US3774592A - Method for providing an improved body electrode electrical connection - Google Patents

Method for providing an improved body electrode electrical connection Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3774592A
US3774592A US3774592DA US3774592A US 3774592 A US3774592 A US 3774592A US 3774592D A US3774592D A US 3774592DA US 3774592 A US3774592 A US 3774592A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
body
electrode
layer
surface
contact
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
R Lahr
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Xerox Corp
Original Assignee
Xerox Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/0408Electrodes specially adapted therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/04Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/0402Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
    • A61B5/04025Preparing electrode site, e.g. by abrasion

Abstract

Method and apparatus for providing an improved electrical connection between an electrode placed on the surface of the body and the underlying tissue. The electrode, including an absorbent pad saturated with a conductive material, is adhesively affixed to the body surface. The elongated fibers of a brush are brought into contact with the absorbent pad and, with an appropriate amount of force applied to the brush, the fibers micro-puncture the body surface, forcing the conductive material into microchannels beneath the body surface fomed or enlarged by the fibers and into contact with the underlying tissue.

Description

United States Patent [1 1 Lahr [ Nov. 27, 1973 METHOD FOR PROVIDING AN IMPROVED BODY ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL CONNECTION [7 5] Inventor: Roy J. Lahr, Sierra Madre, Calif.

[73] Assignee: Xerox Corporation, Stamford,

Conn.

[22] Filed: Dec. 16, 1971 211 Appl. No.2 208,586

[52] US. Cl. 128/2.l E, l28/D IG. 4

[51] Int. Cl A61b 5/04 [58] Field of Search 128/2.l E, 2.06 E,

128/416, 417, 418, 404, 410,411, DIG. 4,

A 405; 128/21 R, 2.06 R, 416-418 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,187,745 6/1965 Baum et a1 128/2.06 E 3,701,346 10/1972 Patrick et a]... 128/2.1 E X 3,340,868 9/1967 .Darling 128/206 E 3,505,993 4/1970 Lewes et a1. 128/206 E Primary Examiner-Richard A. Gaudet Assistant ExaminerLee S. Cohen Attorney-James J. Ralabate et al.

[5 7] ABSTRACT Method and apparatus for providing an improved electrical connection between an electrode placed on the surface of the body and the underlying tissue. The electrode, including an absorbent pad saturated with a conductive material, is adhesively affixed to the body surface. The elongated fibers of a brush are brought into contact with the absorbent pad and, with an appropriate amount of force applied to the brush, the fibers micro-puncture the body surface, forcing the conductive material into microchannels beneath the body surface fomed or enlarged by the fibers and into contact with the underlying tissue.

3 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures Patented Nov. 27, 1973 FIG. 3 q) FIG. su

INVENTOR. ROY J. LAHR A TTORNEV METHOD FOR PROVIDING AN IMPROVED BODY ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL CONNECTION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Many techniques have been developed in the prior art for transferring electrical signals to and from a patient through the use of body electrodes electrically connected to monitoring apparatus by means of electrical wires or through radio telemetry. The prior art body electrodes have been held in place on the patient by various means, such as by hand, suction cups, straps, adhesives, or the like.

For one reason or the other, these prior art techniques for maintaining the electrodes in place on the patient have not been satisfactory. For example, in those situations wherein the patient is mobile and not confined to a limited area, a portable electrode which is immediately active, preferably disposable, and easily affixed to the body would be preferable to the prior art electrodes. In addition, it is desired that the body electrode be small, not noticeable, and cause no immediate or long term discomfort to the patient.

In the area of electroencephalography, the prior art techniques for detecting and recording brain waves have not been satisfactory. The voltages found in the human scalp region are minute, typically about l-80 microvolts; In order to get reliable readings, a good connection is necessary. However, a surface layer of dead cells, dirt, etc. usually prevents a good electrical connection to the ionic fluids of the underlying living tissue. Various methods are presently used to establish good connection from the body electrode to the living tissue, a good connection typically being less than 10,000 ohms resistance between points four inches or greater apart. Typically, the surface layer is abraded off after cleansing with a solution, such as acetone. The rubbing is vigorous, with abrasives added to some solutions to assist the abrading. All solutions are heavily conductive, so that when an electrode is placed over the abraded area, the conductive gel or solution then provides the ohmic connection between metallic elecsue which provides a good ohmic connection but which is obviously uncomfortable to the patient.

It is therefore desired that a body electrode be provided which is easily affixed to a patient, which provides a good electrical connection to the living tissue underlying the surface layer of skin and which is preferable disposable.

U. S. Pat. No. 3,085,577 issued to R. M. Berman et al, is an example of a prior art body electrode which is small, inexpensive, disposable and portable. The electrode comprises a flexible tape having an adhesive material on its underside and an absorbant pad and screening material affixed to the underside by a small rigid annular member. The pad is saturated with a conductive paste and the assembly is placed in contact with the body part. The inflexibility of the screening, however, as pointed out in the patent, produces a low electrical resistance contact between the skin and the electrode, the swelling and associated redness obviously will produce discomfort to the patient. Since the body electrode of Berman et al measures the electrical activity on the surface of the skin, the connection necessary to read the extremely small voltages produced by the body is not completely satisfactory due to the surface layer of dead cells, dirt, etc. Again, the usual practice with the type of electrode shown in Berman et al is to pre-abrade or utilize solvent chemicals which slowly dissolve the dead cell layer.

SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION The present invention provides an improved method of employing a body electrode for transferring electrical signals to and from the living tissues underlying the surface of a body part. In particular, the body electrode of the present invention comprises a flexible tape having an adhesive material on its underside. An absorbent pad, saturated with a conductive material, is located substantially in the center of the tape. A conductive electrode is affixed in contact with the absorbent pad on the upper side of the tape. The body electrode is then positioned on the body part and a stiff bristle brush is dabbed against the absorbent pad which is saturated with a conductive gel. The bristles are forced through the pad and through the non-conductive surface layer of the skin. It is found that a good connection is made and that apparently microchannels are established through the non-conductive skin layer with suffrcient gel penetration to get excellent conduction, i.e. 5,000 7,000 ohms. This dabbing action of the stiff bristles has been found not to be painful and for practical purposes the attendant can dab at the back of his hand to perceive what dabbing force should be used which would not cause discomfort to the patient. Several uses have shown that a good, reliable contact is immediately made, viable over several hours.

It is a object of the present invention to provide a novel method for providing a low electrical resistance contact between the living tissue underlying the surface of a body part and an electrode positioned on the body surface.

It is still a further object of the present invention to provide a disposable body electrode and applicator pack for applying the body electrode to a body part in a manner whereby excellent electrical contact is achieved between the living tissue underlying the surface of a body part and an electrode positioned on the body surface.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS For a better understanding of the invention as well as electrode of FIG. 1 showing a bottom view thereof; and

FIG. 3(a) illustrates the body electrode as applied to the surface of the body part and FIG. 3(b) is a general representation of the microchannels formed in the body part with the conductive material therein by the dabbing action of the brush member.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. I, a perspective top view of the body electrode 10 is shown with peel off covers 12, 14

and 16 partially removed to illustrate the components of the body electrode. A flexible tape 18 has an absorbent pad located substantially in the center of the tape 18. The absorbent pad 20 is saturated with a conductive gel or paste, such as sodium chloride containing mixtures known as electrode paste or gel containing sodium chloride. A conductive electrode 22, either the foil as shown or a wire mesh, is affixed to the upper side of the tape 18 over the absorbent pad 20 with adhesive, cement or other material. The electrode 22 provides an electrode clip point whereby the body electrode is electrically connected to electromedical apparatus (not shown).

A brush member 24, comprising a handle portion 26 and a plurality of bristles 28, is associated with the body electrode and preferably is packaged therewith in an unitary, disposable pack.

The bristles are preferably of a uniform length and are of a medically-suitable stiff material such as stainless steel.

FIG. 2 is a perspective bottom view of thebody electrode 10 with peel off covers 14 and 16 partially open, the covers being affixed to adhesive zones on the mar gins of the bottom of absorbent pad 20.

As shown schematically in FIG. 3(a), the present invention is utilized in the following manner.

The attendant first places the gel saturated absorbent pad in the desired location on a body part, such as scalp 30. The attendant then dabs the brush 24 against the gel saturated absorbent pad 20, driving the bristles through the pad and through the nonconducn've portion of the upper scalp. It is believed that microchannels 32, shown in FIG. 3(b), through the nonconductive scalp layer are established with sufficient gel penetration to get excellent conduction, i.e. typically 5,0007,000 ohms. The dabbing action of the stiff bristles is generally not painful and, in practice, the attendant may dab at the back of the hand to determine what force can be used without causing discomfort to the patient. Numerous tests have shown that a good, reliable contact is made, viable over several hours.

The bottom side of tape 18 is provided with a pressure sensitive adhesive enabling the body electrode 10 to be attached to the skin and be tightly retained in position despite various changes in body curvature that may serve to flex the tape 10 into conformity with the skin surface. Suitable adhesives for this purpose are now available and commonly employed in self retaining bandages.

The pad material is of the class of material which provides a thin porous absorbent pad such as cotton, gauze, or the like. The characteristic of the selected material is such as to absorb and retain an electrically conductive paste or gel that is applied thereto.

The advantage of the present invention is that it is in expensive and that its construction makes it adaptable for disposable use. The package contemplated by the present invention includes the body electrode assembhy l0 and the brush 24 since the brush is needed to force the gel material into contact with the living tissue underlying the surface layer of skin. The adhesive layer enables body electrode 10, with the associated peel-ofi' covers, to be easily applied to the skin without sticking to other items during its handling. Before application to the skin, these layers are easily removed to expose the adhesive surface therebeneath. The conductive gel may be added to the pad 20 prior to the sealing of the body electrode 10 and its associated brush 20 within its individual wrappers or, alternately, it can be applied to the pad 20 after the peel-off layers are removed.

While the invention has been described with reference to its preferred embodiment, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents substituted for elements thereof without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from its essential teachings.

What is claimed is:

l. A method of providing an electrical connection between a body electrode and the tissue beneath the surface of the human anatomy comprising the steps of:

a. placing the body electrode in contact with the body surface, said body electrode comprising a flexible tape having an adhesive on the underside thereof, a layer of a porous, absorbant material affixed to the flexible tape, and a conductive electrode in overlying relationship with said layer, said layer being saturated with an electrolytic solution, and

b. puncturing said layer and said body surface through the upper surface of said flexible tape by a sharp object such that a portion of said electrolytic solution is forced through the body surface into contact with the tissue therebeneath, whereby an electrical connection is made between the tissue and the conductive electrode.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein said absorbant layer is saturated with said electrolytic solution prior to said layer being placed in contact with said body sur- 1 t t i t

Claims (3)

1. A method of providing an electrical connection between a body electrode and the tissue beneath the surface of the human anatomy comprising the steps of: a. placing the body electrode in contact with the body surface, said body electrode comprising a flexible tape having an adhesive on the underside thereof, a layer of a porous, absorbant material affixed to the flexible tape, and a conductive electrode in overlying relationship with said layer, said layer being saturated with an electrolytic solution, and b. puncturing said layer and said body surface through the upper surface of said flexible tape by a sharp object such that a portion of said electrolytic solution is forced through the body surface into contact with the tissue therebeneath, whereby an electrical connection is made between the tissue and the conductive electrode.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein said absorbant layer is saturated with said electrolytic solution prior to said layer being placed in contact with said body surface.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein said absorbant layer is saturated with said electrolytic solution after said layer is placed in contact with said body surface.
US3774592A 1971-12-16 1971-12-16 Method for providing an improved body electrode electrical connection Expired - Lifetime US3774592A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US20858671 true 1971-12-16 1971-12-16

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3774592A true US3774592A (en) 1973-11-27

Family

ID=22775140

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3774592A Expired - Lifetime US3774592A (en) 1971-12-16 1971-12-16 Method for providing an improved body electrode electrical connection

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3774592A (en)

Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3961623A (en) * 1975-01-17 1976-06-08 Medical Research Laboratories, Inc. Method of using a disposable electrode pad
US3972329A (en) * 1974-11-25 1976-08-03 Kaufman John George Body electrode for electro-medical use
US3977392A (en) * 1975-04-21 1976-08-31 Eastprint, Inc. Medical electrode
US4058116A (en) * 1974-10-09 1977-11-15 Louis Bucalo Methods, materials, and devices for providing electrical conductivity particularly for living beings
US4155354A (en) * 1976-03-29 1979-05-22 Rasmussen Steen B Disposable electromedical electrode and a set of such electrodes
US4269189A (en) * 1979-07-09 1981-05-26 Consolidated Medical Equipment Inc. Skin conducting electrode assembly
US4274419A (en) * 1979-10-19 1981-06-23 Quinton Instrument Co. Skin preparation device and method used in the application of medical electrodes
US4311152A (en) * 1979-01-15 1982-01-19 Quinton Instrument Co. Medical electrode and system for minimizing motion artifacts
US4409981A (en) * 1981-07-20 1983-10-18 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Medical electrode
US4538612A (en) * 1983-08-29 1985-09-03 Ndm Corporation Skin preparation method and product
US4579120A (en) * 1982-09-30 1986-04-01 Cordis Corporation Strain relief for percutaneous lead
US4580572A (en) * 1983-06-01 1986-04-08 Bio-Stimu Trend Corp. Garment apparatus for delivering or receiving electric impulses
US4706662A (en) * 1981-12-11 1987-11-17 Johnson & Johnson Products, Inc. Film dressing with fabric backing
EP0246901A1 (en) * 1986-05-21 1987-11-25 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Biomedical electrode and a method of continuous production of a biomedical electrode
US4729377A (en) * 1983-06-01 1988-03-08 Bio-Stimu Trend Corporation Garment apparatus for delivering or receiving electric impulses
US4795516A (en) * 1986-05-21 1989-01-03 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of continuous production of a biomedical electrode
EP0377997A2 (en) * 1988-12-29 1990-07-18 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Self-preparing electrode for sensing the electric potential of a persons skin.
USRE33727E (en) * 1980-09-11 1991-10-29 Baxter International, Inc. Bandage frame
US5305746A (en) * 1992-09-29 1994-04-26 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Disposable, pre-gelled, self-prepping electrode
US5309909A (en) * 1992-05-22 1994-05-10 Physio-Control Corporation Combined skin preparation and monitoring electrode
US5593395A (en) * 1987-08-07 1997-01-14 Martz; Joel D. Vapor permeable dressing
EP0951233A2 (en) 1996-10-11 1999-10-27 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Electrode array system for measuring electrophysiological signals
US6341230B1 (en) * 1999-03-25 2002-01-22 Nihon Kohoen Corporation Biomedical electrode
US6654626B2 (en) * 1996-10-11 2003-11-25 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Electrode array system for measuring electrophysiological signals
US6711427B1 (en) 2002-02-13 2004-03-23 Milwaukee Electronics Corporation Skin abrading medical electrode mounting and packaging system
US20050187580A1 (en) * 2004-02-19 2005-08-25 Skiba Jeffry B. Current producing surface
US20050251047A1 (en) * 1999-03-01 2005-11-10 Medacoustics, Inc. Low profile acoustic sensor array and sensors with pleated transmission lines and related methods
US7027877B2 (en) 2001-08-23 2006-04-11 Zoll Medical Corporation Method of applying defibrilator electrode pad with folded release sheet
US20070118032A1 (en) * 1998-10-05 2007-05-24 Spinematrix, Inc. EMG Electrode Apparatus And Positioning System
US20080081978A1 (en) * 2006-09-28 2008-04-03 Meyer Peter F Medical apparatus with releasable applicator
US20090157337A1 (en) * 2007-12-14 2009-06-18 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. System for determining electrical status of patient attached leads
US20130204110A1 (en) * 2012-02-07 2013-08-08 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Electrode for measuring bio potential, method of manufacturing the electrode, and system for measuring physiological signal
US20150242001A1 (en) * 2014-02-26 2015-08-27 Dimitrije Stojanovski Electrically conductive bandage for use with touchscreen devices

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3187745A (en) * 1961-08-01 1965-06-08 Melpar Inc Electrodes
US3340868A (en) * 1965-03-05 1967-09-12 Gen Electric Body signal pickup electrode
US3505993A (en) * 1964-12-23 1970-04-14 Nat Res Dev Electrocardiograph electrodes with surface convexities
US3701346A (en) * 1971-01-04 1972-10-31 Bionetics Inc Medical electrode

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3187745A (en) * 1961-08-01 1965-06-08 Melpar Inc Electrodes
US3505993A (en) * 1964-12-23 1970-04-14 Nat Res Dev Electrocardiograph electrodes with surface convexities
US3340868A (en) * 1965-03-05 1967-09-12 Gen Electric Body signal pickup electrode
US3701346A (en) * 1971-01-04 1972-10-31 Bionetics Inc Medical electrode

Cited By (48)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4058116A (en) * 1974-10-09 1977-11-15 Louis Bucalo Methods, materials, and devices for providing electrical conductivity particularly for living beings
US3972329A (en) * 1974-11-25 1976-08-03 Kaufman John George Body electrode for electro-medical use
US3961623A (en) * 1975-01-17 1976-06-08 Medical Research Laboratories, Inc. Method of using a disposable electrode pad
US3977392A (en) * 1975-04-21 1976-08-31 Eastprint, Inc. Medical electrode
US4155354A (en) * 1976-03-29 1979-05-22 Rasmussen Steen B Disposable electromedical electrode and a set of such electrodes
US4311152A (en) * 1979-01-15 1982-01-19 Quinton Instrument Co. Medical electrode and system for minimizing motion artifacts
US4269189A (en) * 1979-07-09 1981-05-26 Consolidated Medical Equipment Inc. Skin conducting electrode assembly
US4274419A (en) * 1979-10-19 1981-06-23 Quinton Instrument Co. Skin preparation device and method used in the application of medical electrodes
USRE33727E (en) * 1980-09-11 1991-10-29 Baxter International, Inc. Bandage frame
US4409981A (en) * 1981-07-20 1983-10-18 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Medical electrode
US4706662A (en) * 1981-12-11 1987-11-17 Johnson & Johnson Products, Inc. Film dressing with fabric backing
US4579120A (en) * 1982-09-30 1986-04-01 Cordis Corporation Strain relief for percutaneous lead
US4580572A (en) * 1983-06-01 1986-04-08 Bio-Stimu Trend Corp. Garment apparatus for delivering or receiving electric impulses
US4729377A (en) * 1983-06-01 1988-03-08 Bio-Stimu Trend Corporation Garment apparatus for delivering or receiving electric impulses
US4538612A (en) * 1983-08-29 1985-09-03 Ndm Corporation Skin preparation method and product
EP0246901A1 (en) * 1986-05-21 1987-11-25 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Biomedical electrode and a method of continuous production of a biomedical electrode
US4795516A (en) * 1986-05-21 1989-01-03 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Method of continuous production of a biomedical electrode
US5593395A (en) * 1987-08-07 1997-01-14 Martz; Joel D. Vapor permeable dressing
US4995392A (en) * 1988-12-29 1991-02-26 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Self-preparing electrode with removable plastic abrading brush
EP0377997A3 (en) * 1988-12-29 1990-10-10 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Self-preparing electrode for sensing the electric potential of a persons skin.
EP0377997A2 (en) * 1988-12-29 1990-07-18 Westinghouse Electric Corporation Self-preparing electrode for sensing the electric potential of a persons skin.
US5309909A (en) * 1992-05-22 1994-05-10 Physio-Control Corporation Combined skin preparation and monitoring electrode
US5305746A (en) * 1992-09-29 1994-04-26 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Disposable, pre-gelled, self-prepping electrode
EP0951233A2 (en) 1996-10-11 1999-10-27 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Electrode array system for measuring electrophysiological signals
US6654626B2 (en) * 1996-10-11 2003-11-25 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Electrode array system for measuring electrophysiological signals
US6032064A (en) * 1996-10-11 2000-02-29 Aspect Medical Systems, Inc. Electrode array system for measuring electrophysiological signals
US20070118032A1 (en) * 1998-10-05 2007-05-24 Spinematrix, Inc. EMG Electrode Apparatus And Positioning System
US20100069736A1 (en) * 1998-10-05 2010-03-18 Spinematrix, Inc. EMG Electrode Apparatus And Positioning System
US7627358B2 (en) 1998-10-05 2009-12-01 Spinematrix, Inc. EMG electrode apparatus and positioning system
US7363069B2 (en) * 1998-10-05 2008-04-22 Spinematrix, Inc. EMG electrode apparatus and positioning system
US7912526B2 (en) 1998-10-05 2011-03-22 Spinematrix, Inc. EMG electrode apparatus and positioning system
US20080208030A1 (en) * 1998-10-05 2008-08-28 Spinematrix, Inc. EMG Electrode Apparatus And Positioning System
US20050251047A1 (en) * 1999-03-01 2005-11-10 Medacoustics, Inc. Low profile acoustic sensor array and sensors with pleated transmission lines and related methods
US6341230B1 (en) * 1999-03-25 2002-01-22 Nihon Kohoen Corporation Biomedical electrode
US7027877B2 (en) 2001-08-23 2006-04-11 Zoll Medical Corporation Method of applying defibrilator electrode pad with folded release sheet
US20060149346A1 (en) * 2001-08-23 2006-07-06 Zoll Medical Corporation Method of applying defibrillator electrode pad with folded release sheet
US6711427B1 (en) 2002-02-13 2004-03-23 Milwaukee Electronics Corporation Skin abrading medical electrode mounting and packaging system
US7457667B2 (en) * 2004-02-19 2008-11-25 Silverleaf Medical Products, Inc. Current producing surface for a wound dressing
US20050187580A1 (en) * 2004-02-19 2005-08-25 Skiba Jeffry B. Current producing surface
US20100312293A1 (en) * 2004-02-19 2010-12-09 Vomaris Innovations, Inc. Batteries and Methods of Manufacture and Use
US8224439B2 (en) 2004-02-19 2012-07-17 Vamaris Innovations, Inc. Batteries and methods of manufacture and use
US20080081978A1 (en) * 2006-09-28 2008-04-03 Meyer Peter F Medical apparatus with releasable applicator
US7869855B2 (en) * 2006-09-28 2011-01-11 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Medical apparatus with releasable applicator
US9622673B2 (en) * 2007-12-14 2017-04-18 Siemens Healthcare Gmbh System for determining electrical status of patient attached leads
US20090157337A1 (en) * 2007-12-14 2009-06-18 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. System for determining electrical status of patient attached leads
US20130204110A1 (en) * 2012-02-07 2013-08-08 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Electrode for measuring bio potential, method of manufacturing the electrode, and system for measuring physiological signal
US9144387B2 (en) * 2012-02-07 2015-09-29 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Electrode for measuring bio potential, method of manufacturing the electrode, and system for measuring physiological signal
US20150242001A1 (en) * 2014-02-26 2015-08-27 Dimitrije Stojanovski Electrically conductive bandage for use with touchscreen devices

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3518984A (en) Packaged diagnostic electrode device
US3607788A (en) Liquid electrode material
Lykken Properties of electrode used in electrodermal measurement.
US3610229A (en) Electrocardiograph electrodes with conductive jelly supply means
US3085577A (en) Body electrode
US3490448A (en) Adhesive pressure pad
Hamilton et al. Human electrogastrograms
US4694835A (en) Biomedical electrode
US5645063A (en) Skin electrode having multiple conductive center members
US4313443A (en) Pocket ECG electrode
US6477410B1 (en) Electrokinetic delivery of medicaments
US6887239B2 (en) Preparation for transmission and reception of electrical signals
US5938597A (en) Electrocardiograph bioelectric interface system and method of use
US4067322A (en) Disposable, pre-gel body electrodes
US5496363A (en) Electrode and assembly
US3187745A (en) Electrodes
US4852571A (en) Disposable biopotential electrode
US3151619A (en) Electrode for electromedical equipment
Webster Reducing motion artifacts and interference in biopotential recording
US3590810A (en) Biomedical body electrode
US5727550A (en) Dual purpose ultrasonic biomedical couplant pad and electrode
US3340868A (en) Body signal pickup electrode
US4643193A (en) ECG electrode with sensing element having a conductive coating in a pattern thereon
US6532379B2 (en) Bio-electic interface adapter with twelve-lead ECG capability and provision for defibrillation
US6141575A (en) Electrode assemblies