US3773684A - Dipolar electro-optic compositions and method of preparation - Google Patents

Dipolar electro-optic compositions and method of preparation Download PDF

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US3773684A
US3773684A US3773684DA US3773684A US 3773684 A US3773684 A US 3773684A US 3773684D A US3773684D A US 3773684DA US 3773684 A US3773684 A US 3773684A
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solvent
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electrodichroic
dipolar
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A Marks
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A Marks
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/17Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on variable-absorption elements not provided for in groups G02F1/015 - G02F1/169
    • G02F1/172Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on variable-absorption elements not provided for in groups G02F1/015 - G02F1/169 based on a suspension of orientable dipolar particles, e.g. suspended particles displays

Abstract

Methods and apparatus incorporating suspensions of assymetric minute dipolar particles for the control of electromagnetic radiation. The physical electrical and optical properties of the dipolar particles and their suspending medium are specified in conjunction with apparatus employing them.

Description

nited States Patent 1191 Marks [45] Nov. 20, 1973 [5 BIPOLAR ELECTRO-OPTIC 3,241,948 3/1966 Clarborne et a1. 75 .5 B COMPOSITIONS AND METHOD 01 3,367,766 2/1968 Harrington et al.... 29/192 2,456,313 12/1948 Pratt 106/290 PREPARATION 3,007,160 10/1961 l-lalpem 343/18 [76] Inventor: Alvin M, Marks, 153-16 10th Ave 3,171,106 2/1965 Lemmond 340 174.1 whitestone, N Y 3,213,027 10/1965 Fatuzzo et a1. 252/63.2 3,513,449 5/1970 Young 340/173 [22] Filed: Mar. 3, 1970 2 l N 16 185 OTHER PUBLICATIONS App o" Powder Metallurgy, Goetzel, Vol. 1, lnterscience Pub- Related US. Application Data lishers, Inc., N.Y. pp. 9297 copy in library (1949). [63] Continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 378,836, June 29,

964, Pal 3,512,876 Primary ExaminerJohn D. Welsh AttorneyPhilip D. Amins [52] U.S. Cl. 252/309, 348/18, 106/288 B, 148/16, 252/300, 350/267 [51] Int. Cl B01j 13/00 [57] ABSTRACT [58] Field of Search 252/63.5, 63, 309; Methods and apparatus incorporating Suspensions of 343/18 A; 29/192 R; 75/.5; l48/1.6; 350/267 assymetric minute dipolar particles for thecontrol of electromagnetic radiation. The physical electrical and [56] References Cited optica1 properties of the dipolar particles and their UNITED STATES PATENTS suspending medium are specified in conjunction with apparatus employing them. 2,543,793 3/1951 Marks 350/267 3,151,971 10/1964 Clough 75/.5 B 17 Claims, 69 Drawing Figures PATENTEDHUYZO 1975 sum cu or 9 PAIENIEUnmo I975 v 3.773.684 SHEET NM 29 L/6 7 FIG. 43

INVENTOR. 2' 41/5 ,44 w/v M Mazes Fl G. 42 m 424M161 PATENTEU I975 SHEET 160! 29 3.773.684

FEG. 45 w T rraleA a V PATENIED Hm 20 mm SHEET 180F 29 VARIOUS CROSS SECTIONAL AREAS FOR HALF-WAVE DIPOLE Aa+Ab ZOEbMw mmOmo w C. 4mm

RATIO OF RADIATION RESISTANCE TO ABSORPTION RESISTANCE SIM W W mm VM W m M wf M/ C Q PAIENTED IIIIIZO I873 CURVES OF CONSTANT MINIMUM TRANSMISSION RELATIVE TRANSMITTANC E ELECTRIC DICHROIC RATIO I'o 2b 3b MAXIMUM TRANSMITTANCE vs.

ELECTRODICHROIC RATIO FOR CONSTANT MINIMUM TRANSMITTANCE OF 0.0I%, O. I% AND I% lSUF 29 Z CELL CONTAINING A CHROMIUM DIPOLE SUSPENSION VOLTAGE TRACE IKV/ DIV.

TIME (milhseconds) Z CELL CONTAINING A CHROMIUM DIPOLE SUSPENSION 8 VOLTAGE TRACE lKV/DIV TIME (mllllseconds)

Claims (16)

  1. 2. An electrodichroic composition of matter according to claim 1 in which the transparent fluid suspending medium is a thermoplastic medium.
  2. 3. An electrodichroic composition of matter according to claim 1 in which the transparent fluid suspending medium is thixotropic.
  3. 4. An electrodichroic composition of matter according to claim 1 in which the transparent fluid suspending medium has a resistivity of at least 30 megohm-cm.
  4. 5. An electrodichroic composition of matter according to claim 1, in which the conductive particles are selected from the class consisting of aluminum, aluminum nickelide, antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, gold, indium, lead, palladium, platinum, silver tantalum, thalium, titanium herapathite and tungsten.
  5. 6. An electrodichroic composition of matter according to claim 1 in which the particles are needle-like.
  6. 7. A pigment comprising an electrodichroic composition of matter according to claim 6, in which the dipoles have maximum lengths in the rnage of 1000 to 3000 A.
  7. 8. An electrodichroic composition of matter according to claim 1 in which the particls have a long dimension of the order of lambda /2n, and at least one other dimension not exceeding lambda /10n, where lambda is the wavelength of light in the visual range and n is the indeX of refraction of said transprent suspending medium.
  8. 9. An electrodichroic composition according to claim 5 in which the particles are flakes having long dimensions in the range of 1000 to 10,000 A, and said flakes having thicknesses of 50 to 250A.
  9. 10. The method of preparing a dipolar crystalline suspension defined by claim 1 which comprises forming from solution a suspension of needle-like crystals in a solvent media, saod solution being in at least a saturated condition, adding a miscible non-solvent of higher boiling point to said solution, and thereafter removing the solvent component.
  10. 11. The method of preparing a dipolar crystalline suspension defined by claim 1 which comprises forming from solution a suspension of needle-like crystals in a solvent media containing a polymer, said solution being in at least a saturated condition, adding a miscible non-solvent of higher boiling point to said solution and thereafter removing the solvent component.
  11. 12. The method of preparing a dipolar crystalline suspension defined by claim 1 which comprises forming from solution a suspension of needle-like crystals in a solvent media containing a polymer, said solution being in at least a saturated condition, adding a miscible non-solvent of higher boiling point to said solution and thereafter removing the solvent component, said non-solvent being of a sufficient quantity to form a paste upon removal of the solvent.
  12. 13. The method of preparing a dipolar crystalline suspension defined by claim 1 which comprises forming from solution a suspension of needle-like crystals from a solvent media containing a polymer, said solution being in at least a saturated condition, adding a miscible non-solvent of higher boiling point to said solution and thereafter removing the solvent component by vacuum, said non-solvent being of a sufficient quantity to form a paste upon removal of the solvent, and thereafter adding a low viscosity miscible non-solvent to dilute the paste to form a low viscosity dipolar suspension.
  13. 14. A method according to claim 13 in which the needle-like crystals are Herapathite crystals.
  14. 15. An electrodichroic composition of matter of a high viscosity concentrate including a polymer 1000 parts, plasticizer 1000-5000 parts, dipolar particles 1-1000 parts suspended therein, and said dipolar particles having lengths in the range of 0.1-1 Mu .
  15. 16. An electrodichroic composition of matter including a nonionic fluid containing 1-10 percent of a high viscosity concentrate according to claim 15, with which the polymer and plasticizer is compatible, and dissolved therein, and in which total composition the dipoles are suspended.
  16. 17. An electrodichroic composition of matter comprising a suspension of conductive particles in a non-reactive transparent fluid suspending medium, said particles having lengths in the range of 0.1-0.2 Mu and each of said particles having length to thickness ratios of at least 5.
US3773684D 1964-06-29 1970-03-03 Dipolar electro-optic compositions and method of preparation Expired - Lifetime US3773684A (en)

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Cited By (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4247175A (en) * 1978-10-31 1981-01-27 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing improved light valve suspension
US4270841A (en) * 1978-10-31 1981-06-02 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing suspension of perhalide of alkaloid acid salt
US4442019A (en) * 1978-05-26 1984-04-10 Marks Alvin M Electroordered dipole suspension
US4606848A (en) * 1984-08-14 1986-08-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Radar attenuating paint
US4663083A (en) * 1978-05-26 1987-05-05 Marks Alvin M Electro-optical dipole suspension with reflective-absorptive-transmissive characteristics
US4725490A (en) * 1986-05-05 1988-02-16 Hoechst Celanese Corporation High magnetic permeability composites containing fibers with ferrite fill
US4728554A (en) * 1986-05-05 1988-03-01 Hoechst Celanese Corporation Fiber structure and method for obtaining tuned response to high frequency electromagnetic radiation
US4987418A (en) * 1987-12-28 1991-01-22 United Technologies Corporation Ferroelectric panel
US4989006A (en) * 1989-10-17 1991-01-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Microwave absorption system
US5142418A (en) * 1989-07-20 1992-08-25 The Unites States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Superconducting tunable inorganic filter
US5155634A (en) * 1989-07-20 1992-10-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Superconducting reflection filter
US5161068A (en) * 1989-07-20 1992-11-03 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Superconducting searching filter
US5204772A (en) * 1990-11-28 1993-04-20 Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd. Electrically responsive light controlling device
US5270872A (en) * 1989-07-20 1993-12-14 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Superconducting submicron filter
US5345238A (en) * 1990-03-13 1994-09-06 Teledyne Industries, Inc. Satellite signature suppression shield
US5650872A (en) * 1994-12-08 1997-07-22 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing ultrafine particles
US5711884A (en) * 1990-08-22 1998-01-27 University Of Pittsburgh Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Method of filtering submicron particles with gel lattice membrane filter
US6001251A (en) * 1990-08-22 1999-12-14 University Of Pittsburgh Material for separating submicron particles
US20030076087A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2003-04-24 Imego Ab Method and arrangement relating to substance analysis
US20030169032A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2003-09-11 Ana Minchole Method and arrangement relating to substance analysis
WO2005029171A1 (en) * 2003-09-23 2005-03-31 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Display device with suspended anisometric particles
US20060022880A1 (en) * 2004-07-28 2006-02-02 Chiang Kuo C Multi-band antenna
US20080231977A1 (en) * 2003-08-14 2008-09-25 Gilles Schwaab Reflective Layer
US20100026590A1 (en) * 2004-07-28 2010-02-04 Kuo-Ching Chiang Thin film multi-band antenna
US20100047593A1 (en) * 2006-12-21 2010-02-25 Osamu Higashida Light Control Film
WO2010032069A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2010-03-25 Pilkington Group Limited Methods of switching and apparatus comprising an electrically actuated variable transmission material
WO2010032068A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2010-03-25 Pilkington Group Limited Switchable glazing
US20100158657A1 (en) * 2005-08-12 2010-06-24 Toru Maekawa Method for Manipulation Using Rotational Magnetic Field
US20120231178A1 (en) * 2009-06-22 2012-09-13 Condalign As Anisotropic conducting body and method of manufacture
US20130257639A1 (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-03 Toshihide Takahashi Radiowave absorber
US20140361666A1 (en) * 2012-03-02 2014-12-11 Fujitsu Limited Crystal resonator, and production method therefor
DE102017214093B3 (en) 2017-08-11 2018-11-29 Continental Automotive Gmbh Flat light modulation device with switchable multistable transmittances and / or multi-stable scattering properties with respect to visible light and vehicle with a flat light modulation device

Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4442019A (en) * 1978-05-26 1984-04-10 Marks Alvin M Electroordered dipole suspension
US4663083A (en) * 1978-05-26 1987-05-05 Marks Alvin M Electro-optical dipole suspension with reflective-absorptive-transmissive characteristics
US4270841A (en) * 1978-10-31 1981-06-02 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing suspension of perhalide of alkaloid acid salt
US4247175A (en) * 1978-10-31 1981-01-27 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing improved light valve suspension
US4606848A (en) * 1984-08-14 1986-08-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Radar attenuating paint
US4725490A (en) * 1986-05-05 1988-02-16 Hoechst Celanese Corporation High magnetic permeability composites containing fibers with ferrite fill
US4728554A (en) * 1986-05-05 1988-03-01 Hoechst Celanese Corporation Fiber structure and method for obtaining tuned response to high frequency electromagnetic radiation
US4987418A (en) * 1987-12-28 1991-01-22 United Technologies Corporation Ferroelectric panel
US5270872A (en) * 1989-07-20 1993-12-14 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Superconducting submicron filter
US5142418A (en) * 1989-07-20 1992-08-25 The Unites States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Superconducting tunable inorganic filter
US5155634A (en) * 1989-07-20 1992-10-13 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Superconducting reflection filter
US5161068A (en) * 1989-07-20 1992-11-03 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Superconducting searching filter
US4989006A (en) * 1989-10-17 1991-01-29 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Microwave absorption system
US5345238A (en) * 1990-03-13 1994-09-06 Teledyne Industries, Inc. Satellite signature suppression shield
US6001251A (en) * 1990-08-22 1999-12-14 University Of Pittsburgh Material for separating submicron particles
US5711884A (en) * 1990-08-22 1998-01-27 University Of Pittsburgh Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Method of filtering submicron particles with gel lattice membrane filter
US5944994A (en) * 1990-08-22 1999-08-31 University Of Pittsburgh Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Coating material having refractive membrane filter fragments
US6123845A (en) * 1990-08-22 2000-09-26 University Of Pittsburgh Crystalline colloidal arrays in solid form
US5204772A (en) * 1990-11-28 1993-04-20 Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd. Electrically responsive light controlling device
US5650872A (en) * 1994-12-08 1997-07-22 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing ultrafine particles
US20030076087A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2003-04-24 Imego Ab Method and arrangement relating to substance analysis
US20030169032A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2003-09-11 Ana Minchole Method and arrangement relating to substance analysis
US6825655B2 (en) * 2001-08-31 2004-11-30 Imego Ab Method and arrangement for detecting changes of a magnetic response in magnetic particles
US20080231977A1 (en) * 2003-08-14 2008-09-25 Gilles Schwaab Reflective Layer
US7642948B2 (en) * 2003-08-14 2010-01-05 Ewald Dorken Ag Reflective layer
US20070070489A1 (en) * 2003-09-23 2007-03-29 Verhaegh Nynke A Display device with suspended anisometric particles
WO2005029171A1 (en) * 2003-09-23 2005-03-31 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Display device with suspended anisometric particles
US20100026590A1 (en) * 2004-07-28 2010-02-04 Kuo-Ching Chiang Thin film multi-band antenna
US20060022880A1 (en) * 2004-07-28 2006-02-02 Chiang Kuo C Multi-band antenna
US7388549B2 (en) * 2004-07-28 2008-06-17 Kuo Ching Chiang Multi-band antenna
US20100158657A1 (en) * 2005-08-12 2010-06-24 Toru Maekawa Method for Manipulation Using Rotational Magnetic Field
US20100047593A1 (en) * 2006-12-21 2010-02-25 Osamu Higashida Light Control Film
US9638979B2 (en) * 2006-12-21 2017-05-02 Hitachi Chemical Company, Ltd. Light control film
WO2010032069A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2010-03-25 Pilkington Group Limited Methods of switching and apparatus comprising an electrically actuated variable transmission material
WO2010032068A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2010-03-25 Pilkington Group Limited Switchable glazing
CN102209831A (en) * 2008-09-22 2011-10-05 皮尔金顿集团有限公司 Methods of switching and apparatus comprising an electrically actuated variable transmission material
US8537295B2 (en) 2008-09-22 2013-09-17 Pilkington Group Limited Methods of switching and apparatus comprising an electrically actuated variable transmission material
US20110170030A1 (en) * 2008-09-22 2011-07-14 Pilkington Group Limited Methods of switching and apparatus comprising an electrically actuated variable transmission material
US20120231178A1 (en) * 2009-06-22 2012-09-13 Condalign As Anisotropic conducting body and method of manufacture
US20140361666A1 (en) * 2012-03-02 2014-12-11 Fujitsu Limited Crystal resonator, and production method therefor
US9853627B2 (en) * 2012-03-02 2017-12-26 Fujitsu Limited Crystal resonator, and production method therefor
US9225072B2 (en) * 2012-03-30 2015-12-29 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Radiowave absorber
US20130257639A1 (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-03 Toshihide Takahashi Radiowave absorber
DE102017214093B3 (en) 2017-08-11 2018-11-29 Continental Automotive Gmbh Flat light modulation device with switchable multistable transmittances and / or multi-stable scattering properties with respect to visible light and vehicle with a flat light modulation device
US10488729B2 (en) 2017-08-11 2019-11-26 Continental Automotive Gmbh Planar light modulation apparatus having switchable multistable transmittances and/or multistable scattering properties with regard to visible light

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