US3793233A - Liquid detergent compositions - Google Patents

Liquid detergent compositions Download PDF

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US3793233A
US3793233A US3793233DA US3793233A US 3793233 A US3793233 A US 3793233A US 3793233D A US3793233D A US 3793233DA US 3793233 A US3793233 A US 3793233A
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alkyl
sulfate
compositions
alcohol
sudsing
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F Rose
K Theile
H County
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Procter and Gamble Co
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/02Anionic compounds
    • C11D1/12Sulfonic acids or sulfuric acid esters; Salts thereof
    • C11D1/29Sulfates of polyoxyalkylene ethers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/02Anionic compounds
    • C11D1/37Mixtures of compounds all of which are anionic
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/66Non-ionic compounds
    • C11D1/83Mixtures of non-ionic with anionic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/02Anionic compounds
    • C11D1/12Sulfonic acids or sulfuric acid esters; Salts thereof
    • C11D1/14Sulfonic acids or sulfuric acid esters; Salts thereof derived from aliphatic hydrocarbons or mono-alcohols
    • C11D1/146Sulfuric acid esters
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/02Anionic compounds
    • C11D1/12Sulfonic acids or sulfuric acid esters; Salts thereof
    • C11D1/16Sulfonic acids or sulfuric acid esters; Salts thereof derived from divalent or polyvalent alcohols
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES AND WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D1/00Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent
    • C11D1/66Non-ionic compounds
    • C11D1/75Amino oxides

Abstract

LIQUID DETERGENT COMPOSITIONS HAVING EXCELLENT SUDSING AND MILDNESS CHARACTERISTICS AND CONSISTING ESSENTIALLY OF (1) FROM ABOUT 8% TO ABOUT 35% OF AN ALKYL ETHER SULFATE OBTAINED BY SULFATING AND NEUTRALIZING THE CONDENSATION PRODUCT OF FOM ABOUT 5 TO ABOUT 12 MOLES OF ETHYLENE OXIDE AND 1 MOLE OF A HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT ALCOHOL HAVING FROM ABOUT 10 TO ABOUT 16 CARBON ATOMS; (2) AN ALKYL SULFATE HAVING THE FORMULA ROSO3-M WHEREIN R IS ALKYL AVING FROM ABOUT 10 TO ABOUT 16 CARBON ATOMS; AND M IS A SALT-FORMING CATION; THE RATIO OF SAID ALKYL ETHER SULFATE OF SAID ALKYL SULFATE BEING FROM ABOUT 2 : 1 TO ABOUT 6 : 1 AND THE BALANCE BEING WATER. THE COMPOSITIONS HAVE A DESIRABLE BALANCE OF CLEANING, SUDSING AND MILDNESS PROPERTIES AND ARE PARTICULARLY USEFUL IN DISHWASHING AND TIGHT-DUTY LAUNDERING SITUATIONS.

Description

3,793,233 LIQUID DETERGENT COMPOSITIONS Frederick G. Rose and Kenneth W. Theile, Springfield Township, Hamilton County, Ohio, assignors to The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio No Drawing. Filed Nov. 24, 1969, Ser. No. 879,522 Int. Cl. Clld 1/14, 1/28, 1/83 US. Cl. 252-547 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Liquid detergent compositions having excellent sudsing and mildness characteristics and consisting essentially of (1) from about 8% to about 35% of an alkyl ether sulfate obtained by sulfating and neutralizing the condensation product of from about to about 12 moles of ethylene oxide and 1 mole of a high molecular weight alcohol having from about to about 16 carbon atoms; (2) an alkyl sulfate having the formula ROSO -M wherein R is alkyl having from about 10 to about 16 carbon atoms; and M is a salt-forming cation; the ratio of said alkyl ether sulfate to said alkyl sulfate being from about 2:1 to about 6:1 and the balance being water. The compositions have a desirable balance of cleaning, sudsing and mildness properties and are particularly useful in dishwashing and light-duty laundering situations.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to liquid detergent compositions. More particularly it relates to liquid detergent compositions comprising a mixture of surface-active compounds having exceptional sudsing and mildness characteristics.

The quantity and persistence of suds are very important in light-duty liquid detergent compositions intended for dishwashing and the like. Frequently, the detergent capacity of a washing solution is gauged by the user by the amount of suds present and the persistence of suds for a reasonable period of time. Since the washing of dishes frequently constitutes exposure of the hands to a detergent solution, a suitable detergent composition must additionally be characterized by mildness to the skin. The attainment of the combined properties of desirable sudsing and mildness levels in liquid detergent compositions is a matter of difiicult formulation. Liquid compositions 113N- ing high sudsing qualities are often harsh on the skin.

' Conversely, liquid compositions characterized by desirable mildness to the hands of the user are frequently deficient in their sudsing and/ or detergent qualities.

The employment of sulfated and neutralized ethoxylates has become Widespread in part because of their desirable cleaning effects, excellent foam stability and low cost. These detergents correspond to the formula where R is alkyl derived from a high molecular weight alcohol, M is a salt-forming cation and r represents an average number of ethylene oxide groups. These products are derived by sulfation and neutralization of an ethoxylate derived by condensation of r moles of ethylene oxide per mole of a high molecular weight alcohol. Varying effects on sudsing and mildness properties with variations in the nature of the ethoxylate employed have been known. Improvements in either sudsing or mildness qualities have frequently been obtained at the expense of the other. The product having an average ethylene oxide value of three (r) has been described in British Pat. 791,704 (Mar. 12, 1958) as representing an optimum taking both mildness and detergency into consideration.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a highsudsing, light-duty liquid detergent composition.

United States Patent 0 It is another object of this invention to provide a high sudsing light-duty liquid detergent composition having desirable mildness to the skin.

It is still another object of the invention to provide a liquid detergent composition ha ving exceptional sudsing and mildness properties and being based on a sulfated and neutralized ethoxylate detergent.

Other objects of the invention will be apparent from consideration of the invention described in greater detail hereinafter.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is based in part on the discovery that the sudsing qualities of a liquid detergent composition containing a sulfated and neutralized ethoxylate of from about 5 to about 12 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of high molecular weight alcohol can be substantially improved by addition of an alkyl sulfate detergent with retention of desirable mildness properties.

The present invention enables the provision of lightduty liquid detergent compositions having excellent sudsing and mildness properties. These compositions consist essentially of:

(1) from about 8% to about 35% of an alkyl ether sulfate obtained by sulfating and neutralizing the condensation product of from about 5 to about 12 moles of ethylene oxide and 1 mole of a high molecular weight alcohol having from about 10 to about 16 carbon atoms and having the formula where R is alkyl having from about 10 to about 16 carbon atoms; M is a salt-forming cation; and r has an average value of from about 5 to about 12;

(2) an alkyl sulfate having the formula ROSO M wherein R is alkyl having from about 10 to about 16 carbon atoms; and M is a salt-forming cation; the ratio of said alkyl ether sulfate to said alkyl sulfate being from about 2:1 to about 6:1; and

(3) the balance water.

The compositions of the invention as defined hereinbefore are characterized by excellent detergent, sudsing and mildness properties.

The sulfated and neutralized ethoxylate detergents of the invention are well known. Their preparation and properties are described, for example, in British Pat. 791,704 (Mar. 12, 1958); British Pat. 797,119 (June 25, 1958); US. Pat. 3,179,599 to Eaton et al. (Apr. 20, 1965 The Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 36, pp. 241-244 (June 1959); The Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 37, pp. 472-430 (September 1960); and The Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 45, pp. 738-741 (November 1968). These detergents, termed hereinafter for convenience as alkyl ether sulfates, are employed in the compositions of the invention in an amount of from about 8% to about 35% by weight. The alkyl ether sulfates of the invention correspond to the formula hereinbefore described. For purposes of the present invention, the designation of the value of r as an average value of from about 5 to about 12 refers to the number of moles of ethylene oxide reacted per mole of high molecular weight alcohol to form the ethoxylated alcohol product which is subsequently sulfated and neutralized to provide the alkyl ether sulfate component of the invention.

It will be appreciated that the alkyl ether sulfate component comprises a mixture of water-soluble salts. This mixture comprises a distribution of alkyl ether sulfate detergent molecules of varying ethylene oxide content. When a given number, for example 6, moles of ethylene oxide are reacted with 1 mole of a high molecular weight alcohol, the resulting ethoxylated alcohol reaction product is comprised of a mixture of ether molecules having varying numbers of ethylene oxide groups. Generally, the mixture will contain a mixture of ether compounds wherein the mono-(ethylene glycol)- ether derivative is present admixed with alkyl ether compounds containing a variable number of ethylene oxide groups extending from alkyl di-(ethylene glycol) ether to an alkyl poly-(ethylene glycol) ether wherein the number of ethylene oxide groups is equal to or greater than about twice the number of moles of ethylene oxide reacted with the high molecular alcohol.

The product having a number of ethylene oxide groups equal to the number of moles of ethylene oxide reacted with high molecular weight alcohol tends to predominate. The designation hereinafter of r as being 5 or 12 refers, respectively, to the alkyl ether sulfate detergent product which is the result of sulfation and neutralization in a known manner of an ethoxylated condensate derived from reaction of 5 or 12 moles, respectively, of ethylene oxide per mole of high molecular weight alcohol.

The alkyl ether sulfate component of the invention comprises from about 8% to about 35% by weight of the liquid detergent composition of the invention. Preferred from the standpoints of desirable sudsing and economic considerations is an amount of from about 15% to about 25%.

The alkyl ether sulfates of the invention can be prepared by sulfation and neutralization of a condensate prepared by reaction of from about 5 to about 12 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of a monohydric alcohol having from about 10 to about 16 carbon atoms. Suitable alcohols for preparation of the condensate include those derived from fats and synthetic alcohols. Examples of these alcohols include decyl alcohol, dodecyl alcohol, oxobased tridecyl alcohol, tetradecyl alcohol, hexadecyl alcohol and alcohols derived by reducing fatty oils such as coconut oil, palm oil, kernel oil, babassu oil, coconut fatty acids or their alkyl esters. Chain lengths of less than ten carbon atoms give reduced detergency and sudsing while those greater than 16 tend to reduce the quantity of suds which are produced. Preferred alcohols are the straight-chain alcohols having from 12 to 14 carbon atoms and wherein at least 50% of the alkyl groups contain 12 carbon atoms. Especially preferred herein are the alcohols corresponding in chain lengths to the middle-cut coconut alcohols. The term alkyl is intended to include the olefinic as well as true alkyl groups and includes those derived from fatty origin such as oleyl alcohol and the like.

Sulfation and neutralization of the condensation products of ethylene oxide and higher molecular alcohol, described hereinbefore, can be conducted by known methods. The condensation of ethylene oxide and alcohol, such as middle-cut fatty alcohol from coconut oil, can be carried out in an autoclave in the presence of an alkaline catalyst such as sodium hydroxide. The condensation can also be carried out using acidic catalysts such as stannic chloride or boron trifluoride, which provide condensates at lower temperatures and pressures.

Sulfation of the condensate of fatty alcohol and ethylene oxide can be carried out batchwise or continuously employing chlorosulfonic acid or sulfur trioxide. A temperature of from about 75 F. to 135 F. is suitable for this purpose. The sulfated product is neutralized by reaction with an alkali metal base, (e.g. sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide) ammonium hydroxide or alkylolsubstituted ammonias. Preferred alkylol-substituted ammonias are mono-, di-, and tri-ethanol amines, mono-, di-, and tri-isopropanol amines and mono-, di-, and triglycerol amines, i.e., those in which the alkylol group has from 2 to 3 carbon atoms. Depending upon the neutralizing agent employed in carrying out neutralization of the sulfated alcohol ethoxylate, M in the hereinbefore described formula will be a water-solubilizing cation such as sodium, potassium, ammonium, trimethanolamine or the like.

Notwithstanding the known use of alkyl ether sulfates in liquid detergent compositions, compositions having both improved mildness and sudsing properties have been difficult to formulate. The employment of alkyl ether sulfate detergents derived from sulfation and neutralization of a condensate of from 5 to 12 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of high molecular weight alcohol, while having desirable mildness properties have been significantly deficient in sudsing qualities. The improvement in detergent and/ or sudsing properties obtained by employing an alkyl ether sulfate derived from an ethoxylate of 3 moles per mole of high molecular alcohol has been at the expense of reduced mildness.

It has been found that the loss in sudsing properties resulting from the employment of an alkyl ether sulfate derived from a condensate of from about 5 to 12 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of high molecular weight alcohol, compared to a condensate of 3 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of such alcohol, can be restored by the employment of an alkyl sulfate detergent. The restoration of sudsing properties by the addition of alkyl sulfate, itself a harsh detergent, occurs without a concurrent loss in mildness properties. The employment of the combination, for example, of an alkyl ether sulfate derived from a condensate of 6 moles ethylene oxide per mole of alcohol and an alkyl sulfate enables the formulation of detergent compositions having sudsing qualities equal to those based upon an alkyl ether sulfate product derived from a condensate of 3 moles ethylene oxide per mole of alcohol while retaining the mildness levels of the alkyl ether sulfate component. Accordingly, the combined use of an alkyl ether sulfate component as hereinbefore described and an alkyl sulfate detergent enables the formulation of light duty liquid detergent compositions having a desirable balance of both sudsing and mildness properties.

The alkyl sulfate component of the present invention conforms to the following formula ROSO M wherein R and M are as defined hereinbefore. The alkyl sulfate component of the invention is employed in an amount which provides a ratio of alkyl ether sulfate to alkyl sulfate of from about 2:1 to about 6: 1. A preferred ratio is from about 2.5 :1 to about 5:1 and provides an optimum balance of sudsing and mildness properties. Normally the compositions of the invention will contain from about 1.5% to about 12% of alkyl sulfate.

As indicated hereinbefore, the alkyl ether sulfate component of the invention will comprise a'mixture of sulfate detergent molecules. To the extent that such mixture will contain a minor amount of alkyl sulfate wherein no ethylene oxide groups are present, the presence of minor amounts of such compounds can be taken into consideration in preparing the compositions of the invention. The hereinbefore specified amounts of alkyl sulfate refer to the presence of alkyl sulfate exclusive of any alkyl sulfate which may comprise a portion of the alkyl ether sulfate component.

Since the alkyl ether sulfate components of the invention do not alone provide a desirable level of sudsing properties, the incorporation of alkyl sulfate is essential to the attainment of the desired balance of sudsing and mildness qualities characteristic of the compositions of the invention.

The detergent compositions of the invention can be formulated by conventional methods. For example, the alkyl ether sulfate, alkyl sulfate and optional components can be incorporated into aqueous solution individually or in combination. The alkyl sulfate and alkyl ether sulfate components are preferably added in admixture. A preferred means of effecting simultaneous addition involves preparation in situ of alkyl sulfate during the preparation of the alkyl ether sulfate component. This can be effected by addition of an alcohol of from about to about 16 carbon atoms to an ethoxylated product obtained by the condensation of from about 5 to about 12 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of alcohol. Subsequent sulfation and neutralization of the resulting mixture effects the formation from the unreacted alcohol of alkyl sulfate of the formula ROSO M simultaneously with the preparation of the alkyl ether sulfate, R and M having the definitions described hereinbefore.

The detergent compositions of the invention can contain any of the usual detergent adjuvants. For example, solubilizing agents, viscosity control agents such as toluene sulfonates and xylene sulfonates, perfumes, anti-tarnishing agents, opacifiers such as ethylene glycol distearate or polystyrene, inert salts such as sodium sulfate, anti-redeposition agents, bacteriostatis agents, dyes, fluorescers, suds builders, and the like, can be utilized herein without detracting from the advantageous properties of these compositions. Suitable solubilizing agents include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl alcohols and are employed in an amount of from about 5% to 12% of the composition of the invention.

The compositions of the invention, in addition to the presence of the alkyl ether sulfate and alkyl sulfate components described hereinbefore, can contain water-soluble detergent compounds. Suitable detergents are those which do not interfere with the desirable detergent, sudsing and mildness properties of the compositions of the invention. Such materials should be employed in non-interfering amounts so as to avoid the minimization or masking of the advantageous properties of the combined alkyl ether sulfate and alkyl sulfate components of the invention.

Suitable water-soluble. detergents include anionic (e.g.,-

alkali metal salts of alkyl benzene sulfonates, alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonates, olefin sulfonates), nonionic (e.g., alkylene oxide condensates of aliphatic and alkyl aromatic compounds), ampholytic (e.g., sodium 3-dodecylaminopropionate) and zwitterionic (e.g., 3-(N,N-dimethyl-N- hexadecylannnonio)propane 1 sulfonate and 3-(N,N- dimethyl-N-hexadecylammonio) 2 hydroxypropane-lsulfonate) detergents. Suitable examples of water-soluble detergents are described in US. Pat. 3,351,558 (Nov. 7, 1967) at column 6 line 57 to column 9, line 74. Preferred olefin sulfonates are the olefin sulfonates having from aboutlo to about 24 carbon atoms and obtained by sulfonation of OL-OICfiIlS with gaseous sulfur trioxide. These include the alkali metal and ammonium tetradecene and hexadecene sulfonates. Other examples are described in US. 3,332,880 (July 25, 1967).

Preferred detergents herein include the alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonates, trialkyl amine oxides, olefin sulfonates andzwitterionic detergents. Mixtures of these detergents can be employed. In this respect, a preferred embodiment of the present invention comprises a liquid detergent composition consisting essentially of from about to about of an alkyl ether sulfate having the formula wherein R is a straight-chain alkyl having from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms, M is alkali metal or ammonium and r has an average value of from about 5 to about 12; an alkyl sulfate having the formula ROSO M wherein R and M are as defined above and the ratio of said alkyl ether sulfate to said alkyl sulfate is from about D-Amrnonium alkyl sulfate 2.521 to about 5:1; from about 2% to about 6% of an alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonate having a straight-chain alkyl of from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms and the cation of said sulfonate is alkali metal, ammonium or alkylolarnine; and from about 2% to about 8% of a trialkyl amine oxide having one straight chain alkyl of from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms and two shortchain alkyl groups of from 1 to about 2 carbon atoms. Preferably, the long-chain alkyl of each class of detergent is comprised of at least 50% alkyl groups having 12 carbon atoms.

These preferred compositions provide excellent cleaning, sudsing and mildness qualities and are particularly suited for dishwashiug and light-duty fabric laundering.

The desirable sudsing and mildness characteristics of the liquid detergent compositions of the invention are apparent from the following examples which serve to illustrate the invention. All parts set forth herein are by Weight unless otherwise indicated.

EXAMPLE I Compositions containing varying amounts of the following components were prepared: (A) the ammonium salt of the sulfated condensation product of one mole of middle-cut coconut alcohol containing 2% C 66% C 23% C and 9% C alkyl groups with 3 moles of ethylene oxide; (B) the ammonium salt of the sulfated condensation product of one mole of the same middle-cut coconut alcohol and 6 moles of ethylene oxide; (C) the ammonium salt of the sulfated condensation product of one mole of the same middle-cut coconut alcohol and 12 moles of ethylene oxide; and (D) ammonium alkyl sulfate wherein the alkyl is derived from the same middle-cut coconut alcohol. The compositions also contained the following components in the stated proportions: (E) sodium alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonate wherein the alkyl is derived from the same middle-cut coconut alcohol; and (F) a tertiary amine oxide having a long alkyl chain derived from the same middle-cut coconut alcohol and two methyl groups.

B-Ammonium alkyl (CzH4O)s sulfate. O-Ammouium alkyl (021340) sulfate ESodium alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonate. Facocimubalkyl dimethyl amine oxide ano Ethylene glycol distearate Miscellaneous (brightener, perfume, e Water, balance to parts In order to evaluate the sudsing ability of these compositions, 7 cc. of each of the compositions was added to a dishpan containing one gallon of water with a hardness of 7 grains at a temperature of F, and a pH of 8. Suds were generated by mechanical agitation (small propeller) and the suds level measured. The time required to generate two inches of suds was recorded. A fixed quantity (about 5 grams) of standardized fatty soil (a triglyceride shortening) was placed on a dinner plate which was then washed in the test solution. The plate was resoiled and washed, repeating this procedure a total of five times. Five additional sets of five soiled plates were washed in the solution in like manner, measuring the foam height after each set. The foam height after washing each set was expressed in terms of percent of original suds height and an average of the five percentage values was computed and is reported below. A difference of about 5% in foam height is considered significant and noticeable by the housewife. Results are recorded in Table I. Numbers in parentheses indicate duplicate test results.

As can be seen from the data in the preceding table, the compositions of the invention (Compositions 1 and 2) are characterized by sudsing properties (speed and stability) which are superior to comparable compositions containing an ammonium salt of a sulfated condensate of one mole middle-cut coconut alcohol and 6 moles ethylene oxide (Composition 4) or an ammonium salt of a sulfated condensate of one mole middle-cut coconut alcohol and 12 moles ethylene oxide (Composition 5). Particularly significant is the shorter period of time required to generate two inches of suds. In addition, the compositions of the invention compare in sudsing performance to compositions containing a conventional alkyl ether sulfate, i.e., an ammonium salt of the sulfated condensate of one mole middle-cut coconut alcohol and 3 moles ethylene oxide (Composition 3). The sudsing characteristics of the compositions of the invention are particularly significant in view of the amounts of detergent active in Compositions 1 and 2 which provide greater sudsing performance per part of detergent active than Composition 3. The excellent sudsing performance per part of detergent active represents a significant cost advantage.

In order to evaluate the mildness characteristics of the compositions of the invention the following tests were employed.

Elbow-crease wash test A panel of ten subjects is employed in each test. The inner aspect of a subjects elbow is washed for 30 seconds with a small terry cloth washcloth saturated with a warm solution of the detergent compositions to be tested. The resulting lather is allowed to remain in contact with the skin for an additional 30 seconds. The area is blotted dry with a paper towel. The washing procedure is carried out three times daily for each of four consecutive days and two times the following day. Before each washing, the inside of the elbow is graded for over-all skin condition using a standard 1 to 10 scale where 10 represents no sign of any irritation and 1 represents severe irritation. A grade of 7 represents moderate irritation. The subjects skin is graded after the final washing. The grades for each subject are averaged. A control composition is concurrently evaluated in the same manner by washing the subjects other arm. A composition is considered to be milder than a control composition if a difference of 0.5 or greater is present.

Hand immersion test A panel of six subjects is employed in each test. The subjects hand is soaked in an immersion tank containing a 2% solution of the composition to be tested. The hand is soaked for 30 minutes each day for a five-day period. Solution temperature is held at 105 F. The solution is continuously stirred with a magnetic stirrer. The subjects hand is rinsed and wiped dry following the soaking period. The subjects hand is graded microscopically for scaliness and visually for erythema prior to the initial washing and approximately five hours after each washing. The condition of the skin is graded on a descending scale where 10 represents no scaliness or irritation. A grade of 6 represents a moderate irritation. A control composition is evaluated concurrently using. the subjects other arm. At the end of each test, the grades (both for scaliness and erythema) for each subject are averaged. A composition is considered to be milder than a comparative composition if a difference of 0.5 or greater is present.

Arm immersion test The arm immersion test is conducted in the same manner as the hand immersion test described hereinbefore, except that the subjects arms are immersed from the elbow to the hand in troughs containing the compositions to be evaluated. The subjects arms are evaluated for scaling and erythema.

Composition 1 of the invention was evaluated for mildness characteristics and compared with a similar composition free of additional ammonium alkyl sulfate (Composition 4). The results are tabulated as follows:

TABLE II Hand Elbow immersion crease scaling] wash 1 erythema Composition:

1 Average of two tests involving two panels.

TAB LE III Hand Elbow immersion crease scaling] wash erythema Composition:

As can be seen from the above data, the addition of ammonium alkyl sulfate in Composition 2 of the invention is without detrimental influence on mildness characteristics.

Compositions 1 and 2 of the invention were evaluated for mildness and compared with compositions containing a conventional alkyl ether sulfate, i.e., the ammonium salt of the condensate of 1 mole middle-cut coconut alcohol and 3 moles ethylene oxide (Composition 3). The results are tabulated as follows:

TABLE IV Hand Arm Elbowimmersion immersion crease scaling] scaling] wash 1 erythema erythema Composition:

1 Average of eight tests involving eight panels.

TABLE V Elbow-crease wash 1 Composition 2 8.7 Composition 3 7.7

1 Average of four tests involving four panels.

As can be seen from the above data, the compositions of the invention are characterized by improved mildness properties.

When the sulfate and, sulfonate detergent surfactants in the preceding example are the monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanol amine, or potassium salts, substantially equivalent results are achieved.

Similarly, when the ethyl alcohol solubilizing agent is replaced by methyl, isopropyl, or normal proply alcohols, substantially equivalent results are achieved.

EXAMPLE II The following compositions were prepared, Components A, C, D and F being as described in Example I:

Compositions Components 6 7 A.A.mmonium alkyl (CH4O)a sulfate 13 O-Ammonium alkyl (CzH40)12 sulfate" 9.8 DAmmonium alkyl sulfate 3. 2 F-Coeonut-alkyl dimethyl amine oxide 2. 75 2. 75 3-(N,N-dimethylN-alkylam monio)-2-hydroxypropane-l-sultonate (wherein the alkyl is the same as in Components A, C, D and F) 4. 25 4. 25 Sodium salt, of olefin sulfonate (from 50:50 mixture of On and On a-olefins) 21. 21. 0 Ethanol 10. 10. 5 Miscellaneous (electrolyte, perfume, etc.) 1 Water, balance to 100 parts Compositions 6 and 7 were mildness tested employing the Elbow-Crease Wash Test. The results are tabulated as follows:

TABLE VI Elbow-crease Wash Composition 6 8.2 Composition 7 7.2

The composition of the invention (Composition 6) was milder than a composition containing ammonium alkyl (C H.,O) sulfate (Composition 7).

Compositions 6 and 7 were tested for sudsing properties according to the test method hereinbefore described. The following data represents an average of two such tests:

TABLE VII Time to Percent generate original two inches suds height suds Composition:

R(OC H ),--OSO M wherein R is alkyl having from about 10 to about 16 carbon atoms; M is a salt-forming cation; and r wherein R is alkyl having from about '10 to about 16 carbon atoms; and M is a salt-forming cation; the

10 ratio of said alkyl ether sulfate to said alkyl sulfate being from about 2:1 to about 6: 1;

(3) from about 2% to about 6% of an alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonate having a straight-chain alkyl of from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms and wherein the cation of said sulfonate is alkali metal, ammonium or alkylolamine;

(4) from about 2% to about 8% of a trialkylamine oxide having one straight-chain alkyl of from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms and two short-chain alkyl groups of from 1 to about 2 carbon atoms; and

(5) the balance water.

2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the alkyl ether sulfate has the formula wherein R is a straight-chain alkyl having from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms and at least 50% of said alkyl groups have 12 carbon atoms; and M is ammonium.

3. The composition of claim 2 wherein the ratio of alkyl ether sulfate to alkyl sulfate is from about 2.5:1 to about 5:1.

4. The composition of claim 3 wherein the alkyl sulfate has the formula ROSO M wherein R is a straight-chain alkyl having from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms and at least 50% of said alkyl groups have carbon atoms; and M is ammonium.

5. A composition of claim 4 wherein the alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonate is sodium alkyl glyceryl ether sulfonate and the alkyl group contains from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms with at least 50% of said alkyl groups having 12 carbon atoms; and wherein the trialkyl amine oxide is alkyldimethyl amine oxide and the alkyl group contains from about 12 to about 14 carbon atoms with at least 5 0% of said alkyl groups having 12 carbon atoms.

6. The composition of claim 5 additionally containing from about 5% to 12% of a solubilizing agent selected from the group consisting of methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and mixtures thereof.

7. The composition of claim 4 additionally containing from about 5% to 12% of a solubilizing agent selected from the group consisting of methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and mixtures thereof.

8. The composition of claim 1 wherein the alkyl ether sulfate and the alkyl sulfate are derived from fatty alcohol.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,468,805 9/1969 Grifo et a1. 252-152 3,332,877 7/ 1967 Reuland et al. 252--152 3,332,876 7/1967 Walker 252152 3,317,430 5/ 1967 Priestley et a1. 252-152 3,179,599 4/1965 Eaton et a1. 252153 FOREIGN PATENTS 797,119 6/ 1958 Great Britain 252-161 6810293 1/1969 Netherlands 252-121 LEON D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner D. L. ALBRECHT, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

252153, 541, 550, 551, 557, Digest 14

US3793233A 1969-11-24 1969-11-24 Liquid detergent compositions Expired - Lifetime US3793233A (en)

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Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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JPS4953610A (en) * 1972-09-25 1974-05-24
US3898186A (en) * 1973-04-09 1975-08-05 Procter & Gamble Dishwashing compositions containing gel forming gelatin
US3928249A (en) * 1972-02-07 1975-12-23 Procter & Gamble Liquid detergent composition
US3943234A (en) * 1973-08-09 1976-03-09 The Procter & Gamble Company Acidic emollient liquid detergent composition
US3963649A (en) * 1972-09-11 1976-06-15 The Procter & Gamble Company Liquid detergent composition
US4024078A (en) * 1975-03-31 1977-05-17 The Procter & Gamble Company Liquid detergent composition
US4052342A (en) * 1975-07-17 1977-10-04 Shell Oil Company Secondary alkyl sulfate: alcohol ethoxylate mixtures
US4054541A (en) * 1974-11-04 1977-10-18 Witco Chemical Corporation Spray dried alcohol ether sulfate detergent compositions
US4056113A (en) * 1973-09-04 1977-11-01 The Procter & Gamble Company Liquid detergent compositions for removal of cooked-on food soils
US4064076A (en) * 1973-04-09 1977-12-20 Colgate-Palmolive Olefin sulfonate detergent compositions
US4072632A (en) * 1972-04-06 1978-02-07 Lever Brothers Company Dishwashing compositions
US4140657A (en) * 1976-06-18 1979-02-20 The Lion Fat & Oil Co., Ltd. Granular detergent composition
US4297251A (en) * 1977-05-02 1981-10-27 The Procter & Gamble Company Process for removing hard-to-remove soils from hardware
DE3016544A1 (en) * 1980-04-29 1981-11-05 Lanko Inc Aq. hydrocarbon emulsions contg. surfactant - and water-soluble or swellable polymer, used as (additives for) fuels for IC engines, aircraft engines turbines etc.
US4338211A (en) * 1980-06-30 1982-07-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Liquid surfactant skin cleanser with lather boosters
US4487710A (en) * 1982-03-01 1984-12-11 The Procter & Gamble Company Granular detergents containing anionic surfactant and ethoxylated surfactant solubility aid
US4554098A (en) * 1982-02-19 1985-11-19 Colgate-Palmolive Company Mild liquid detergent compositions
US4555360A (en) * 1984-06-22 1985-11-26 The Procter & Gamble Company Mild detergent compositions
US4589994A (en) * 1984-12-17 1986-05-20 Moseman Roger E Liquid foot treatment composition
US4668419A (en) * 1984-12-17 1987-05-26 Moseman Roger E Liquid foot treatment composition
US4762738A (en) * 1986-12-22 1988-08-09 E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. Means for disposal of articles by flushing and ostomy pouches particularly suited for such disposal
US4830187A (en) * 1986-12-22 1989-05-16 E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. Means for disposal of articles by flushing and ostomy pouches particularly suited for such disposal
US4930942A (en) * 1986-12-22 1990-06-05 E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. Method of disposal of articles by flushing
EP0452106A2 (en) 1990-04-10 1991-10-16 ALBRIGHT & WILSON UK LIMITED Concentrated aqueous surfactants
US5075042A (en) * 1989-05-01 1991-12-24 Ppg Industries, Inc. Surfactant blend containing an alkyl poly(ethyleneoxy)sulfonate to reduce dermal irritation
US20070039665A1 (en) * 2003-03-31 2007-02-22 Johns Peter G Enhancing silver tarnish-resistance
WO2009143091A1 (en) 2008-05-23 2009-11-26 Colgate-Palmolive Company Liquid cleaning compositions and manufacture

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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DE3220505A1 (en) * 1982-06-01 1983-12-01 Henkel Kgaa Liquid detergent

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
BE546094A (en) * 1955-03-23

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3928249A (en) * 1972-02-07 1975-12-23 Procter & Gamble Liquid detergent composition
US4072632A (en) * 1972-04-06 1978-02-07 Lever Brothers Company Dishwashing compositions
US3963649A (en) * 1972-09-11 1976-06-15 The Procter & Gamble Company Liquid detergent composition
JPS4953610A (en) * 1972-09-25 1974-05-24
JPS5143483B2 (en) * 1972-09-25 1976-11-22
US3898186A (en) * 1973-04-09 1975-08-05 Procter & Gamble Dishwashing compositions containing gel forming gelatin
US4064076A (en) * 1973-04-09 1977-12-20 Colgate-Palmolive Olefin sulfonate detergent compositions
US3943234A (en) * 1973-08-09 1976-03-09 The Procter & Gamble Company Acidic emollient liquid detergent composition
US4056113A (en) * 1973-09-04 1977-11-01 The Procter & Gamble Company Liquid detergent compositions for removal of cooked-on food soils
US4054541A (en) * 1974-11-04 1977-10-18 Witco Chemical Corporation Spray dried alcohol ether sulfate detergent compositions
US4024078A (en) * 1975-03-31 1977-05-17 The Procter & Gamble Company Liquid detergent composition
US4052342A (en) * 1975-07-17 1977-10-04 Shell Oil Company Secondary alkyl sulfate: alcohol ethoxylate mixtures
US4140657A (en) * 1976-06-18 1979-02-20 The Lion Fat & Oil Co., Ltd. Granular detergent composition
US4297251A (en) * 1977-05-02 1981-10-27 The Procter & Gamble Company Process for removing hard-to-remove soils from hardware
DE3016544A1 (en) * 1980-04-29 1981-11-05 Lanko Inc Aq. hydrocarbon emulsions contg. surfactant - and water-soluble or swellable polymer, used as (additives for) fuels for IC engines, aircraft engines turbines etc.
US4338211A (en) * 1980-06-30 1982-07-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Liquid surfactant skin cleanser with lather boosters
US4554098A (en) * 1982-02-19 1985-11-19 Colgate-Palmolive Company Mild liquid detergent compositions
US4487710A (en) * 1982-03-01 1984-12-11 The Procter & Gamble Company Granular detergents containing anionic surfactant and ethoxylated surfactant solubility aid
US4555360A (en) * 1984-06-22 1985-11-26 The Procter & Gamble Company Mild detergent compositions
US4589994A (en) * 1984-12-17 1986-05-20 Moseman Roger E Liquid foot treatment composition
US4668419A (en) * 1984-12-17 1987-05-26 Moseman Roger E Liquid foot treatment composition
US4930942A (en) * 1986-12-22 1990-06-05 E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. Method of disposal of articles by flushing
US4762738A (en) * 1986-12-22 1988-08-09 E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. Means for disposal of articles by flushing and ostomy pouches particularly suited for such disposal
US4830187A (en) * 1986-12-22 1989-05-16 E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. Means for disposal of articles by flushing and ostomy pouches particularly suited for such disposal
US5075042A (en) * 1989-05-01 1991-12-24 Ppg Industries, Inc. Surfactant blend containing an alkyl poly(ethyleneoxy)sulfonate to reduce dermal irritation
EP0452106A2 (en) 1990-04-10 1991-10-16 ALBRIGHT & WILSON UK LIMITED Concentrated aqueous surfactants
EP0452106B2 (en) 1990-04-10 2000-12-13 ALBRIGHT & WILSON UK LIMITED Concentrated aqueous surfactants
US20070039665A1 (en) * 2003-03-31 2007-02-22 Johns Peter G Enhancing silver tarnish-resistance
WO2009143091A1 (en) 2008-05-23 2009-11-26 Colgate-Palmolive Company Liquid cleaning compositions and manufacture

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DK134239B (en) 1976-10-04 grant
NL7017088A (en) 1971-05-26 application
ES385838A1 (en) 1974-01-01 application
DE2057353B2 (en) 1978-10-19 application
GB1321637A (en) 1973-06-27 application
JPS4825043B1 (en) 1973-07-26 grant
BE759280A1 (en) grant
DE2057353A1 (en) 1971-06-03 application
DK134239C (en) 1977-02-28 grant
FR2072266A5 (en) 1971-09-24 application
BE759280A (en) 1971-05-24 grant

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