * 1995-09-01 1997-07-01 Welles; William F. Method and apparatus for stress relief
US6505079B1 (en) 2000-09-13 2003-01-07 Foster Bio Technology Corp. Electrical stimulation of tissue for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes
US6567702B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2003-05-20 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Eliciting analgesia by transcranial electrical stimulation
US20030158589A1 (en) * 2002-02-15 2003-08-21 Katsnelson Yakov S. Transcranial electrostimulation apparatus and method
WO2004011080A1 (en) * 2002-07-30 2004-02-05 Second Sight, Llc Field focusing and mapping in an electrode array
US7079659B1 (en) * 1996-03-26 2006-07-18 Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International Sound generating apparatus and method, sound generating space and sound, each provided for significantly increasing cerebral blood flows of persons
US20070293909A1 (en) * 2006-06-20 2007-12-20 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless spine stimulation
US20100160998A1 (en) * 2004-10-23 2010-06-24 Bell John O Passive monitoring of bioelectical signals and active electrical anesthesia stimulation
US7894907B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2011-02-22 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless nerve stimulation
US20110093033A1 (en) * 2009-10-16 2011-04-21 Stanford University Eliciting analgesia by transcranial electrical stimulation
US8428735B2 (en) 2004-05-24 2013-04-23 Bioinduction Limited Electrotherapy apparatus
US9186505B2 (en) 2014-02-21 2015-11-17 Novo HB, LLC Transcranial electrostimulation device and method
US9452286B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2016-09-27 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless tissue stimulation

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5745190B2 (en) * 1976-05-19 1982-09-27
US4243043A (en) * 1979-07-11 1981-01-06 Sevastianov Viktor V Apparatus for electrical stimulation of mammae
FR2500309B3 (en) * 1981-02-25 1983-02-11 Faiveley Sa
FR2612712B1 (en) * 1987-03-17 1992-11-27 Sfilio Sebastien Generator signal amplitude modulator uses in the medical, paramedical, veterinary and cosmetic

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1088607A (en) * 1964-08-20 1967-10-25 List Hans Electronic soporificator and anesthetizer
FR1554569A (en) * 1966-01-19 1969-01-24
GB1165541A (en) * 1965-06-11 1969-10-01 Warren S Lockwood Ltd Sleep Inducing Device.
US3648708A (en) * 1969-06-23 1972-03-14 Mehdi Haeri Electrical therapeutic device
US3712292A (en) * 1971-07-20 1973-01-23 Karen Lafley V Method and apparatus for producing swept frequency-modulated audio signal patterns for inducing sleep
US3727616A (en) * 1971-06-15 1973-04-17 Gen Dynamics Corp Electronic system for the stimulation of biological systems

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1088607A (en) * 1964-08-20 1967-10-25 List Hans Electronic soporificator and anesthetizer
GB1165541A (en) * 1965-06-11 1969-10-01 Warren S Lockwood Ltd Sleep Inducing Device.
FR1554569A (en) * 1966-01-19 1969-01-24
US3648708A (en) * 1969-06-23 1972-03-14 Mehdi Haeri Electrical therapeutic device
US3727616A (en) * 1971-06-15 1973-04-17 Gen Dynamics Corp Electronic system for the stimulation of biological systems
US3712292A (en) * 1971-07-20 1973-01-23 Karen Lafley V Method and apparatus for producing swept frequency-modulated audio signal patterns for inducing sleep

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Buchsbaum, Electronics World, Sept. 1963, pp. 27 29. *

Cited By (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4018218A (en) * 1975-03-12 1977-04-19 Carlson James E Method and apparatus for sleep induction
US4102347A (en) * 1976-12-03 1978-07-25 Yukl Tex N Electronic pain control system
US4071033A (en) * 1976-12-20 1978-01-31 Nawracaj Edward P Electrotherapeutic device with modulated dual signals
US4226246A (en) * 1977-05-27 1980-10-07 Carba Societe Anonyme Apparatus for maintaining the negative potential of human, animal, and plant cells
US4185640A (en) * 1977-07-29 1980-01-29 Moskovsky Oblastnoi Nauchno-Isslevovatelsky Institut Akusherstva I. Ginekologii Device for pulse current action on central nervous system
US4121594A (en) * 1977-09-26 1978-10-24 Med General, Inc. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator
US4249537A (en) * 1979-05-18 1981-02-10 Chaconas Charles G Current controlled muscle stimulator
US4503863A (en) * 1979-06-29 1985-03-12 Katims Jefferson J Method and apparatus for transcutaneous electrical stimulation
US4305402A (en) * 1979-06-29 1981-12-15 Katims Jefferson J Method for transcutaneous electrical stimulation
FR2493074A1 (en) * 1980-10-23 1982-04-30 Gorenje Tovarna Gospodinjske A control circuit for a therapeutic stimulator for the treatment of urinary incontinence
US4387719A (en) * 1980-10-23 1983-06-14 Gorenje Tovarna Gospodinjske Opreme N.Sol.O. Velenje Control circuit of a therapeutic stimulator for the urinary incontinence
US4388929A (en) * 1980-12-11 1983-06-21 Vitafin N.V. Programmable pacer and method of external programming
EP0111229A3 (en) * 1982-12-08 1984-07-25 Neurotronic (1981) Ltee. Electric nerve stimulator device
EP0111229A2 (en) * 1982-12-08 1984-06-20 Neurotronic (1981) Ltee. Electric nerve stimulator device
US4573449A (en) * 1983-03-08 1986-03-04 Warnke Egon F Method for stimulating the falling asleep and/or relaxing behavior of a person and an arrangement therefor
US5387231A (en) * 1992-07-21 1995-02-07 Sporer; Patsy Electrotherapy method
EP0592851A2 (en) * 1992-09-25 1994-04-20 Symtonic S.A. Method and system for applying low energy emission therapy
EP0592851A3 (en) * 1992-09-25 1997-08-06 Symtonic Sa Method and system for applying low energy emission therapy
US5577990A (en) * 1993-12-28 1996-11-26 Nusa Widjaja Trophotropic response method
US5643173A (en) * 1995-09-01 1997-07-01 Welles; William F. Method and apparatus for stress relief
US7079659B1 (en) * 1996-03-26 2006-07-18 Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International Sound generating apparatus and method, sound generating space and sound, each provided for significantly increasing cerebral blood flows of persons
US6567702B1 (en) 1999-10-15 2003-05-20 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Eliciting analgesia by transcranial electrical stimulation
US6505079B1 (en) 2000-09-13 2003-01-07 Foster Bio Technology Corp. Electrical stimulation of tissue for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes
US6904322B2 (en) * 2002-02-15 2005-06-07 Kalaco Scientific, Inc. Transcranial electrostimulation apparatus and method
US20030158589A1 (en) * 2002-02-15 2003-08-21 Katsnelson Yakov S. Transcranial electrostimulation apparatus and method
WO2004011080A1 (en) * 2002-07-30 2004-02-05 Second Sight, Llc Field focusing and mapping in an electrode array
US8428735B2 (en) 2004-05-24 2013-04-23 Bioinduction Limited Electrotherapy apparatus
US20100160998A1 (en) * 2004-10-23 2010-06-24 Bell John O Passive monitoring of bioelectical signals and active electrical anesthesia stimulation
US7986996B2 (en) 2004-10-23 2011-07-26 Bell John O Passive monitoring of bioelectical signals and active electrical anesthesia stimulation
US20110118810A1 (en) * 2006-06-20 2011-05-19 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless nerve stimulation
US8494642B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2013-07-23 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless spine stimulation
US7899542B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2011-03-01 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless spine stimulation
US20110166621A1 (en) * 2006-06-20 2011-07-07 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless spine stimulation
US7894907B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2011-02-22 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless nerve stimulation
US20070293909A1 (en) * 2006-06-20 2007-12-20 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless spine stimulation
US8494643B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2013-07-23 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless nerve stimulation
US9452286B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2016-09-27 Ebr Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for implantable leadless tissue stimulation
US20110093033A1 (en) * 2009-10-16 2011-04-21 Stanford University Eliciting analgesia by transcranial electrical stimulation
US9101766B2 (en) 2009-10-16 2015-08-11 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Eliciting analgesia by transcranial electrical stimulation
US9186505B2 (en) 2014-02-21 2015-11-17 Novo HB, LLC Transcranial electrostimulation device and method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
FR2153190B1 (en) 1974-03-29 grant
FR2153190A1 (en) 1973-05-04 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5097833A (en) Transcutaneous electrical nerve and/or muscle stimulator
US4848347A (en) Interferential electrical current therapy systems and methods
US6826429B2 (en) Interferential current treatment apparatus
US4690145A (en) Output limited electrical stimulator for biological tissue
US4154240A (en) Electric power source for electrosurgical apparatus
Hellman Asymmetry of masking between noise and tone
Stevens et al. Theory of the neural quantum in the discrimination of loudness and pitch
US5241967A (en) System for evoking electroencephalogram signals
US4682106A (en) Methods of, and apparatus for, proton decoupling in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
US4909255A (en) Apparatus for electric stimulation therapy equipment
US4148321A (en) Apparatuses and methods for therapeutic treatment and active massages of muscles
US4779184A (en) Switch mode power supply with reduced noise
US4023574A (en) Electrostimulation method and apparatus
US3958577A (en) Apparatus for treatment with sum currents
US3586791A (en) Method and apparatus for hearing by biodetection and biotransduction of radiofrequency energy
US4431002A (en) Modulated deep afferent stimulator
US3077884A (en) Electro-physiotherapy apparatus
US4071033A (en) Electrotherapeutic device with modulated dual signals
US3893463A (en) Dual channel stimulator
Nuetzel et al. Lateralization of complex waveforms: Effects of fine structure, amplitude, and duration
US4052658A (en) Inverter circuit for producing synthesized sinusoidal waveforms
US4887603A (en) Medical stimulator with stimulation signal characteristics modulated as a function of stimulation signal frequency
US4130811A (en) Modulation system
Regan et al. Selective adaptation to frequency‐modulated tones: Evidence for an information‐processing channel selectively sensitive to frequency changes
US4453548A (en) Method of improving sensory tolerance with modulated nerve stimulator