US3749101A - Nonpolarizable muscle stimulating electrode - Google Patents

Nonpolarizable muscle stimulating electrode Download PDF

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Publication number
US3749101A
US3749101A US3749101DA US3749101A US 3749101 A US3749101 A US 3749101A US 3749101D A US3749101D A US 3749101DA US 3749101 A US3749101 A US 3749101A
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Prior art keywords
electrode
platinum
surface
housing
current
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Expired - Lifetime
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D Williamson
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TPL-CORDIS Inc A DE CORP
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Cordis Corp
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61NELECTROTHERAPY; MAGNETOTHERAPY; RADIATION THERAPY; ULTRASOUND THERAPY
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/02Details
    • A61N1/04Electrodes
    • A61N1/05Electrodes for implantation or insertion into the body, e.g. heart electrode
    • A61N1/056Transvascular endocardial electrode systems
    • A61N1/0565Electrode heads

Abstract

A nonpolarizable muscle stimulating electrode is formed of a platinum black insert in a housing of inert electrode metal, preferably titanium. It features high current density at low pulse voltage.

Description

United States Patent 1191 Williamson July 31, 1973 [54] NONPOLARIZABLE MUSCLE 3,345,989 10/1967 Reynolds 128/419 P STIMULATING ELECTRODE 3,474,791 10/1969 Benton 128/418 3,476,116 11/1969 Parsennet et al...... 128/417 Inventor: Donald Williamson, Mlaml. 3,590,822 7/1971 Ackerman 128/404 [73] Assignee: Cordis Corporation, Miami,'Fla.

[22] Filed: Feb. 9, 1972 Primary Examiner-William E. Kamm At W'll' B t l 1 pp No: 224,831 torney L 1 1am er e sen [52] US. Cl 128/418, 128/419 P [57] ABSTRACT I [51] Int. Cl A6111 1/04 [58] Field Of Search 128/404, 405, 410, A nonpolarizable muscle Stimulating electrode is 128/411, 416, 418, 419 C, 419 E, 419 P formed of a platinum black insert in a housing of inert electrode metal, preferably titanium. It features high [56] References C'ted current density at low pulse voltage.

UNITED STATES PATENTS 164,184 6/1875 Kidder 128/404 7 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures NONPOLARIZABLE MUSCLE STIMULATING ELECTRODE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The electrical stimulation of muscular contraction, such as encountered in cardiac pacemaking, generally makes use an electrode for contacting the muscle. .In cardiac pacemaking for instance, the electrode may be surgically implanted in the myocardium or, more commonly, it is inserted pervenously into the right ventricle into contact with the endocardium.

The stimulation of muscular contraction generally requires the application of an electrical pulse which exceeds a certain threshold current density. The voltage of the pulse must be sufficient to attain this current density but should be as low as possible in order to conserve energy and minimize the running down of the batteries generally employed.

The nature of the electrical circuit established by the stimulating electrode can generally be represented by a capacitor and a resistor in parallel. The application of each pulse causes charging of the capacitor; after the end of the pulse the discharge of the capacitor results in a current reversal of greater or lesser amplitude and duration depending upon the relative magnitudes of the resistor and capacitor. It isgenerally desirable that the discharge current following termination of the pulse be of short duration.

Thus, it is desirable that the resistance component be small, such that the pulse is carried for the most part by the resistance component. Such electrodes are commonly called nonpolarizable.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides an electrode for muscle stimulation characterized by a current density many times greater than those achieved by presently known electrodes, yet capable of being energized by an electrode-electrolyte interface voltage of the order of one volt or less. In general this invention features a platinum electrode which has preferably been platinized to develop a coating of platinum black, contained in a second electrode housing of suitable electrode metal which is compatible with platinum such as titanium. With such an electrode the current is delivered to the muscle electrolyte almost exclusively through the platinum black portion. As this may be quite small in size, extremely high current densities are obtained. On the other hand if for any reason the functioning of the platinum black should be impaired, the surrounding electrode body is still effective for stimulation.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION This invention is described below in detail with respect to the preferred embodiments wherein reference is made to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a longitudinal cross-section of the tip portion of a heart pacer electrode illustrating one preferred embodiment of this invention, and

FIG. 2 is a longitudinal cross-section of the tip portion of a heart pacer electrode illustrating a second preferred embodiment.

The transverse cross-sections are circular.

Experiments with a variety of metals including Elgiloy, commercially pure titanium, tantalum, and platinum clearly indicate that the amount of voltage necessary to drive a given current through an electrode in vitro varies greatly between these metals. It has also been found that if platinum is coated with platinumblack according to the well known platinizing" technique, the characteristics of the surface are further improved such that a given current can be passed across the electrode-electrolyte interface at even lower voltage.

The improved electrode, according to the present invention, utilizes these discoveries in an electrode design of a standard shape which is known to be readily implantable by the pervenous technique in the tip of the right ventricle.

One form of this electrode is shown in FIG. I. The conductor from the heart pacer to the electrode is shown at l and is of the coiled Elgiloy lead construction which has now become standard with many manufacturers. The lead is insulated by Silastic tubing 2 which is connected to and molded to the metal housing 5 by molded Silastic 3. A molded Silastic flexure sleeve 4 provides protection for the lead against sharp bends where it leaves the tip. The housing 5 can be made of any metal suitable for such an electrode in consideration of its corrosion and electrical properties, but commercially pure titanium is the metal of choice. The housing 5 is held onto the wire coil by staking against staking slug 6, a small piece of the same metal of which the lead is made which is placed inside the coil to give support to the staking operation.

Inserted into a hole at the end of the housing is a piece of platinum 7. This platinum can be inserted by electro-plating, by pressing in a platinum sleeve, or as is shown in the illustration by pressing in a tight-fitting coil of platinum wire. One of the choices of titanium for the electrode tip is that platinum and titanium do not form a galvanic couple and will not corrode in the presence of body fluids. After the lead has been completed as shown, it is cleaned and immersed in a platinizing solution consisting of 3.5 percent chloroplatinic acid and 0.005 percent lead acetate. An anode of inert metal is provided, such as platinum. A sufficient current is passed through the cell thus formed so that fine bubbles are just visible from the electrode (cathode). After a few minutes a black deposit will form over the entire electrode. The electrode is then washed gently in distilled water and the platinum-black removed from the outer titanium surface with a soft absorbent paper or by any other convenient means, leaving the platinumblack, of course, in the hole at the end.

Measurements in vitro on an electrode of this type indicate that at a total current of 7.6 milliamperes the current density at the hole (whose area is 0.0l 37 cm) should be about 555 milliamperes per square centimeter. This is to be compared with 24 milliamperes per square centimeter if the entire tip surface of 0.32 cm was conducting. Experiments were conducted in which the titanium surface of the housing 5 was insulated from the solution by a thick layer of enamel, and from such experiments it was established that the principal electrical current carrier is the platinum-black in the hole.

Another electrode design is shown in FIG. 2. In this design a thin slot, for instance 0.25 millimeters, has been cut in the titanium housing and a platinum ring staked in place well below the surface of the titanium. This electrode is then platinized as described above and the black coating removed from the titanium, taking care not to remove it from the slot. With a single slot in a tip of 2.25 millimeters diameter, the caculated area of the groove is 0.018 cm and the current density at 7.6 milliamperes would be calculated as 422 milliamperes per square centimeter.

DISCUSSION An advantage to the design of FIG. 2 is that it is much less dependent upon its position in the right ventricle of the heart. FIG. 1 would be most efficient if the hole at the end could be reliably positioned in contact with the inner wall of the myocardium. Since this is not necessarily the case, the circular groove of FIG. 2 may be an advantage since one side of the tip is likely to be in contact with the inner wall of the ventricle. Of course, additional grooves can be added or the groove can be made spiral to suit manufacturing and other design convenience.

As mentioned above, one of the features of this electrode design is that its basic support is a near-noble metal which is perfectly adequate as a pacer electrode and which can function by itself in the same manner as previous electrodes should the platinum-black surface become seriously obstructed.

The electrical performance of the platinum-black electrode is assumed to be due to the rather special nature of platinum in that it is readily capable of absorbing atomic hydrogen and freely trading across its surface atomic hydrogen for hydrogen ions. The production of platinum-black greatly increases the effective platinum surface. The combination of these two effects is believed to account for the ability of the platinumblack to be the principal current carrier in spite of the adjacent large area of the titanium tip.

From the foregoing description it will be seen that this invention provides an advantageous muscle stimulator electrode construction which is easy to manufacture and capable of being of acceptable medical configuration. It is essentially non-polarizable by virtue of the extremely low resistance offered by the platinum surface, and further features a second electrode housing which is itself capable of carrying the stimulating current should there be any malfunction of the platinum.

Having thus described my invention and described in detail the preferred embodiments thereof, I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent:

1. A muscle stimulator electrode comprising,

a housing composed of a chemically inert conductor having a portion adapted to make electrical contact with the stimulation site, and

a platinum surface within said portion.

2. An electrode as defined in claim 1 wherein said platinum is provided with a surface of platinum black.

3. An electrode as defined by claim 1 in which the projected surface area of the platinum is smaller than the surface area of the chemically inert portion of the housing.

4. A muscle stimulator electrode comprising,

a housing composed of a chemically inert conductor having a portion adapted to make electrical contact with the stimulation site, and

a surface of a non-polarizable electrode material within said portion.

5. An electrode as defined by claim 4 in which the projected surface area of the non-polarizable material is smaller than the surface area of the housing.

6. An electrode as defined by claim 1 wherein the housing is titanium.

7. An electrode as defined by claim 4 wherein the housing is titanium.

Claims (6)

  1. 2. An electrode as defined in claim 1 wherein said platinum is provided with a surface of platinum black.
  2. 3. An electrode as defined by claim 1 in which the projected surface area of the platinum is smaller than the surface area of the chemically inert portion of the housing.
  3. 4. A muscle stimulator electrode comprising, a housing composed of a chemically inert conductor having a portion adapted to make electrical contact with the stimulation site, and a surface of a non-polarizable electrode material within said portion.
  4. 5. An electrode as defined by claim 4 in which the projected surface area of the non-polarizable material is smaller than the surface area of the housing.
  5. 6. An electrode as defined by claim 1 wherein the housing is titanium.
  6. 7. An electrode as defined by claim 4 wherein the housing is titanium.
US3749101A 1972-02-09 1972-02-09 Nonpolarizable muscle stimulating electrode Expired - Lifetime US3749101A (en)

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FR (1) FR2171327B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1405360A (en)
NL (1) NL7301792A (en)

Cited By (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3880169A (en) * 1974-01-02 1975-04-29 American Hospital Supply Corp Controlled entry pacemaker electrode for myocardial implantation
US3935864A (en) * 1973-07-04 1976-02-03 Hans Lagergren Endocardial electrode
US3964470A (en) * 1974-07-25 1976-06-22 Medtronic, Inc. Percutaneous intradermal electrical connection system and implant device
US3964473A (en) * 1972-09-21 1976-06-22 Telectronics Pty. Limited Bone prosthesis
US3981309A (en) * 1974-12-23 1976-09-21 American Optical Corporation Patient stimulating pacer electrode
US4026302A (en) * 1975-04-30 1977-05-31 Joseph Grayzel Method of implanting a permanent pacemaker bipolar lead apparatus and an implantable permanent pacemaker bipolar lead apparatus
US4027677A (en) * 1976-01-09 1977-06-07 Pacesetter Systems, Inc. Myocardial lead
US4030508A (en) * 1976-02-04 1977-06-21 Vitatron Medical B.V. Low output electrode for cardiac pacing
US4127134A (en) * 1977-04-11 1978-11-28 Cordis Corporation Gas-absorbing pacer and method of fabrication
US4135518A (en) * 1976-05-21 1979-01-23 Medtronic, Inc. Body implantable lead and electrode
US4236529A (en) * 1979-02-21 1980-12-02 Daig Corporation Tined lead
EP0042551A1 (en) * 1980-06-19 1981-12-30 SORIN BIOMEDICA S.p.A. Electrode for cardiac stimulators
EP0043461A1 (en) * 1980-06-19 1982-01-13 SORIN BIOMEDICA S.p.A. Process for manufacturing electrodes for cardiac stimulators
US4323081A (en) * 1980-06-30 1982-04-06 Medtronic, Inc. Pacing lead
US4325389A (en) * 1980-09-22 1982-04-20 Cordis Corporation Tip assembly for a carbon fiber implantable lead
US4328812A (en) * 1980-03-21 1982-05-11 Medtronic, Inc. Ring electrode for pacing lead
EP0054781A1 (en) * 1980-12-23 1982-06-30 Kontron Ag Implantable electrode
EP0064289A2 (en) * 1981-05-04 1982-11-10 Medtronic, Inc. Body implantable lead
DE3134896A1 (en) * 1981-09-03 1983-03-10 Heraeus Gmbh W C Cable lead for pacemaker-electrodes
US4413636A (en) * 1979-11-19 1983-11-08 Phillip R. Beutel Catheter
US4475560A (en) * 1982-04-29 1984-10-09 Cordis Corporation Temporary pacing lead assembly
EP0126981A1 (en) * 1983-04-28 1984-12-05 Medtronic, Inc. Low-polarization low-threshold electrode
US4534366A (en) * 1983-08-03 1985-08-13 Soukup Thomas M Carbon fiber pacing electrode
US4865037A (en) * 1987-11-13 1989-09-12 Thomas J. Fogarty Method for implanting automatic implantable defibrillator
US4972847A (en) * 1989-11-02 1990-11-27 Dutcher Robert G Pacing lead and introducer therefor
US5143090A (en) * 1989-11-02 1992-09-01 Possis Medical, Inc. Cardiac lead
US5282845A (en) * 1990-10-01 1994-02-01 Ventritex, Inc. Multiple electrode deployable lead
US5385579A (en) * 1993-03-30 1995-01-31 Siemens Pacesetter, Inc. Myocardial body implantable lead
US5531779A (en) * 1992-10-01 1996-07-02 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Stent-type defibrillation electrode structures
US5991667A (en) * 1997-11-10 1999-11-23 Vitatron Medical, B.V. Pacing lead with porous electrode for stable low threshold high impedance pacing
US6430447B1 (en) 2000-11-07 2002-08-06 Pacesetter, Inc. Stimulating electrode having low polarization and method of making same
US6430448B1 (en) 2000-11-07 2002-08-06 Pacesetter, Inc. Stimulating electrode having low polarization and method of making same
US20020138101A1 (en) * 2001-03-16 2002-09-26 Nihon Kohden Corporation Lead wire attachment method, electrode, and spot welder
US20050049665A1 (en) * 2003-08-27 2005-03-03 Medtronic, Inc. High impedance and low polarization electrode
US20090229739A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2009-09-17 Cochlear Limited Conductive elements
US20100191247A1 (en) * 2009-01-23 2010-07-29 David James Schneider Apparatus and method for arthroscopic transhumeral rotator cuff repair
US20100292756A1 (en) * 2009-05-12 2010-11-18 Schneider David J Bioelectric implant and method
US20110130815A1 (en) * 2009-12-01 2011-06-02 Peter Gibson Contoured electrode contact surfaces
US20110127243A1 (en) * 2009-12-01 2011-06-02 Pufulescu Mirela E Electrode contact contaminate removal
US20110126410A1 (en) * 2009-12-01 2011-06-02 Cochlear Limited Manufacturing an electrode assembly having contoured electrode contact surfaces

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4027678A (en) * 1975-11-19 1977-06-07 Vitatron Medical B.V. Pacing system with connector for connecting electrode to pacer
US4258725A (en) * 1979-09-21 1981-03-31 Medtronic, Inc. Pacing lead with stylet and tapered terminal pin
US4407302A (en) * 1981-04-06 1983-10-04 Telectronics Pty., Ltd. Cardiac pacemaker electrode tip structure
FR2565111B1 (en) * 1984-05-29 1986-09-12 Celsa Composants Electr Sa Electrode for cardiac stimulation probe
DE19545972A1 (en) * 1995-12-09 1997-06-12 Fichtel & Sachs Ag Friction clutch with carbon pressure plate

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS4318400Y1 (en) * 1968-03-11 1968-07-30

Cited By (52)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3964473A (en) * 1972-09-21 1976-06-22 Telectronics Pty. Limited Bone prosthesis
US3935864A (en) * 1973-07-04 1976-02-03 Hans Lagergren Endocardial electrode
US3880169A (en) * 1974-01-02 1975-04-29 American Hospital Supply Corp Controlled entry pacemaker electrode for myocardial implantation
US3964470A (en) * 1974-07-25 1976-06-22 Medtronic, Inc. Percutaneous intradermal electrical connection system and implant device
US3981309A (en) * 1974-12-23 1976-09-21 American Optical Corporation Patient stimulating pacer electrode
US4026302A (en) * 1975-04-30 1977-05-31 Joseph Grayzel Method of implanting a permanent pacemaker bipolar lead apparatus and an implantable permanent pacemaker bipolar lead apparatus
US4027677A (en) * 1976-01-09 1977-06-07 Pacesetter Systems, Inc. Myocardial lead
US4030508A (en) * 1976-02-04 1977-06-21 Vitatron Medical B.V. Low output electrode for cardiac pacing
US4135518A (en) * 1976-05-21 1979-01-23 Medtronic, Inc. Body implantable lead and electrode
US4127134A (en) * 1977-04-11 1978-11-28 Cordis Corporation Gas-absorbing pacer and method of fabrication
US4236529A (en) * 1979-02-21 1980-12-02 Daig Corporation Tined lead
US4413636A (en) * 1979-11-19 1983-11-08 Phillip R. Beutel Catheter
US4328812A (en) * 1980-03-21 1982-05-11 Medtronic, Inc. Ring electrode for pacing lead
EP0043461A1 (en) * 1980-06-19 1982-01-13 SORIN BIOMEDICA S.p.A. Process for manufacturing electrodes for cardiac stimulators
EP0042551A1 (en) * 1980-06-19 1981-12-30 SORIN BIOMEDICA S.p.A. Electrode for cardiac stimulators
US4323081A (en) * 1980-06-30 1982-04-06 Medtronic, Inc. Pacing lead
US4325389A (en) * 1980-09-22 1982-04-20 Cordis Corporation Tip assembly for a carbon fiber implantable lead
EP0054781A1 (en) * 1980-12-23 1982-06-30 Kontron Ag Implantable electrode
US4440178A (en) * 1980-12-23 1984-04-03 Kontron Ag Implantable electrode
EP0064289A2 (en) * 1981-05-04 1982-11-10 Medtronic, Inc. Body implantable lead
EP0064289A3 (en) * 1981-05-04 1983-05-18 Medtronic, Inc. Body implantable lead
DE3134896A1 (en) * 1981-09-03 1983-03-10 Heraeus Gmbh W C Cable lead for pacemaker-electrodes
US4475560A (en) * 1982-04-29 1984-10-09 Cordis Corporation Temporary pacing lead assembly
EP0126981A1 (en) * 1983-04-28 1984-12-05 Medtronic, Inc. Low-polarization low-threshold electrode
US4502492A (en) * 1983-04-28 1985-03-05 Medtronic, Inc. Low-polarization low-threshold electrode
US4534366A (en) * 1983-08-03 1985-08-13 Soukup Thomas M Carbon fiber pacing electrode
US4865037A (en) * 1987-11-13 1989-09-12 Thomas J. Fogarty Method for implanting automatic implantable defibrillator
US5143090A (en) * 1989-11-02 1992-09-01 Possis Medical, Inc. Cardiac lead
US4972847A (en) * 1989-11-02 1990-11-27 Dutcher Robert G Pacing lead and introducer therefor
US5282845A (en) * 1990-10-01 1994-02-01 Ventritex, Inc. Multiple electrode deployable lead
WO1992021405A1 (en) * 1991-05-30 1992-12-10 Possis Medical, Inc. Bipolar cardiac lead
US5531779A (en) * 1992-10-01 1996-07-02 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Stent-type defibrillation electrode structures
US5385579A (en) * 1993-03-30 1995-01-31 Siemens Pacesetter, Inc. Myocardial body implantable lead
US5991667A (en) * 1997-11-10 1999-11-23 Vitatron Medical, B.V. Pacing lead with porous electrode for stable low threshold high impedance pacing
US6430447B1 (en) 2000-11-07 2002-08-06 Pacesetter, Inc. Stimulating electrode having low polarization and method of making same
US6430448B1 (en) 2000-11-07 2002-08-06 Pacesetter, Inc. Stimulating electrode having low polarization and method of making same
US7010856B2 (en) 2001-03-16 2006-03-14 Nihon Kohden Corporation Lead wire attachment method, electrode, and spot welder
US20020138101A1 (en) * 2001-03-16 2002-09-26 Nihon Kohden Corporation Lead wire attachment method, electrode, and spot welder
US20090229739A1 (en) * 2003-07-09 2009-09-17 Cochlear Limited Conductive elements
US8763244B2 (en) 2003-07-09 2014-07-01 Cochlear Limited Method of forming conductive elements
US20050049665A1 (en) * 2003-08-27 2005-03-03 Medtronic, Inc. High impedance and low polarization electrode
US7945337B2 (en) 2003-08-27 2011-05-17 Medtronic, Inc. High impedance and low polarization electrode
US8277458B2 (en) 2009-01-23 2012-10-02 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Apparatus and method for arthroscopic transhumeral rotator cuff repair
US20100191247A1 (en) * 2009-01-23 2010-07-29 David James Schneider Apparatus and method for arthroscopic transhumeral rotator cuff repair
US8740913B2 (en) 2009-01-23 2014-06-03 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Apparatus and method for arthroscopic transhumeral rotator cuff repair
US20100292756A1 (en) * 2009-05-12 2010-11-18 Schneider David J Bioelectric implant and method
US8738144B2 (en) 2009-05-12 2014-05-27 Ingenium, Llc Bioelectric implant and method
US8782884B2 (en) 2009-12-01 2014-07-22 Cochlear Limited Manufacturing an electrode assembly having contoured electrode contact surfaces
US8461042B2 (en) 2009-12-01 2013-06-11 Cochlear Limited Electrode contact contaminate removal
US20110127243A1 (en) * 2009-12-01 2011-06-02 Pufulescu Mirela E Electrode contact contaminate removal
US20110130815A1 (en) * 2009-12-01 2011-06-02 Peter Gibson Contoured electrode contact surfaces
US20110126410A1 (en) * 2009-12-01 2011-06-02 Cochlear Limited Manufacturing an electrode assembly having contoured electrode contact surfaces

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Publication number Publication date Type
FR2171327A1 (en) 1973-09-21 application
CA991707A (en) 1976-06-22 grant
JPS5645622B2 (en) 1981-10-27 grant
DE2306266A1 (en) 1973-08-23 application
CA991707A1 (en) grant
JPS4888787A (en) 1973-11-20 application
NL7301792A (en) 1973-08-13 application
FR2171327B1 (en) 1976-11-05 grant
JP1099968C (en) grant
GB1405360A (en) 1975-09-10 application

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