US3780618A - Automatic hand gun - Google Patents

Automatic hand gun Download PDF

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US3780618A
US3780618A US3780618DA US3780618A US 3780618 A US3780618 A US 3780618A US 3780618D A US3780618D A US 3780618DA US 3780618 A US3780618 A US 3780618A
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Prior art keywords
bolt
frame
receiver
firing
breech
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H Sanford
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Thomas J
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A5/00Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock
    • F41A5/02Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock recoil-operated
    • F41A5/08Mechanisms or systems operated by propellant charge energy for automatically opening the lock recoil-operated having an accelerator lever acting on the breech-block or bolt during the opening movement
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A15/00Cartridge extractors, i.e. devices for pulling cartridges or cartridge cases at least partially out of the cartridge chamber; Cartridge ejectors, i.e. devices for throwing the extracted cartridges or cartridge cases free of the gun
    • F41A15/12Cartridge extractors, i.e. devices for pulling cartridges or cartridge cases at least partially out of the cartridge chamber; Cartridge ejectors, i.e. devices for throwing the extracted cartridges or cartridge cases free of the gun for bolt-action guns
    • F41A15/14Cartridge extractors, i.e. devices for pulling cartridges or cartridge cases at least partially out of the cartridge chamber; Cartridge ejectors, i.e. devices for throwing the extracted cartridges or cartridge cases free of the gun for bolt-action guns the ejector being mounted on or within the bolt; Extractors per se
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A17/00Safety arrangements, e.g. safeties
    • F41A17/56Sear safeties, i.e. means for rendering ineffective an intermediate lever transmitting trigger movement to firing pin, hammer, bolt or sear
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/12Bolt action, i.e. the main breech opening movement being parallel to the barrel axis
    • F41A3/14Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively
    • F41A3/16Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively the locking elements effecting a rotary movement about the barrel axis, e.g. rotating cylinder bolt locks
    • F41A3/26Rigid bolt locks, i.e. having locking elements rigidly mounted on the bolt or bolt handle and on the barrel or breech-housing respectively the locking elements effecting a rotary movement about the barrel axis, e.g. rotating cylinder bolt locks semi-automatically or automatically operated, e.g. having a slidable bolt-carrier and a rotatable bolt
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41AFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
    • F41A3/00Breech mechanisms, e.g. locks
    • F41A3/64Mounting of breech-blocks; Accessories for breech-blocks or breech-block mountings
    • F41A3/78Bolt buffer or recuperator means
    • F41A3/82Coil spring buffers

Abstract

This invention relates to a recoil-actuated automatic hand gun, which provides for utilizing a maximum sized cartridge in a hand gun system. The reactive thrust as the bullet leaves the muzzle of this gun causes a barrel, barrel extension, receiver, and bolt to slide back locked together a set distance during initial motion until the bullet leaves the bore of the gun, and the gas pressure decreases to a level low enough to permit the safe unlocking of a locked breech action. The sliding receiver reaches its limit of travel and hits a portion of the frame of the pistol. A through-slot in the bolt bears cam surfaces which rotate the bolt out of breech-locking splines in the breech action thereby to release the bolt from engagement with the receiver and permit the inertia of the bolt to carry it backwards to perform ejection, cocking, and the loading of a new cartridge. In order to replace some of the dissipated energy and to increase the speed of travel of the bolt to load spring-return mechanisms, and to perform the functions of the bolt with the speed required, a rotary, mechanical accelerator forms a part of the action and imparts a blow to the bolt at the time that the receiver reaches its stop position. The bolt is rotated out of the breechlocked position by balanced cam follower means fixed to the frame that follow the cam surfaces, and upon return to the breechlocked lock position, the entire assembly travels as a unit to the battery position with a loaded cartridge in the chamber. A safety tappet pin engages a spiral groove in the bolt to prevent premature firing before the action has reached an appropriate position. The bolt is adapted with unique ejection means, which ejects the spent cartridge case forward and away from the shooter''s head and face.

Description

United States Patent 1 Sanford Dec. 25, 1973 AUTOMATIC HAND GUN [75] Inventor: Harry W. Sanford, Arcadia, Calif.

[73] Assignee: James C. Thomas, III, Encino, Calif.

[22] Filed: May 20, 1971 21 Appl. No.: 145,259

[52] US. Cl. 89/150, 42/78, 89/1 K, 89/138, 89/169, 89/172, 89/199 [51] Int. Cl. F4ld 3/06, F4ld 11/02 [58] Field of Search 89/1 K, 145, 150, 89/154, 172, 185, 199

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 512,437 l/l894 Griffiths et al 89/172 1,347,756 7/1920 Payne 89/185 1,704,889 3/1929 Gardiner 89/150 1,807,727 6/1931 Brinkerhoff.... 89/150 1,854,064 4/1932 Revelli 89/172 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 351,597 7/1905 France 89/172 Primary Examiner-Stephen C. Bentley Attorney-D. Gordon Angus and Donald D.'Mon

[57] ABSTRACT This invention relates to a recoil-actuated automatic hand gun, which provides for utilizing a maximum sized cartridge in a hand gun system. The reactive thrust as the bullet leaves the muzzle of this gun causes a barrel, barrel extension, receiver, and bolt to slide back locked together a set distance during initial motion until the bullet leaves the bore of the gun, and the gas pressure decreases to a level low enough to permit the safe unlocking of a locked breech action. The sliding receiver reaches its limit of travel and hits a portion of the frame of the pistol. A through-slot in the bolt bears cam surfaces which rotate the bolt out of breech-locking splines in the breech action thereby to release the bolt from engagement with the receiver and permit the inertia of the bolt to carry it backwards to perform ejection, cocking, and the loading of a new cartridge. In order to replace some of the dissipated energy and to increase the speed of travel of the bolt to load spring-return mechanisms, and to perform the functions of the bolt with the speed required, a rotary, mechanical accelerator forms a part of the action and imparts a blow to the bolt at the time that the receiver reaches its stop position. The bolt is rotated out of the breechlocked position by balanced cam follower means fixed to the frame that follow the cam surfaces, and upon return to the breechlocked lock position, the entire assembly travels as a unit to the battery position with a loaded cartridge in the chamber. A safety tappet pin engages a spiral groove in the bolt to prevent premature firing before the action has reached an appropriate position. The bolt is adapted with unique ejection means, which ejects the spent cartridge case forward and away from the shooters head and face.

2 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures PATENTEU 0562 51375 SHEETZUFG [NVEN TOR. M416? Y 14 SANFORD PATENTEI] DECZS I975 SHEET 8 0F 6 Q Em I N VENTOR. HA RR Y W SANFORD flie A TTO/Q/VE Y5.

AUTOMATIC HAND GUN BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to hand guns which have recoilactuated mechanisms, for breech-locking with rotational motion, and for loading and cocking.

There have been several attempts to produce a hand gun capable of firing large caliber, high power cartridges at high muzzle velocities, but in the past, all such inventions have failed due to inherent weaknesses in concept.

A hand gun with rotating breech lock was invented by Andreas Wilhelm Schwarzlose, shown in a patent issued in Britain in 1892, British Pat. No. 23,881, to be followed by British Pat. No. 1934 of 1898 in England to the same inventor. Only the model of 1898 had the rotating breech lock, and in this model the blot rotation was accomplished by a single groove engaging a pin which acted as cam follower to rotate the bolt. The frame was substantially open, and the force applied to the bolt was unbalanced, thereby creating binding stresses in rotation. To quote the book on such weapons, called The Hand Gun, by Geoffrey Boothroyd, As with most of the self-loading dinosaurs, the Schwarzlose will work quite satisfactorily when kept clean and lubricated. Avery well-made pistol, it is a delight to handle, but the mechanism is too complex, and there are far too many parts for it to function with any degree of reliability under anything but the most benign conditions.

This quotation reflects the fact that the design did not take into account the dynamics and directions of forces required to rotate and return the bolt, and to operate the breech-locking mechanism, as well as for the timing and positioning of the barrel to insure feeding of the cartridges.

At about this same period there was invented in England the Mars pistol which is shown in Bristish Pat. No. 14,777, issued Aug. 17, 1900. This followed a previous design granted British Pat. No. 9067 in 1898. This pistol and its history was completely described in The Gun Digest for 1961 published by The Gun Digest Company, Chicago, Illinois. To quote a military report cited in the article, The recoil of these pistols is very severe. Mr. Fairfax should be asked whether he could alter the .45-inch pistol so as to give a velocity not greater than 1000 f.s., and as much less down to 800 as he could arrange for. In other portions of this article, it is pointed out that the certainty of action was not very good, particularly in the smaller size cartridges. To quote a technical report included in the article, The pistol has jammed several times, the last time necessitating stripping before it could be made safe. The cause of this jam was apparently the crimping of the cartridges in the magazine... No one who fired once with the pistol wished to shoot with it again. Several of those who fired are good shots and in the Excellents Pistol Team.

Thus, it can be seen from past records that attempts to make a semi-automatic hand gun to perform with large caliber, high-velocity bullets have been failures, and it is the object of this invention to overcome previ ous difficulties with a design that provides for a practical firearm that will handle the loads and calibers required without discomfort to the user. A further object of this invention is to provide rotary return motion to a rotary-locking breech bolt through the use of a torsion spring loaded by the initial unlocking action of a breech bolt. A further object of this invention is to provide a hand gun with a slidable receiver to contain the action for absorbing excess energy of recoil. Still a fur- 5 ther object of the invention is to provide safety means to prevent premature firing of the gun until all parts of the action are locked and in their rest position ready for firing. Still another object of the invention is to provide for feeding of ammunition into the chamber without regard to the position of the chamber with respect to the magazine during the firing cycle. Still a further object is to provide for a balanced camming action for rotation of the bolt due to recoil, and to prevent a binding of action under the stresses and speed of recoil imparted function. Still another object of the invention is to provide for mechanical accelerator means to utilize excess recoil energy of the barrel and receiver assembly to impart an added thrust to the bolt after disengagement (unlocking) of the breech-locking means in order to provide energy for the extraction, cocking and loading operations.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the teaching of the present invention, there is provided a frame for the pistol which is substantially open, but which is provided with a cylindrical bridging member across the rear of the open frame which carries a cross-pin to act as a cam follower for a bolt which is provided with a through-slot having cam means formed thereupon, to be acted upon by the cross-pin. A semi-circular, tubular receiver has the gun barrel threadably mounted to it and bears spline-type breech-locking means. A cartridge chamber is formed at the end of the barrel which opens into the receiver. A torsion spring is provided at the end of the bolt opposite the breech-locking end to be loaded by the unlocking rotation of the bolt occurring under recoil action in order to store energy for aiding the cross-pin to the through-slot cam means to rotate and relock the breech-locking action of the bolt. A rotary mechanical accelerator, in the form of a partial disc, is swivelly mounted to the receiver of the hand gun to provide for striking of the accelerator by the frame of the gun at the conclusion of recoil motion of the receiver'barrel assembly, which causes the accelerator to strike the bolt at the precise moment that the bolt is rotated out of breech-locking relationship to the receiver in order to impact an additional rearward thrust on the bolt to aid in loading certain return springs, in cocking the hammer, in extracting the spent cartridge and in feeding a new cartridge.

All the above features can be understood by reference to the following specification in which a detailed description of the preferred embodiment of the invention appears.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a side elevation, partially in cutaway crosssection, of the presently preferred embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a partial side elevation, partially in cutaway cross-section, of the embodiment of FIG. I seen from the opposite side;

FIG. 3 is a cross-section taken on line 3-3 of FIG.

FIG. 4 is a cross-section taken on line 4-4 of FIG.

FIG. 5 is a cross-section taken on line 5-5 of FIG.

FIG. 6 is a cross-section taken on line 66 of FIGS. a and 10b;

FIG. 7 is a fragmentary cross-section of the side elevation of FIG. 4 taken at line 7-7 therein, showing details of constructions;

FIG. 8 is a cross-section taken on line 8-8 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 9 is a side elevation, partially in cutaway crosssection, to show additional details of construction of FIG. 1;

FIGS. 10a and 1012 are exploded views of the embodiment of FIG. 1, showing the details of the component parts. These FIGS. match as an overlay at the lower right-hand corner of FIG. 10a and the upper left-hand corner of FIG. 10b;

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary side elevation of the embodiment of FIG. 1; and

FIG. 12 is an end view, partially in cross-section, taken on line l212 of FIGS. 10a and 10b.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT As seen in FIG. 1, the invention comprises a pistol having a barrel threadably engaged by threads 21 to a tubular barrel extension-receiver 22. The receiver 22 has an external extraction port 23 which leads to an internal cylindrical bore 24. This bore 24 has an opening 26 to the frame 25 of the pistol. This opening 26 can be seen on the exploded views of FIGS. 8 10a and 1012. A series of locking splines 27 is formed in the receiver 22 adajcent the barrel 20. There is an undercut 28 between the screw threads 21 and the locking splines 27 which permits turning and locking of the bolt 30 after the external splines 29 have passed axially through splines 28 into the recess. When so rotated, the splines bear against one another to lock the slot in a breechlocking action. This is best shown in FIGS. 8, 10a and 10b. A pair of slideways 31 and 32 engage slots 34 and 33 to slidably mount the barrel-receiver assembly to the frame 25. A rotatable locking key 35 (FIG. 2) engages a slot 36 in the receiver 22 to prevent the receiver 22 from sliding out of assembly with the frame 25 when the bolt breech-locking means is disengaged. The locking key 35 is rotated out of engagement for disassembly by lever 37 as may be seen in phanton line in FIG. 2. A mechanical rotary accelerator 38 (FIGS. 4 and 8) is rotatably mounted to the receiver 22 by the accelerator plate 39. One end 40 of the accelerator 38 contacts the bolt 30, while the other end of the accelerator has a protrusion 41 which is adapted to strike a portion of the frame 25 at surface 42. Accelerator plate 39 is mounted to receiver 22 by pin 63 as shown in FIGS. 8, 10a and 10b, and is wholly contained within the receiver 22, along with the accelerator 38 as can be seen in FIGS. 7 and 8.

The accelerator plate 39 is pinned to the receiver 22 by pin 63 so that the flat surface 120, as shown in FIG. 7, abuts surface 121 of receiver 22. The radius surface 123a of accelerator plate 39 matches the radius surface 123 of the accelerator 38. This surface-to-surface contact provides bearing action for rotary transmission of the accelerating force from the motion of the receiver 22 to the bolt 30 and also provides surface-tosurface transmission of reactive force from the accelerator 38 through the accelerator plate 39 to the receiver 22.

The bolt 30, as can be seen in FIGS. 10a and 10!), has a through-slot 43 which has formed on its oposing faces cam surfaces 44 and dwell portions 45 and 46. The bolt 30 has a longitudinal passage 47 which slidably mounted a firing pin 48. One end of the passage 47 is enlarged to form an enlarged bore 51 to accept a helical torsion spring 49. This torsion spring 49 has tangs bent radially toward the center at each end, as exemplified by tang 50, and one tang 50 engages a recess in the enlarged bore 51, while the opposite tang 50a engages a recess in the cocking piece 52 (FIG. 10b). The torsion spring is thereby reacted against the bolt and against the frame (the cocking piece being mounted to the frame). The cocking piece 52 is adapted with lug slots 54 to match mounting lugs 53 on the bolt 30 and so may be removably mounted to the bolt 30. The bolt lugs 53 pass through the lug slots 54 as the cocking piece 52 is rotated from its vertical position, and there is a clearance groove 110 behind the lug slots 54 which permits the cocking piece to be rotated to its vertical position, thus locking the cocking piece to the bolt, but yet permitting the necessary rotation of the bolt 30. This may be seen in FIG. 9 most clearly.

In FIGS. 10a and 10b, the through-slot 43, with camming surfaces 44 to rotate the bolt 30 in conjunction with cam-follower pin 117, is shown Dwell surfaces 45 and 46 permit longitudinal motion of the bolt 30 without rotation during motion with the breech locked to hold it to the receiver and also without rotation by itself after having been unlocked by initial rotation.

DUring the continuing description of this invention, the muzzle end of the gun will be defined as the front, the hammer end of the gun as the rear, the left side of the gun is that side which is towards the left when the gun is held with the muzzle pointing away from the holder, and the right side is that side which is toward the right when the gun is held in the hand with the muzzle pointing away from the holder.

The cocking piece 52 is retained in assembly with the frame by a pair of spring retainer rods 55 and 56, which are installed within springs 57 and 58. Retainer rods 55 and 56 are assembled with springs 57 and 58 through enclosed channels 59 and 60, which are disposed at the top of the frame 25 and displaced laterally from the centerline on the right and left sides of the frame 25. The centerline, as referred to in this and in other parts of the description, is the centerline that passes through the bore of the barrel and is common with the bore of the receiver 22 and the bolt 30. A pair of frame inserts 61 and 62 act as bearing guides for rods 55 and 56, and the rods 55 and 56 are threadably engaged with the cocking piece 52 and locked in place with nylon thread locking means.

The trigger 64 is pivotally mounted to the frame by pin 65, which forms a portion of bolt hold-back lever 66. Hold-back lever 66 acts in conjunction with safety lever 67, which has a fiat portion 68 that acts as a cam to push on the surface 69 of hold-back lever 66, when the safety lever 67 is depressed, to raise bolt hold-back lever 66 so that its protrusion finger 70 engages a face of bolt 30 to hold the bolt 30 open in the rear position. Lever 66 has a transversely extending portion 71 which has a lower surface 72 which is adapted to be engaged by a portion of the magazine follower 73 so that, upon the firing of the last cartridge, lever 66 is pushed upwards so that its protrusion finger will hold the bolt open, signalling time to remove the empty magazine 74 and replace with a fresh loaded one. Safety lever 67 is mounted to rotate in the frame 25 extending from the left through to the right side of the frame and having a protruding cylindrical finger 75 which acts in the cam recess 76 of the trigger safety plate 77 to rotate the trigger safety plate 77- downward on pin 78, permitting trigger bar support pin 79 to be lowered, preventing the trigger bar 82 from releasing the sear 91, and thus firing the gun. Thus, the safety lever 67 has three positions: horizontal, or center, which is the firing position; down, which is the bolt hold-open position; and up, which is the trigger safety position. All three of these positions being signalled and held in place by detent 80 and detent spring 81, which are mounted in the frame 25. Trigger bar 82 is pivotally mounted to trigger 64 by pin 83, and pin 83 also mounts the trigger spring 84, which acts to hold the trigger forward out of firing position. Compression spring 85 acts to support trigger bar 82 and return it to pre-firing position upon release of the safety.

The hammer 86 is pivotally mounted to the frame 25 by pin 87 and has a spring 88, spring follower 89, and strut 90 to apply firing pressures in a conventional manner to a firing pin 48, previously described. The sear 91 holds the trigger at full or half-cock position and is released by action of the trigger bar 82 to release hammer 86 for firing. A tappet pin 92 acts on surface 93 of the trigger bar 82, the nose 94 of the tappet pin 92 following the surface of bolt 30 until the tappet pin 92 reaches a point where the nose 94 enters a spiral groove 112 (FIG. 11) with a deepened recess 111 at the point 93a where the bolt and receiver are locked together and in the forward battery position ready for firing. At this time the spring 85 acts to push the trigger bar upwards against the tappet pin 92, pushing the nose 94 into the recess 111 and placing the trigger bar 82 in firing position for releasing the sear 91, as can be seen in FIG. 5. Therefore, the action is saftied until the pistol is in battery position ready for firing. The straight groove 113 allows for the tappet pin 92 to remain engaged in safety positionduring non-rotational motion of the bolt 30.

A conical surface 95 (FIG. 10b) of the frame 25 acts to guide bullets from the magazine into the chamber of the receiver 22. The length of this conical surface 95 allows the bullets to be fed into the chamber at any point along the sliding motion of the action of the receiver 22 in conjunction with asimilar conical lead surface at the adajcent forward end of the receiver adjacent the interior locking splines 116.

The bolt 30 has a unique ejection feature as shown in FIG. 12 in which the bolt 30 has a recessed front face 98 and a spring-loaded ejector pin 99, which is springloaded by spring 100. A pivoted extractor 101 (FIG. 10a) is mounted on the bolt 30, and the extractor 101 has a hook end 102 which protrudes into the recess 98 to extract the spent cartridge case. The spent cartridge case is blownback by the force of the firing to force back the hooked end 102 of extractor 101 against spring pressure of spring 103, which is located in a recess in the bolt 30 to spring-load the pivotally-mounted extractor 101, and when the cartridge case has forced the hook end 102 back and is seated in the recess 98 0f the bolt 30, the hook 102 retains the raised edge of the cartridge case and the bolt, in its backward motion,

extracts the cartridge case from the chamber, until a point where the extraction port 105 in the receiver 22 is passed by the cartridge, and the pressure of ejector pin 99 against the end of the cartridge case flings the empty case out of the extraction port 105.

The entire function of the firearm is described as follows: In battery or rest position, the bolt 30 is breechlocked to the receiver 22 with a cartridge in place in the chamber and the hammer 66 cocked. Pulling the trigger 64 raises the trigger bar 82, actuating the sear 91, which releases hammer 86, striking firing pin 48, to discharge the cartridge. The reaction of the discharge of the bullet causes the assembly of barrel 20, receiver 22, and bolt 30 to travel backwards as a unit until the movement of the receiver 22 is stopped by the frame 25. At this point, the rotary accelerator 38 strikes a portion of the frame 25 and imparts a blow to the bolt 30 at the same time that the cam follower pin 117 has rotated the bolt 30 on cam surfaces 44 to free the locking splines 29. The added energy to the bolt 30, given by the impact of rotary accelerator 38 drives the bolt backwards until its motion is limited by the cam follower pin 117. In rotating bolt 30 to unlock the splines 29, torsion spring 49 is pre-loaded and, during recoil of the barrel 20, receiver 22 and bolt 30 assembly, as well as during the independent motion of the bolt 30, return springs 57 and 58 are compressed. As the bolt 30 travels backwards, it extracts the cartridge from the chamber and flings it out of the extractor port. DUring this backward motion, the tappet pin 92 presses the trigger bar 82 down, preventing premature firing of the pistol. After reaching the extreme backward position, at which point the pistol is cocked for the next firing, the bolt returns and is rotated under the stored energy of torsion spring 49 into breech-locking relationship with the receiver 22, and the entire assembly of the action returns to battery position under the urging of compression springs 57 and 58. During its return motion, the bolt 30 pushes a new cartridge into the chamber of receiver 22.

As in all hand guns of this same general configuration, the frame 25 includes a grip member and a cartridge clip chamber 131 formed within the grip member.

As in all modern pistols, the barrel 20 has an internal, spiral rifling that imparts a spin to the bullet to provide a straight and true flight, move first, without tumbling end-for-end, or wobbling and losing precision. For right-hand rifling, the bullet would spin to the right, and the spinning bullet, as well as expanding gases, would impart a reactive left-hand torque to the barrel which the shooters hand would have to overcome. 1n the present invention, the rotating bolt imparts a reactive torque to the frame 25 of the pistol through the cam pin 117. Therefore, by having a left-hand rotation on the bolt, the reactive torque on pin 117 would be of righthand, and so would help offset the left-hand reactive torque of the bullet, thus giving a steadier firing of the firearm and less strain on the shooter. At the conclusion of its rearward motion, the receiver 22 is free to travel forward before engagement with the returning bolt and, at any point in the return motion, it can receive the new bullet. After the last bullet has been fired, the follower 73 of the magazine 74 pushes up on the bolt hold-back bar, holding the bolt open to signal that reloading is necessary and saving the shotter the trouble of opening the bolt to insert a new magazine for reloading. The bolt may be held open after the empty magazine is extracted by pushing down on the saftey lever 67 to hold the hold-open bar 66 upwards.

This invention is not to be limited by the embodiment shown in the drawings and described in the description, which is given by way of example and not of limitation, but only in accordance with the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. In an automatic pistol having a frame and a recoil actuated bolt mounted to said frame and rotated by cam means for breech-locking with spline means, and by primary recoil energy imparted to said bolt by the recoil of a barrel and receiver assembly, and having a trigger mechanism for firing, improvements which comprise:

torsion spring means, said torsion spring means engaging the bolt and the frame of said pistol and being reacted against each of them, said torsion spring means being pre-loaded by unlocking rotation of said bolt, and said torsion spring means releasing stored energy for rotation of said bolt to breech-lock the same;

and a cocking member mounting said bolt for rotation comprising a pair of compression spring mounting rods, a pair of compression springs, said compression springs being mounted on said rods, and a pair of closed channels, said channels being formed one on each side of said frame, said rods being slidably mounted in said channels for compressing said compression springs for returning said bolt, said barrel, and said receiver, said rods mounting said cocking member to the frame.

2. Improvements according to claim 1, comprising tappet pin means mounted to the frame, said tappet pin means being in contact with an external surface of said bolt, said bolt having a recess in said external surface, said recess seating said tappet pin when said bolt is in its breech-locked position for firing, said tappet pin preventing firing by the trigger mechanism when the bolt is out of breech-locked position, and said tappet pin releasing said trigger mechanism for firing when it is seated.

UNITED STATES PATENT oTTTcE QETIFIQATE 0F QGEQTIQN Patent No. 3,780,618 Dated December 25, 1973 Inventor(s) HA 0 SANF RD It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Col. 1, line 17 "blot" should read "bolt-=- Col, 1, line 42 'l96l,"' should read --l96l",--

Col. 2, line 48 "impact" should read --impart-- C019 3, line 31 insert a comma after "8" Colo 3, line 48 "phantom" should read --phantom-- C010 4, line 4 'oposing" should read --opposing-- Cole 4, line 7 "mounted" should read -mounts-- C010 4, line 33 "DUring" should read --During-- C010 5, line 20 "COmpression" should read "Compression" Cole 6, line 9 "66' should read "86-- C01. 6, line 67 "shotter" should read --shooter-- this ay of March 1977 ned and RUTH C. MASON C. MARSHALL DANN Anesring Officer Commissioner uflatenlx and Trademarks UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,780,618 Dated December 25, 1973 Inventor s) HARRY W SANFORD It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Col. 1, line 17 "blot" should read --bolt-- Col. 1, line 42 l96l,"' should read --l96l",--

Col. 2, line 48 "impact" should read --impart-- C010 3, line 31 insert a comma after "8" Cole 3, line 48 "phanton" should read --phantom-- Col. 4, line 4 "oposing" should read -opposing-- Cola 4, line 7 "mounted" should read --mounts--- C010 4, line 33 "DUring" should read --During-- Cole 5, line 20 "COmpression" should read --Compression-- C010 6, line 9 "66" should read --86-- C01. 6, line 67 "shotter" should read --shooter-- Signed and Scaled this First D y of March 1977 [SEAL] A nest:

T MASON t. MARSHALL DANN Arresting Officer Commissioner uflalems and Trademarks

Claims (2)

1. In an automatic pistol having a frame and a recoil actuated bolt mounted to said frame and rotated by cam means for breechlocking with spline means, and by primary recoil energy imparted to said bolt by the recoil of a barrel and receiver assembly, and having a trigger mechanism for firing, imprOvements which comprise: torsion spring means, said torsion spring means engaging the bolt and the frame of said pistol and being reacted against each of them, said torsion spring means being pre-loaded by unlocking rotation of said bolt, and said torsion spring means releasing stored energy for rotation of said bolt to breechlock the same; and a cocking member mounting said bolt for rotation comprising a pair of compression spring mounting rods, a pair of compression springs, said compression springs being mounted on said rods, and a pair of closed channels, said channels being formed one on each side of said frame, said rods being slidably mounted in said channels for compressing said compression springs for returning said bolt, said barrel, and said receiver, said rods mounting said cocking member to the frame.
2. Improvements according to claim 1, comprising tappet pin means mounted to the frame, said tappet pin means being in contact with an external surface of said bolt, said bolt having a recess in said external surface, said recess seating said tappet pin when said bolt is in its breech-locked position for firing, said tappet pin preventing firing by the trigger mechanism when the bolt is out of breech-locked position, and said tappet pin releasing said trigger mechanism for firing when it is seated.
US3780618A 1971-05-20 1971-05-20 Automatic hand gun Expired - Lifetime US3780618A (en)

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2731893A1 (en) * 1976-07-22 1978-02-16 Beretta Armi Spa Automatic piston with safety catch on each side of butt - has lever with arm and lateral projection also spring loaded piston engaging notches of pin
US6907814B2 (en) * 2000-02-25 2005-06-21 Heckler & Koch, Gmbh Automatic firearms with a detachable breech lock
US20080092733A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-04-24 Paul Leitner-Wise Firearm bolt assembly with fully-supported bolt face
US20100281742A1 (en) * 2008-01-09 2010-11-11 Barrett David B Takedown rifle
US20100281734A1 (en) * 2008-01-09 2010-11-11 Rousseau Joseph F N Multi-caliber bolt for a firearm
US20120015781A1 (en) * 2010-07-17 2012-01-19 Limonadi Farhad M Method and apparatus for training a shooter of a firearm
US8966800B1 (en) 2011-07-22 2015-03-03 Innovative Tool and Advanced Weapon Solutions, LLC Wide-flanged cartridge extractor
US9038303B1 (en) 2011-07-18 2015-05-26 Innovative Tool and Advanced Weapon Solutions, LLC Repeating cone-breech firearm system
US9234713B1 (en) * 2011-07-18 2016-01-12 Innovative Tool and Advanced Weapon Solutions, LLC Semi-automatic cartridge feeding system
US9448020B1 (en) 2012-06-27 2016-09-20 Innovative Tool and Advanced Weapon Solutions, LLC Barrel extension and bolt carrier system

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US512437A (en) * 1894-01-09 griffiths
FR351597A (en) * 1904-02-22 1905-07-20 Claus Clausius automatic firearm
US1347756A (en) * 1920-01-24 1920-07-27 Auto Ordnance Corp Gun
US1704889A (en) * 1926-05-21 1929-03-12 Robert M Gardiner Breech-loading safety gun
US1807727A (en) * 1931-06-02 Safety lock for firearms
US1854064A (en) * 1928-10-31 1932-04-12 Revelli Bethel Abiel Automatic rifle

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US512437A (en) * 1894-01-09 griffiths
US1807727A (en) * 1931-06-02 Safety lock for firearms
FR351597A (en) * 1904-02-22 1905-07-20 Claus Clausius automatic firearm
US1347756A (en) * 1920-01-24 1920-07-27 Auto Ordnance Corp Gun
US1704889A (en) * 1926-05-21 1929-03-12 Robert M Gardiner Breech-loading safety gun
US1854064A (en) * 1928-10-31 1932-04-12 Revelli Bethel Abiel Automatic rifle

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2731893A1 (en) * 1976-07-22 1978-02-16 Beretta Armi Spa Automatic piston with safety catch on each side of butt - has lever with arm and lateral projection also spring loaded piston engaging notches of pin
US20050188592A1 (en) * 2000-02-25 2005-09-01 Heckler & Koch, Gmbh Automatic firearms with a detachable breech lock
US7047864B2 (en) 2000-02-25 2006-05-23 Heckler & Koch Gmbh Automatic firearms with a detachable breech lock
US6907814B2 (en) * 2000-02-25 2005-06-21 Heckler & Koch, Gmbh Automatic firearms with a detachable breech lock
US20080092733A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-04-24 Paul Leitner-Wise Firearm bolt assembly with fully-supported bolt face
US8069600B2 (en) * 2008-01-09 2011-12-06 Browning Multi-caliber bolt for a firearm
US20100281742A1 (en) * 2008-01-09 2010-11-11 Barrett David B Takedown rifle
US20100281734A1 (en) * 2008-01-09 2010-11-11 Rousseau Joseph F N Multi-caliber bolt for a firearm
US7841121B1 (en) 2008-01-09 2010-11-30 Browning Takedown rifle
US20120015781A1 (en) * 2010-07-17 2012-01-19 Limonadi Farhad M Method and apparatus for training a shooter of a firearm
US9038303B1 (en) 2011-07-18 2015-05-26 Innovative Tool and Advanced Weapon Solutions, LLC Repeating cone-breech firearm system
US9234713B1 (en) * 2011-07-18 2016-01-12 Innovative Tool and Advanced Weapon Solutions, LLC Semi-automatic cartridge feeding system
US8966800B1 (en) 2011-07-22 2015-03-03 Innovative Tool and Advanced Weapon Solutions, LLC Wide-flanged cartridge extractor
US9448020B1 (en) 2012-06-27 2016-09-20 Innovative Tool and Advanced Weapon Solutions, LLC Barrel extension and bolt carrier system

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