US3791988A - Diagnostic test for glucose - Google Patents

Diagnostic test for glucose Download PDF

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US3791988A
US3791988A US3791988DA US3791988A US 3791988 A US3791988 A US 3791988A US 3791988D A US3791988D A US 3791988DA US 3791988 A US3791988 A US 3791988A
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glucose
chloride
composition
tetrazolium
solution
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D Josef
A Lampart
P Schwartz
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F Hoffmann-La Roche AG
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12QMEASURING OR TESTING PROCESSES INVOLVING ENZYMES, NUCLEIC ACIDS OR MICROORGANISMS; COMPOSITIONS OR TEST PAPERS THEREFOR; PROCESSES OF PREPARING SUCH COMPOSITIONS; CONDITION-RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES
    • C12Q1/00Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions
    • C12Q1/54Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes, nucleic acids or microorganisms; Compositions therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions involving glucose or galactose
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S435/00Chemistry: molecular biology and microbiology
    • Y10S435/803Physical recovery methods, e.g. chromatography, grinding
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T436/00Chemistry: analytical and immunological testing
    • Y10T436/14Heterocyclic carbon compound [i.e., O, S, N, Se, Te, as only ring hetero atom]
    • Y10T436/142222Hetero-O [e.g., ascorbic acid, etc.]
    • Y10T436/143333Saccharide [e.g., DNA, etc.]
    • Y10T436/144444Glucose

Abstract

AN IMPROVED DIAGNOSTIC COMPOSITION FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF GLUCOSE IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS COMPRISING GLUCOSE OXIDASE, A PHENAZIN AND/OR PHENOXAZIN-DERITAVE AND A TETRAZOLIUM SALT AS WELL AS THE INCORPORATION THEREOF UPON A BIBULOUS CARRIER ARE DESCRIBED.

Description

United States Patent 3,791,988 DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR GLUCOSE Dieter Josef, Pratteln, and Alfred Lampart, Magden,

Switzerland, and Pirmin Schwartz, Weil am Rhine, Germany, assignors to Hoifmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley,

NbDrawing. Filed Mar. 23, 1972, Ser. No. 237,528 Int. Cl. com 33/16 US. 01. 252-408 13 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An improved diagnostic composition for the quantitative determination of glucose in biological fluids comprising glucose oxidase, a phenazin and/or phenoxazin-derivative and a tetrazolium salt as well as the incorporation thereof upon a bibulous carrier are described.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to new and improved diagnostic compositions which are useful in both the qualitative and quantitative determination of glucose in fluids, particularly body fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, urine and the like.

The quantitative determination of glucose in body fluids is of great importance to diabetic individuals who must have frequent checks on the level of glucose in their body fluids as a means of regulating the sugar intake in their diets. The qualitative determination of glucose in body fluids is of importance in routine testing of patients in doctors offices, clinics, institutions, and hospitals as well as in the mass screening of individuals for the presence of the disease.

The ideal diagnostic composition for the detection of glucose in fluids must be simple so as not to require a high degree of technical skill on the part of the technician administering the test, sufliciently rapid to be utilized in large scale qualitative screening determinations and be sensitive and accurate enough to be useful to the clinician. Additionally, such a composition must be sufliciently stable to meet all situations such as prolonged storage and the advance preparation of solutions for large scale screening operations. The present invention pertains to such a composition.

In recent years the methods of determining glucose concentration in fluids have been primarily based on the enzymatic oxidation of glucose with glucose oxidase and oxygen with subsequent detection and measurement of the resulting peroxide or gluconic acid oxidation products by means of a color reaction. Such methods suffer from the disadvantage of having fluctuations in results due to variations in the oxygen content of different samples. Further, with such methods it can never be guaranteed that oxidation process proceeds quantitatively.

One attempt to overcome the above described disadvantage is the addition of an endogeneous oxygen donor, e.g., hydrogen peroxide or the like to the oxidation solution, thereby limiting the measurement of glucose to the relatively insensitive gluconic acid determination. The disadvantage of this approach is the comparative insensitivity of the gluconic acid determination.

The method and composition of the present invention aflords a means whereby the enzymatic oxidation may be utilized to quantitatively determine glucose content Without the disadvantages of prior art processes. Additionally, the method of the invention has the advantage over the prior art of being equally accurate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and by not being hampered by false positive results due to the presence of ascorbic acid.

In the method of the present invention, the phenazinand/or the phenoxazin derivative enters into the enzy- 3,791,988 Patented Feb. 12., 1974 matic oxidation reaction as a hydrogen acceptor. The reduced form of the phenazinand/or the phenoxazin-derivative(phen, thus formed reacts rapidly in a nonenzymatic reaction with the tetrazolium salt to regenerate the original phenazin and/or phenoxazin-derivative (phen and form a formazan compound which is stable and possesses an intense color. The amount of glucose present is then measured by colorimetrically reading the color of the formazan compound. The reaction may be represented as follows:

glucose phen gluconic acid p red phen d tetrazolium phen formazan Phenazin-derivatives which can be present in the agent provided by the present invention include phenazinium salts in particular methoand etho-compounds. Phenazinium methosulfate is particularly preferred as it is commercially available.

Phenoxazin-derivatives include phenoxazinium salts in particular 7-dimethylamino 1,2 benzophenoxazinium chloride (meldola blue) or 7-dimethyl-amino-2'-hydroxy- 1,2-benzophenoxazinium chloride.

The selection of a particular tetrazolium salt is not critical to the present invention. Examples of suitable compounds include thiazolyl blue [2,5-diphenyl-3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl) mono-tetrazolium bromide],

nitrotetrazolium blue chloride [3,3-dianisyl-4,4'-bis[2- (4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl]-tetrazolium chloride],

iodonitrotetrazolium chloride [2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(pnitrophenyl -5-phenyl-tetrazolium chloride] neotetrazolium chloride [2,2,5,S'-tetraphenyl-3-(4,4'-biphenylene) -ditetrazolium chloride] tetranitrotetrazolium blue [2,2,5,5-tetranitrophenyl-3- (3 ,3 -dimethoxy-4,4'-biphenylene -ditetrazolium chloride],

triphenyltetrazolium chloride, tetrazolium violet [2,5-

diphenyl-3-(a-naphthyD-tetrazolium chloride] and tetrazolium blue [3,3'-dianisyl-4,4'-bis-(3,5-diphenyl) tetrazolium chloride].

Preferred among these are thiazolyl blue, nitrotetrazolium blue chloride and iodonitrotetrazolium chloride.

The diagnostic compositions of the present invention can be provided in a solid form,, e.'g., tablets or powder or, preferably, as a solution in a suitable solvent. Such solutions may be utilized per se or impregnated onto a bibulous carrier such as filter paper, cardboard and the like.

Wherein solutions of the diagnostic compositions of the invention are contemplated, aqueous solutions are preferred. It is expedient, however, to add an organic solvent, e.g., a lower alkanol such as ethanol or a solubilizing agent, e.g., polyethylene glycol, polyoxysorbitanic acid ester or the like to hold in solution the water-insoluble formazans which are formed in the determination reaction. A preferred polyethylene glycol is polyethylene glycol 1500 and a preferred polyoxysorbitanic acid ester is that marketed by Atlas Chemical Industries, Inc., Wilmington, Del. under the trademark Tween 81. This substance chemically is polyoxyethylene(5)sorbitan monooleate. In place of a solvent, a suspending agent such as gelatin or an alginate may be utilized to form a suspension of the formazans as they are produced.

The compositions of the present invention are prepared by simply mixing together the phenazin and/or phenoxazin-deriyative, the tetrazolium salt and glucose oxidase. While the relative concentrations of the components is not particularly critical, it is preferred to have from about 0.1 to about 2.5 millimoles of phenazin and/or phenoxazin-derivative and from about 1.0 to about 10.0 millimoles of tetrazolium salt present for each 0.5 to about 5.0 mg. of glucose oxidase present.

It is preferred in the practice of the present invention to have the pH of the fluid to be tested for glucose content at between about pH 4 and 8, preferably between pH 5.5 and pH 7.5 when the diagnostic composition of the invention is admixed therewith. It is therefore preferred to add a suitable buffer to the diagnostic compositions of the invention. Preferred among the buffering agents common to the art is a phosphate buffer system. Wherein the diagnostic compositions of the invention are in the form of a solution, said solution is preferably from about 0.1 to about 0.4 molar with respect to the buffer. Where the compositions of the invention are in a dry form, a suflicient amount of buffer is added so that a solution formed therefrom will have the desired concentration of buffer. Alternately, the buffer may be added as a solution to the solution of diagnostic composition before conducting the diagnostic determination.

The selection of the particular tetrazolium compound in the practice of the present invention may be determined by the type of test to be conducted. For example, a tetrazolium compound producing a formazan which absorbs light in the spectral range sensitive to the eye can be utilized for qualitative or semi-quantitative glucose determinations such as by the use of bibulous strips impregnated with reagent. Where quantitative determinations are to be carried out utilizing a photometer, the selection of a tetrazolium compound should be made so that the light absorbance of the formazan produced therefrom in the reaction is maximal at the wavelength capacity of the particglar apparatus being utilized. The following table illustrates the wavelength absorption maximum of the formazan produced from preferred tetrazolium compounds in accordance with the invention.

TABLE Wavelength of the absorption maximum of the formazan in Color of the form- Tetrezolium component azan Thlazolyl blue 570 nm Violet. Tetranitrotetrazolium blue 530 nm Blue-red. Nltrotetrazolium blue chloride Blue. Iodonitrotetrazolium chloride. Neotetrazolium chlorlde 560 nm Triphenyltetrazolium chloride 588 mu Tetrazolium violet 510 m Tetrazollum blue 570 nm B e.

polyethylene glycol The following examples serve to further illustrate the invention.

EXAMPLE 1 The following solution was prepared for the quantitative determination of glucose:

Concentration/ml.

of solution thereof Amount of solution Component used Buffer-potassium hos hate pH 7.0 Phenazinium met 05 ate Thlnzolyl blue Glucose oxldase 4 EXAMPLE 2 The procedure of Example 1 was repeated utilizing a buffer solution containing in each ml. 1.0 g. of gelatin. As the formazan compound formed in the reaction was held in suspension treatment with ethanol was not necessary. The photometer reading was taken directly after the two minute incubation period.

Example 3 The procedure of Example 2 was repeated replacing the gelatin with an equal amount of polyoxysorbitanic acid ester (Tween 81, Atlas Powder Co.).

Example 4 The following solution was prepared and impregnated on strips of bibulous material, such as filter paper. The paper was soaked in the solution and dried with the exclusion of light. The thus-formed srips were utilized to Example 5 The following solution was prepared for the quantitative determination of glucose.

Component: Amount, ml. Glucose oxidase (20 mg./ml.) 0.05 Meldola blue (2 mg./ml.) 0.05 Iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (2.5 mg./ml.) 0.40 Buffer (0.2 M potassium phosphate pH 7.0 1%

polyethylenglycol 1500) 1.50

To this solution is added 1 ml. of a sample solution.

-The content of glucose is determined by measuring in a photometer the extinction dilference in comparison with a blank test in the wavelength range of about 492 nm.

What is claimed is:

1. A diagnostic composition for the detection of glucose in fluids consisting essentially of glucose oxidase, a tetrazolium salt and a substance selected from the group consisting of a phenazinium salt, a phenoxazinium salt and mixtures thereof and one or more non-reactive adjuvant materials selected from the group consisting of buffers, solubilizing agents and suspending agents.

2. The composition of claim 1 wherein said buffer is suitable for maintaining the pH of said fluids between pH 4 and 8.

3. The composition of claim 1 wherein said phenazinium salt is selected from the group consisting of phenazinium methoand phenazinium etho-salts.

4. A test indicator for detecting glucose in fluids consisting essentially of a bibulous carrier impregnated with the composition of claim 1.

5. A test indicator for detecting glucose in fluids consisting essentially of a bibulous carrier impregnated with the composition of claim 1 wherein said phenazinium salt is phenazinium methosulfate and said tetrazolium salt is thiazolyl blue.

6. A test indicator for detecting glucose in fluids consisting essentially of a bibulous carrier impregnated with the composition of claim 1 wherein said phenazinium salt is 7-dimethylamino-1,2- benzophenoxazinium chloride and said tetrazolium salt is iodonitrotetrazolium chloride.

7. A diagnostic composition for the detection of glucose in fluids consisting essentially of a solution of the composition of claim 1 in a solvent consisting essentially of water and a lower alkanol.

8. A diagnostic composition for the detection of glucose in fluids consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of the composition of claim 1 wherein said solubilizing agent is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene gly- 001 1500 and po1yoxyethylene(5)sorbitan monooleate.

9. A diagnostic composition for the detection of glucose in fluids consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of the composition of claim 1 wherein said suspending agent is selected from the group consisting of gelatin and an alginate.

10. The composition of claim 2 wherein said phenoxazinium salt is selected from the group consisting of 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazinium chloride and 7- dimethylamino l,Z-benzophenoxazinium chloride.

11. A test indicator for detecting glucose in fluids consisting essentially of a bibulous carrier impregnated with the composition of claim 2.

12. A diagnostic composition in accordance with claim 13. The composition of claim 3 wherein said phenazinium metho-salt is phenazinium methosulfate.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,123,443 3/1964 Smeby 252-408 X 3,233,974 2/1966 Bradley 252-408 X MAYER WEINBLA'IT, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

23-230 B, 253 TP; 424-7

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Cited By (38)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4066408A (en) * 1974-10-16 1978-01-03 Ab Kabi Chromogen-reactive-indicator preparations containing a 3,3'-di(carbonyloxy- or sulfonyloxy-group-containing) benzidine derivative chromogen
US4108727A (en) * 1976-08-23 1978-08-22 Miles Laboratories, Inc. Method, composition and device for determining the specific gravity or osmolality of a liquid
US4141688A (en) * 1977-08-11 1979-02-27 Miles Laboratories, Inc. Composition, device and method for determining reducing agents
US4168205A (en) * 1976-06-09 1979-09-18 Boehringer Mannheim Gmbh Method for the determination of substrates or enzyme activities
EP0038205A1 (en) * 1980-04-14 1981-10-21 Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd Method for determination of peroxide and test reagent therefor
EP0045220A1 (en) * 1980-07-30 1982-02-03 Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd Method and test composition for determination of hydrogen peroxide
US4330299A (en) * 1981-03-09 1982-05-18 Evreka, Inc. Article and method for measuring glucose level in body fluids
WO1982002251A1 (en) * 1980-12-19 1982-07-08 Mining & Mfg Minnesota Method and article for determining free acid concentration in liquid
JPS57137357A (en) * 1981-01-07 1982-08-24 Rhone Poulenc Ind Pasty organopolysiloxane composition forming elastomer thermosettingly
EP0085263A1 (en) * 1981-12-23 1983-08-10 John Richard Baker Method and reagent for determining glucose levels in blood samples
US4606351A (en) * 1979-04-14 1986-08-19 Max Planck Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Wissenschaften Optical indicator device for the remote measurement of physical changes in a test subject
US4654309A (en) * 1980-12-19 1987-03-31 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Co. Test method and article for estimating the concentration of free acid in liquid
US4956301A (en) * 1989-11-02 1990-09-11 Miles Inc. Test device and method of assaying for fructosamines
US5171689A (en) * 1984-11-08 1992-12-15 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Solid state bio-sensor
US5204267A (en) * 1991-12-17 1993-04-20 Osborn Laboratories, Inc. Method of glucose stabilization and analysis in dried blood spot samples
US5312759A (en) * 1989-12-20 1994-05-17 Iatron Laboratories, Inc. Method for measurement of fructosamines using 1,2-quinones
US5571723A (en) * 1991-02-07 1996-11-05 Evans; Cody A. Method of testing for diabetes that reduces the effect of interfering substances
US5707820A (en) * 1991-09-19 1998-01-13 Boehringer Mannheim Corporation Reagent and assay methods including a phenazine-containing indicator
US20020132282A1 (en) * 2000-09-12 2002-09-19 Tianmei Ouyang Test strips for detecting the presence of a reduced cofactor in a sample and methods for using the same
US6586195B1 (en) 2001-11-19 2003-07-01 R.E. Davis Chemical Corporation Method of detecting sugars
US20050112712A1 (en) * 1998-09-28 2005-05-26 Lifescan, Inc. Diagnostics based on tetrazolium compounds
US20050159489A1 (en) * 1998-09-25 2005-07-21 Baker John R. Treatment of diabetes with copper binding compounds
US20050159364A1 (en) * 2003-12-19 2005-07-21 Cooper Garth J. Copper antagonist compounds
US20060009534A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2006-01-12 Cooper Garth J Preventing and/or treating cardiovascular disease and/or associated heart failure
US20060100278A1 (en) * 2002-08-20 2006-05-11 Cooper Garth J S Dosage forms and related therapies
US20070045126A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2007-03-01 Beer Greg P Oxidizable species as an internal reference for biosensors and method of use
US20070080073A1 (en) * 2003-10-24 2007-04-12 Huang-Ping Wu Enzymatic electrochemical biosensor
US20070246357A1 (en) * 2004-10-12 2007-10-25 Huan-Ping Wu Concentration Determination in a Diffusion Barrier Layer
US20080156662A1 (en) * 2006-09-22 2008-07-03 Bayer Healthcare Llc Biosensor System Having Enhanced Stability And Hematocrit Performance
US20080274447A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2008-11-06 Bayer Healthcare Llc Method and Apparatus for Implementing Threshold Based Correction Functions for Biosensors
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US20090145775A1 (en) * 2007-12-10 2009-06-11 Bayer Healthcare Llc Reagents and methods for detecting analytes
US7582796B2 (en) 2004-07-19 2009-09-01 Protemix Corporation Limited Synthesis of triethylenetetramines
US20100258451A1 (en) * 2006-09-18 2010-10-14 Alexander Adlassnig Determination of hydrogen peroxide concentrations
US9933385B2 (en) 2007-12-10 2018-04-03 Ascensia Diabetes Care Holdings Ag Method of using an electrochemical test sensor
DE102017208461A1 (en) 2017-05-18 2018-11-22 Diabetes.Online Ag Multianalytmessung
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Cited By (75)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4066408A (en) * 1974-10-16 1978-01-03 Ab Kabi Chromogen-reactive-indicator preparations containing a 3,3'-di(carbonyloxy- or sulfonyloxy-group-containing) benzidine derivative chromogen
US4168205A (en) * 1976-06-09 1979-09-18 Boehringer Mannheim Gmbh Method for the determination of substrates or enzyme activities
US4108727A (en) * 1976-08-23 1978-08-22 Miles Laboratories, Inc. Method, composition and device for determining the specific gravity or osmolality of a liquid
US4141688A (en) * 1977-08-11 1979-02-27 Miles Laboratories, Inc. Composition, device and method for determining reducing agents
FR2400203A1 (en) * 1977-08-11 1979-03-09 Miles Lab Composition, device and method for the determination of reducing agents
US4606351A (en) * 1979-04-14 1986-08-19 Max Planck Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Wissenschaften Optical indicator device for the remote measurement of physical changes in a test subject
EP0038205A1 (en) * 1980-04-14 1981-10-21 Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd Method for determination of peroxide and test reagent therefor
EP0045220A1 (en) * 1980-07-30 1982-02-03 Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd Method and test composition for determination of hydrogen peroxide
US4384042A (en) * 1980-07-30 1983-05-17 Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd. Method and test composition for determination of hydrogen peroxide
WO1982002251A1 (en) * 1980-12-19 1982-07-08 Mining & Mfg Minnesota Method and article for determining free acid concentration in liquid
US4654309A (en) * 1980-12-19 1987-03-31 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Co. Test method and article for estimating the concentration of free acid in liquid
JPS57137357A (en) * 1981-01-07 1982-08-24 Rhone Poulenc Ind Pasty organopolysiloxane composition forming elastomer thermosettingly
JPS6046140B2 (en) * 1981-01-07 1985-10-14 Rhone Poulenc Ind
US4330299A (en) * 1981-03-09 1982-05-18 Evreka, Inc. Article and method for measuring glucose level in body fluids
US4645742A (en) * 1981-12-23 1987-02-24 Baker John R Materials for determining fructosamine levels in blood samples
EP0085263A1 (en) * 1981-12-23 1983-08-10 John Richard Baker Method and reagent for determining glucose levels in blood samples
US5171689A (en) * 1984-11-08 1992-12-15 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Solid state bio-sensor
US4956301A (en) * 1989-11-02 1990-09-11 Miles Inc. Test device and method of assaying for fructosamines
US5312759A (en) * 1989-12-20 1994-05-17 Iatron Laboratories, Inc. Method for measurement of fructosamines using 1,2-quinones
US5571723A (en) * 1991-02-07 1996-11-05 Evans; Cody A. Method of testing for diabetes that reduces the effect of interfering substances
US5707820A (en) * 1991-09-19 1998-01-13 Boehringer Mannheim Corporation Reagent and assay methods including a phenazine-containing indicator
US5204267A (en) * 1991-12-17 1993-04-20 Osborn Laboratories, Inc. Method of glucose stabilization and analysis in dried blood spot samples
EP2048499A1 (en) 1997-05-12 2009-04-15 Bayer Corporation Method and apparatus for correcting ambient temperature effect in biosensor
EP2264451A1 (en) 1997-05-12 2010-12-22 Bayer Corporation Method and apparatus for correcting ambient temperature effect in biosensor
US7928094B2 (en) 1998-09-25 2011-04-19 Philera New Zealand Limited Treatment of diabetes with copper binding compounds
US20050159489A1 (en) * 1998-09-25 2005-07-21 Baker John R. Treatment of diabetes with copper binding compounds
US7459446B2 (en) 1998-09-25 2008-12-02 John Richard Baker Treatment of diabetes with copper binding compounds
US20080108705A1 (en) * 1998-09-25 2008-05-08 Becker John R Treatment of diabetes with copper bunding compounds
US7144709B2 (en) 1998-09-28 2006-12-05 Lifescan, Inc. Diagnostics based on tetrazolium compounds
US20050112712A1 (en) * 1998-09-28 2005-05-26 Lifescan, Inc. Diagnostics based on tetrazolium compounds
US20020132282A1 (en) * 2000-09-12 2002-09-19 Tianmei Ouyang Test strips for detecting the presence of a reduced cofactor in a sample and methods for using the same
US6586195B1 (en) 2001-11-19 2003-07-01 R.E. Davis Chemical Corporation Method of detecting sugars
US8987244B2 (en) 2002-03-08 2015-03-24 Philera New Zealand Limited Preventing and/or treating cardiovascular disease and/or associated heart failure
US20060009534A1 (en) * 2002-03-08 2006-01-12 Cooper Garth J Preventing and/or treating cardiovascular disease and/or associated heart failure
US8034799B2 (en) 2002-03-08 2011-10-11 Philera New Zealand Limited Preventing and/or treating cardiovascular disease and/or associated heart failure
US9339479B2 (en) 2002-08-20 2016-05-17 Philera New Zealand Limited Dosage forms and related therapies
US20060100278A1 (en) * 2002-08-20 2006-05-11 Cooper Garth J S Dosage forms and related therapies
US9993443B2 (en) 2002-08-20 2018-06-12 Philera New Zealand Limited Dosage forms and related therapies
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US20070080073A1 (en) * 2003-10-24 2007-04-12 Huang-Ping Wu Enzymatic electrochemical biosensor
US20050159364A1 (en) * 2003-12-19 2005-07-21 Cooper Garth J. Copper antagonist compounds
US20070045126A1 (en) * 2004-02-06 2007-03-01 Beer Greg P Oxidizable species as an internal reference for biosensors and method of use
US9410917B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2016-08-09 Ascensia Diabetes Care Holdings Ag Method of using a biosensor
US10067082B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2018-09-04 Ascensia Diabetes Care Holdings Ag Biosensor for determining an analyte concentration
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US20080274447A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2008-11-06 Bayer Healthcare Llc Method and Apparatus for Implementing Threshold Based Correction Functions for Biosensors
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US8394992B2 (en) 2004-07-19 2013-03-12 Philera New Zealand Limited Synthesis of triethylenetetramines
US7582796B2 (en) 2004-07-19 2009-09-01 Protemix Corporation Limited Synthesis of triethylenetetramines
US8912362B2 (en) 2004-07-19 2014-12-16 Philera New Zealand Limited Synthesis of triethylenetetramines
US9556123B2 (en) 2004-07-19 2017-01-31 Philera New Zealand Limited Synthesis of triethylenetetramines
US9206460B2 (en) 2004-10-12 2015-12-08 Bayer Healthcare Llc Concentration determination in a diffusion barrier layer
US20070246357A1 (en) * 2004-10-12 2007-10-25 Huan-Ping Wu Concentration Determination in a Diffusion Barrier Layer
US9546974B2 (en) 2004-10-12 2017-01-17 Ascensia Diabetes Care Holdings Ag Concentration determination in a diffusion barrier layer
US8317988B2 (en) 2004-10-12 2012-11-27 Bayer Healthcare Llc Concentration determination in a diffusion barrier layer
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