US3759182A - Hollow charge having a directed explosive effect - Google Patents

Hollow charge having a directed explosive effect Download PDF

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Publication number
US3759182A
US3759182A US00151431A US3759182DA US3759182A US 3759182 A US3759182 A US 3759182A US 00151431 A US00151431 A US 00151431A US 3759182D A US3759182D A US 3759182DA US 3759182 A US3759182 A US 3759182A
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Prior art keywords
charge
hollow
shells
explosive
mounting
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US00151431A
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R Levamaki
M Vehvilainen
T Suhonen
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T Suhonen
R Levamaki
M Vehvilainen
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Priority claimed from US15143171A external-priority
Priority claimed from FI2812/67A external-priority patent/FI42288B/fi
Application filed by T Suhonen, R Levamaki, M Vehvilainen filed Critical T Suhonen
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B3/00Blasting cartridges, i.e. case and explosive
    • F42B3/08Blasting cartridges, i.e. case and explosive with cavities in the charge, e.g. hollow-charge blasting cartridges

Abstract

A method for carrying out underwater demolition work with a hollow charge constituted as a hollow body with a front, a back, an outer shell of frusto-conical shape and an inner shell of conical shape. The shells diverge toward the front of the body with the ends of said shells being joined at the front to define a space between the shells containing an explosive charge. A cover is mounted on the back of the body, and a base is mounted on the front of the body. The hollow charge is placed underwater on the submerged surface to be blasted and the explosive charge in the hollow body is detonated to cause the inner metal shell to be melted and a part thereof formed into a thin metal jet which is propelled through the front of the body to produce vaporization of the surrounding water.

Description

United States atent [1 1 Levamaki et al.
[ 1 Sept. 18, 197
[ HOLLOW CHARGE HAVING A DIRECTED EXPLOSIVE EFFECT 22 Filed: June 9, 1971 211 App]. No.: 151,431
Related US. Application Data [62] Division of Ser. No. 749,067, July 31, 1968, Pat. No.
Primary Examiner-Verlin R. Pendegrass Attorney-Waters, Roditi, Schwartz & Nissen [57] ABSTRACT A method for carrying out underwater demolition work with a hollow charge constituted as a hollow body with a front, a back, an outer shell of frusto-conical shape and an inner shell of conical shape. The shells diverge toward the front of the body with the ends of said shells being joined at the front to define a space between the shells containing an explosive charge. A cover is mounted on the back of the body, and a base is mounted on the front of the body. The hollow charge is placed underwater on the submerged surface to be blasted and the explosive charge in the hollow body is detonated to cause the inner metal shell to be melted and a part thereof formed into a thin metal jet which is propelled through the front of the body to produce vaporization of the surrounding water.
4 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures PATENTEBSEH 82915 sum 1 0r 5 PATEHTEU P 1 1917 saw 3 m '3 HOLLOW CHARGE HAVING A DIRECTED EXPLOSIVE EFFECT CROSS RELATED APPLICATION This application is a divisional application of our earlier application Ser. No. 749,067 filed July 31, 1968, and issued as US. Pat. No. 3,613,582 on Oct. 19, 1971.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to a method of carrying out underwater demolition work with a hollow charge, having a directed explosive effect, the charge being provided with a cavity at its front end relative to the direction of the explosive, the cavity enlarging towards the front end and having metal walls or a metal sheathing so that, on the occurrence of the explosion, a part of the metal is formed into a thin metal stream which is directed forwards at high speed. Specifically, the charge comprises an outer cone forming the shell of the charge, and a regularly shaped inner cone at the front part of the charge, enlarging towards its front end, the cones forming the cavity while cover seals the back part of the outer cone and a base closes the front part.
Until now it has been thought that hollow charges already known will not produce the required performance and nozzle effect unless rapid explosive materials are used (detonation wave speed up to 8,000 m/s). However, a charge constructed in accordance with the invention will give the required performance using ammonium nitrate explosives (e.g. anite), dynamite or any of the otheusual types of slow explosive, having a detonation wave speed of under 3,000 m/s.
With the invention, safety explosives (slow civil explosives) have been used in a hollow charge for the first time, and the result achieved has been at least as effective as with rapid explosives (e.g. nitroglyoerine gelatine charge).
This invention provides a method utilizing an effective hollow charge in which safety explosives can be used, especially appropriate for civil use, since the use of safety explosives involves no danger and the charge can, for example, be loaded on the site.
The manufacture of the charge in accordance with this invention is relatively cheap, not only because of the advantages gained in using safety explosives, but also because of the materials used in constructing the charge itself. The outer cone, cover and base are preferably made from plastic, and the inner cone can be made from steel plate.
In the types of hollow charge already known (for rapid explosives), the inner cone is usually made of copper instead of steel plate, and in fact a satisfactory performance cannot be achieved using steel plate in those known hollow charges.
The tests carried out on the hollow charge made in accordance with the invention have given surprisingly good results. It has been discovered that in a hollow charge of this type, the speed of ammonium nitrate (anite), which is a slow explosive, almost doubles on reaching the steel surface. The reason for this is still unknown. On the occurrence of the explosion approximately 60 percent of the steel melts into a stream which can penetrate, for example, through a concrete wall of 1.5 meter thickness.
With reference to the above, it is characteristic of the hollow charge in accordance with the invention that the hollow charge contains slow civil explosives, e.g.
ammonium nitrate or other similar material having a detonation speed of 5,000 metres/second.
The hollow charge can be used in explosions under water and good results have been obtained from the underwater tests carried out. Until now the procedure for carrying out underwater explosions has been to drill a hole in the underwater object (e.g., stone, rock) with suitable equipment, and then to place the charge in the hole and detonate it. However, the deeper the location of the object, the more difficult is the operation.
Surprisingly, however, when using hollow charges in accordance with the invention, underwater explosions can be carried out simply, without danger and, above all, very effectively. The work becomes more difficult as the depth increases using the known method, but, with the method in accordance with the invention, the explosive power increases, the deeper the explosion. This is caused by the direct pressure wave of the water which increases the power.
Other advantages and characteristics of the invention are described hereafter with reference to the enclosed drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 shows a partial, longitudinal cross-sectional view of the outer cone;
FIG. 2 is a cross-section taken along the line A A in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view of the cover;
FIG. 4 is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view of the base;
FIG. 5 is a partial longitudinal cross-sectional view of an assembled charge; and
FIGS. 6a-6b, 7 and 8 are diagrammatic illustrations showing the use of the charge in underwater applications.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION The charge in accordance with the invention is comprised of an outer cone 1, an inner cone 2, a base 3 and a cover 4. The space between the outer and the inner cone is filled with the explosive. The outer cone, the base and the cover are preferably made of plastic material such as polyethene. In the known types of charge, they are manufactured from metal plate and thus the fixing and exact tight fitting of the base and cover requires accuracy and time. In accordance with the invention, the base 3, which is made of flexible polyethene, has a rim of U-shape, the upward rising edge of which has a shoulder 5, which engages a groove 6, in the front part of the outer cone, the front edges of the inner and outer cones thus becoming locked in the said U-shaped rim. The cover 4, which is also manufactured from flexible polyethene, has a central part in the form of a detonation cylinder 7 which is directed downwards, and a rim forming a vertical flange 8, the edge of which is bent outwards to form a collar 9. An inwardly turned edge 10 of the upper part of the outer cone is fitted under the collar 9. The base and cover can thus be attached to the outer cone and the inner cone simply by pressing the base and cover into place, since the flexible plastic materials bend. This significantly decreases the manufacturing costs.
It has previously been thought that the inner cone should be seamless. However, in the charge in accordance with the invention, it can have an open seam without any effect on its operation. This significantly decreases the manufacturing costs. The seam of the inner cone need only be sealed with, for example, electrical tape or similar material. A hole can even be left in the top of the inner cone provided that it is closed, for example, with a polyethene plug Ill.
The thickness of the material of the inner cone 2, depends on the amount of explosive. The greater the amount of explosive, the greater should be the thickness. For example, when using I kg. of explosive, the thickness is 1.5 mm. and with 1.5 kg. it is 2.0 mm.
The drawing shows a charge having 1 kg. of explosive. The dimensions are as follows: Inner cone: cone angle 60, height 107 mm., thickness of material 1.5 mm. Outer cone: inside diameter of the front part 127 mm., inside diameter of the back part 66 mm., height 205 mm.
The wall of the outer cone forms an angle of 30with the vertical. When the explosive between the cones is detonated, using a detonator located in the upper part, the detonation wave is directed towards the outer walls of the inner cone, causing the cone to be compressed from the back to the front, and approximately 60 percent be weight, of the inner wall to melt to a temperature of 50,000 C. The melted metal nozzle then begins to move straight along the central axis, the initial value of the speed being approximately 8,000 m/s when using ammonium nitrate as an explosive. The penetration ability of the nozzle, when using 1 kg. of explosive is:
frozen ground, stony approximately 0.5-lm depending on stone COIICHI The larger the charge, the better the penetration ability.
When carrying out underwater blasting, the procedure is that the diver locates the charge on the surface of the object to be blasted (on the top, at the side or below) so that the nozzle is directed in its most effective manner. The best possible result when breaking stones for example, is to place the charge under a stone, so that the nozzle penetrating the stone, together with the pressure wave transmitted by the water breaks a far larger stone than is possible in free air. To gain entrance under the stone, a charge is first exploded beside the stone with the nozzle directed beneath the stone so that all the loose material will be cleared away. The charge can then be located beneath the stone. Location of the charge under the stone by drilling is impossible. The deeper the explosion occurs, the more effective it is. The size and number of the charges naturally depends upon the size and shape of the object. It can be stated, for comparison, that the breaking of a lm stone at a depth of 10 meters can cost more than Fmks using conventional methods. When using the method in accordance with the invention the cost would be only approximately 30 Fmks. Furthermore, an air-line diver is not required since a frogman can locate the charge in position. Neither are any machines required to break up stones or other objects.
FIGS. 6a-6b, 7 and 8 illustrate the explosion of underwater objects. In the example shown in FIG. 6a a hollow is first blasted under the stone 12, using charge 13. The actual blasting operation is then carried out with charge 15, located in the hollow 14, and charge 16 placed on the opposite side. The explosion shown in FIG. 7 is carried out using charges 17 and 18. In FIG. 8 three charges, 19, 20 and aroused.
Stone, rock, bedrock and other objects can be blasted using the method in accordance with the invention. It has proved to be an extremely effective and rapid method of blasting in channel clearing operations.
What is claimed is:
1. A method for carrying out underwater demolition work comprising forming a hollow charge constituted as a hollow body with a front, a back, an outer shell of fmstoconical shape and an inner metal shell of conical shape, mounting the shells so that they diverge towards the front and define a space between the shells containing an explosive charge, mounting a cover of flexible plastic material on the outer shell on the back of the body, mounting a base of flexible plastic material on the front of the body, forming said base with a U- shaped rim which joins the shells at the front of the body and is flexed in place thereat, mounting in said cover a detonator which extends in the space between the shells, placing the hollow charge underwater on the submerged surface to be blasted and igniting the detonator to effect detonation of the explosive charge in the hollow body to cause the inner metal shell to be melted and a part thereof formed into a thin metal jet which is propelled through the front of the body to produce vaporization of the surrounding water.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the explosive charge is ammonium nitrate.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said explosive has a detonation wave speed of less than 5,000 m/s.
4. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the inner metal shell is made of steel plate.

Claims (4)

1. A method for carrying out underwater demolition work comprising forming a hollow charge constituted as a hollow body with a front, a back, an outer shell of frustoconical shape And an inner metal shell of conical shape, mounting the shells so that they diverge towards the front and define a space between the shells containing an explosive charge, mounting a cover of flexible plastic material on the outer shell on the back of the body, mounting a base of flexible plastic material on the front of the body, forming said base with a U-shaped rim which joins the shells at the front of the body and is flexed in place thereat, mounting in said cover a detonator which extends in the space between the shells, placing the hollow charge underwater on the submerged surface to be blasted and igniting the detonator to effect detonation of the explosive charge in the hollow body to cause the inner metal shell to be melted and a part thereof formed into a thin metal jet which is propelled through the front of the body to produce vaporization of the surrounding water.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the explosive charge is ammonium nitrate.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said explosive has a detonation wave speed of less than 5,000 m/s.
4. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the inner metal shell is made of steel plate.
US00151431A 1967-10-19 1971-06-09 Hollow charge having a directed explosive effect Expired - Lifetime US3759182A (en)

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FI2812/67A FI42288B (en) 1967-10-19 1967-10-19
US15143171A 1971-06-09 1971-06-09

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4359943A (en) * 1980-09-02 1982-11-23 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Shaped charge warhead including shock wave forming surface
WO1989006780A1 (en) * 1988-01-12 1989-07-27 Explosive Developments Limited Improvements in or relating to explosives
EP0559960A1 (en) * 1992-03-12 1993-09-15 Daimler-Benz Aerospace Aktiengesellschaft Shaped charge
EP0581668A1 (en) * 1992-07-29 1994-02-02 ETAT FRANCAIS Représenté par le délÀ©gué général pour l'armement Device for neutralizing explosive charges, in particular improvised explosive charges having a resistant wall structure
WO1995004252A1 (en) * 1993-07-29 1995-02-09 Baesema Limited Shaped charge for the destruction of ammunition underwater
CN102901414A (en) * 2012-11-01 2013-01-30 中南大学 Device special for in-hole positioning, orientating and propelling of tunnel directional fracture blasting shaped charge
US20130239869A1 (en) * 2010-11-15 2013-09-19 Atlas Elektronik Gmbh Underwater vehicle for uncovering submerged objects and underwater system with an underwater vehicle of this type

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2494256A (en) * 1945-09-11 1950-01-10 Gulf Research Development Co Apparatus for perforating well casings and well walls
FR1022350A (en) * 1950-06-02 1953-03-03 Demolition process for submerged structures, in particular concrete
US2932251A (en) * 1956-04-23 1960-04-12 Olin Mathieson Ammonium nitrate explosive
US3183836A (en) * 1963-08-21 1965-05-18 Trojan Powder Co Canister for cast primer

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2494256A (en) * 1945-09-11 1950-01-10 Gulf Research Development Co Apparatus for perforating well casings and well walls
FR1022350A (en) * 1950-06-02 1953-03-03 Demolition process for submerged structures, in particular concrete
US2932251A (en) * 1956-04-23 1960-04-12 Olin Mathieson Ammonium nitrate explosive
US3183836A (en) * 1963-08-21 1965-05-18 Trojan Powder Co Canister for cast primer

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4359943A (en) * 1980-09-02 1982-11-23 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Shaped charge warhead including shock wave forming surface
WO1989006780A1 (en) * 1988-01-12 1989-07-27 Explosive Developments Limited Improvements in or relating to explosives
EP0559960A1 (en) * 1992-03-12 1993-09-15 Daimler-Benz Aerospace Aktiengesellschaft Shaped charge
EP0581668A1 (en) * 1992-07-29 1994-02-02 ETAT FRANCAIS Représenté par le délÀ©gué général pour l'armement Device for neutralizing explosive charges, in particular improvised explosive charges having a resistant wall structure
FR2694391A1 (en) * 1992-07-29 1994-02-04 France Etat Armement Device for the neutralization of explosive devices, especially improvised explosive devices with a strong envelope.
WO1995004252A1 (en) * 1993-07-29 1995-02-09 Baesema Limited Shaped charge for the destruction of ammunition underwater
US20130239869A1 (en) * 2010-11-15 2013-09-19 Atlas Elektronik Gmbh Underwater vehicle for uncovering submerged objects and underwater system with an underwater vehicle of this type
CN102901414A (en) * 2012-11-01 2013-01-30 中南大学 Device special for in-hole positioning, orientating and propelling of tunnel directional fracture blasting shaped charge
CN102901414B (en) * 2012-11-01 2014-07-30 中南大学 Device special for in-hole positioning, orientating and propelling of tunnel directional fracture blasting shaped charge

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