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US3719545A - Reinforced laminated material - Google Patents

Reinforced laminated material Download PDF

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Publication number
US3719545A
US3719545A US3719545DA US3719545A US 3719545 A US3719545 A US 3719545A US 3719545D A US3719545D A US 3719545DA US 3719545 A US3719545 A US 3719545A
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Prior art keywords
material
armor
laminate
layers
personnel
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
H Lawler
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CA ACQUISITION Co CHICAGO ILL A CORP OF
Original Assignee
Carborundum Co
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B27/00Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin
    • B32B27/06Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material
    • B32B27/08Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin as the main or only constituent of a layer, which is next to another layer of the same or of a different material of synthetic resin
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B27/00Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B27/00Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin
    • B32B27/32Layered products comprising a layer of synthetic resin comprising polyolefins
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/02Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by structural features of a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/024Woven fabric
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/02Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by structural features of a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/06Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by structural features of a fibrous or filamentary layer characterised by a fibrous or filamentary layer mechanically connected, e.g. by needling, sewing, stitching, hydroentangling, hook and loop-type fasteners to another layer, e.g. of fibres, of paper
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/22Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed
    • B32B5/24Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/26Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer another layer next to it also being fibrous or filamentary
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B7/00Layered products characterised by the relation between layers, i.e. products comprising layers having different physical properties and products characterised by the interconnection of layers
    • B32B7/04Layered products characterised by the relation between layers, i.e. products comprising layers having different physical properties and products characterised by the interconnection of layers characterised by the connection of layers
    • B32B7/08Layered products characterised by the relation between layers, i.e. products comprising layers having different physical properties and products characterised by the interconnection of layers characterised by the connection of layers by mechanical connection, e.g. stitching
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41HARMOUR; ARMOURED TURRETS; ARMOURED OR ARMED VEHICLES; MEANS OF ATTACK OR DEFENCE, e.g. CAMOUFLAGE, IN GENERAL
    • F41H5/00Armour; Armour plates
    • F41H5/02Plate construction
    • F41H5/04Plate construction composed of more than one layer
    • F41H5/0471Layered armour containing fibre- or fabric-reinforced layers
    • F41H5/0485Layered armour containing fibre- or fabric-reinforced layers all the layers being only fibre- or fabric-reinforced layers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2262/00Composition of fibres which form a fibrous or filamentary layer or are present as additives
    • B32B2262/02Synthetic macromolecular fibres
    • B32B2262/0253Polyolefin fibres
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2309/00Parameters for the laminating or treatment process; Apparatus details
    • B32B2309/02Temperature
    • B32B2309/022Temperature vs pressure profiles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2323/00Polyalkenes
    • B32B2323/10Polypropylene
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2571/00Protective equipment
    • B32B2571/02Protective equipment defensive, e.g. armour plates, anti-ballistic clothing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10S428/911Penetration resistant layer
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24033Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including stitching and discrete fastener[s], coating or bond
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/31504Composite [nonstructural laminate]
    • Y10T428/31855Of addition polymer from unsaturated monomers
    • Y10T428/31909Next to second addition polymer from unsaturated monomers
    • Y10T428/31924Including polyene monomers

Abstract

A laminated material made up of densified layers of flexible material such as films or fabrics. The flexible layers are stitched together with reinforcing filaments and then densified under heat and pressure to form a compressed rigid laminate which is suitable as a backing for personnel armor.

Description

[ 1 March 6, 1973 United States Patent [191 Lawler [56] References Cited REINFORCED LAMINATED UNITED STATES PATENTS MATERIAL [75] Inventor:

Harry A. Lawler, Youngstown, NY.

The

2,640,004 Van Saun...............................161/50 2,243,857

6/1941 Fischer................. 2,514,412 7/1950 Assignee: Carborundum Company,

Niagara Falls, NY.

March 15, 1971 [21] Appl. No.: 124,079

Primary Examiner-Douglas J. Drummond [22] Filed:

ABSTRACT I A laminated material made up of densitied layers of [52] US. Cl. ......I......;';.;';;;....161/50, 156/85, 156/93,

161/216 rB32b 3/06, B32b 7/08 161/50, 216; 156/93, 84, 85

flexible material such as films or fabrics. The flexible layers are stitched together with reinforcing fil aments [58] Field of Search and then densified under heat and pressure to form a compressed rigid laminate which is suitable as a backing for personnel armor.

4 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PATENTED 5 I973 FIG. 2

INVENTOR RY A. LAW

HAR ;@Q fiw 6 wwtw REINFORCED LAMINATED MATERIAL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION During the past few years, the use of armor for body protection during hazardous situations has increased. This has brought about a need for lightweight protective armor which has been manufactured from high strength metals or hard ceramic materials such as aluminum oxide or carbides of boron or silicon. These materials have generally been effective, when employed in conjunction with suitable backing materials which retard projectile fragment penetration by deformation or controlled delamination of the backing layer. The hardfacing material of the armor absorbs the initial shock of a projectile and fragments the core, however, penetration may still take place. The function of the backing material is to absorb the remainder of the projectile energy with minimum harm to the wearer of the armor. If the backing is a laminated material, the force of the projectile may cause excessive separation of the laminations, weakening the inner structure of the armor and greatly reducing its effectiveness, particularly on subsequent impacts. It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a reinforced material which will resist delamination when struck by a projectile, the material then functions to absorb and dissipate the projectile energy.

Another object of this invention is to provide a reinforced material that will retain its strength while being shaped into forms suitable as a backing for contoured personnel armor.

A further object of this invention is to provide a reinforced material that may be used without an armor facing for protection against lesser ballistic threats such as fragmentation projectiles.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly, the invention provides a laminated material comprised of multiple layers of film or fabric and stitched together in a suitable pattern with a reinforcing filament. The reinforcing stitching strengthens the laminate layers, enabling them to resist separation when struck by projectiles or projectile fragments. The reinforced layers are then heated and compressed to form a densified rigid laminate which may be shaped to form a projectile resistant backing for personnel armor.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows a perspective view of a piece of the laminated material of this invention, prior to heating and compression into the densified form.

FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the same piece, taken along the lines 2-2 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a sectional view of a piece of personnel armor showing the attachment of the densified laminate to the back of the armor facing.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS A preferred embodiment of the laminated material of this invention is shown in FIG. I. The laminate is formed from multiple layers of a fabric woven from polypropylene filaments 10. The cloth layers are then stitched together, using a heat shrinkable filament 11, such as cold oriented polyethylene. Stitching is preferably done in a quilting pattern, but may also be done only around the periphery of the material or in one or more spots with a button stitch. Subsequent to stitching, the relatively flexible laminate is compressed under a pressure of 600 psi while being heated to 250 F for a period of one hour. A hard, rigid laminate is formed in which the layers are held together primarily by the stitching which runs essentially perpendicular to the layers and which is compressed into the structure. Simultaneously with this compression, the laminate is shaped to fit the contours of the armor facing. A seetional view of a piece of personnel armor is shown in FIG. 3, in which the densified laminate 13 is shown attached to the armor facing 12. The laminate is bonded to the back Of/the armor facing by means of a layer of polyurethane or polysulfide adhesive 14.

The material of the invention is used primarily as a relatively lightweight backing to lend strength and limited resilience to contoured personnel armor. The material is preferably formed from films or woven fabrics of heat softenable polymeric materials such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyamide or polyvinylchloride. However, flexible and resilient materials such as non-woven webs, polymeric films, or non-woven fabrics of natural or synthetic fibers may also be employed. Other types of materials may be resin impregnated fabrics, woven or non-woven made from inorganic fibers such as glass or aluminum silicate or from natural or synthetic fibers which are not heat softenable.

The reinforcing filaments used for stitching may comprise any one of the natural or synthetic fibers or blends. Cold-oriented filaments which contract upon heating are preferred. Such filaments provide a stronger reinforcement when the stitched laminate is densified under heat and pressure. Metallic fibers are suitable for reinforcement stitching, as well as filaments consisting of blends of synthetic or natural fibers reinforced with metallic fibers.

While the material of this invention is preferably formed under a pressure of 600 psi and a temperature of 250F for a period of one hour, variations in processing conditions may require pressures ranging from 100 to 1,000 psi, with temperatures ranging from 200 to 300F and time periods ranging from 30 minutes up to 2 hours.

The materials according to the present invention are primarily employed as a backing material for personnel armor which may be worn by police or like personnel engaged in hazardous situations. The materials may also be used without an armor facing for protection against lesser ballistic threats, such as those caused by various fragmentation devices. The materials are also suitable as backing to metallic or refractory facing for the enclosure of dangerous industrial operations which present an explosion hazard.

It is to be understood that many equivalent modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the reading of the foregoing disclosure, without a departure from the intended concept of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. Personnel armor comprising a high strength projectile resistant material and a flexible laminated d shaping the densified laminate to fit a contoured piece of armor facing; and e. bonding the shaped laminate to the back of the armor facing. 4. A method for making personnel armor according to claim 3 in which the step of densifying the laminate includes heating to temperatures ranging from 200 to 300 F and compressing under pressures ranging from to 1,000 psi.

Claims (3)

1. Personnel armor comprising a high strength projectile resistant material and a flexible laminated material bonded to said projectile resistant material, said laminated material comprising a plurality of densified layers of flexible polymeric material and a heat shrunk filament stitching said layers together.
2. Personnel armor according to claim 1 in which the said flexible polymeric material is polypropylene.
3. A method for making personnel armor which comprises: a. forming a laminate from at least two layers of fabric woven from polypropylene filaments; b. stitching the fabric layers together with a heat shrinkable filament; c. densifying the laminate and shrinking the filament by applying heat and pressure; d. shaping the densified laminate to fit a contoured piece of armor facing; and e. bonding the shaped laminate to the back of the armor facing.
US3719545A 1971-03-15 1971-03-15 Reinforced laminated material Expired - Lifetime US3719545A (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4079161A (en) * 1974-07-12 1978-03-14 Phillips Petroleum Company Transparent oriented polyolefin laminated armor structure
EP0089537A1 (en) * 1982-03-19 1983-09-28 Allied Corporation Improved ballistic-resistant article
US4678702A (en) * 1986-07-30 1987-07-07 Petro Products, Inc. Protective laminate
US4786343A (en) * 1985-05-10 1988-11-22 The Boeing Company Method of making delamination resistant composites
EP0320715A2 (en) * 1987-12-15 1989-06-21 MEHLER VARIO SYSTEM GmbH Process for the production of a light-weight sandwiched building material
US4966802A (en) * 1985-05-10 1990-10-30 The Boeing Company Composites made of fiber reinforced resin elements joined by adhesive
US5437905A (en) * 1994-05-17 1995-08-01 Park; Andrew D. Ballistic laminate structure in sheet form
US5935678A (en) * 1994-05-17 1999-08-10 Park; Andrew D. Ballistic laminate structure in sheet form
US5952078A (en) * 1994-05-17 1999-09-14 Park; Andrew D. Athletic guard including energy absorbing laminate structure
US6408733B1 (en) * 2000-02-14 2002-06-25 William J. Perciballi Ceramic armor apparatus for multiple bullet protection
US20030236047A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2003-12-25 Texas Tech University Chemical protective composite substrate and method of producing same
US20040216595A1 (en) * 2003-03-17 2004-11-04 Dickson Lawrence J. Formed metal armor assembly
US20050101211A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-05-12 Texas Tech University Chemical protective composite substrate and method of producing same
US20050268443A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-12-08 Texas Tech University Process for making chemical protective wipes and such wipes
US20060191237A1 (en) * 2004-05-10 2006-08-31 Hansen Daniel R Drywall repair patch
US20110185463A1 (en) * 2010-01-29 2011-08-04 Safariland, Llc Soft Body Armor Including Reinforcing Strips

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2243857A (en) * 1936-02-26 1941-06-03 Albert C Fischer Fiber articles, such as mats and the like
US2514412A (en) * 1944-06-30 1950-07-11 Robert S Owens Stitched sheet product
US2640004A (en) * 1949-08-16 1953-05-26 Janesville Cotton Mills Strip insulation and method of manufacture

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2243857A (en) * 1936-02-26 1941-06-03 Albert C Fischer Fiber articles, such as mats and the like
US2514412A (en) * 1944-06-30 1950-07-11 Robert S Owens Stitched sheet product
US2640004A (en) * 1949-08-16 1953-05-26 Janesville Cotton Mills Strip insulation and method of manufacture

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4079161A (en) * 1974-07-12 1978-03-14 Phillips Petroleum Company Transparent oriented polyolefin laminated armor structure
EP0089537A1 (en) * 1982-03-19 1983-09-28 Allied Corporation Improved ballistic-resistant article
JPS58180635A (en) * 1982-03-19 1983-10-22 Allied Chem Anti-ballistic article
US4786343A (en) * 1985-05-10 1988-11-22 The Boeing Company Method of making delamination resistant composites
US4966802A (en) * 1985-05-10 1990-10-30 The Boeing Company Composites made of fiber reinforced resin elements joined by adhesive
US4678702A (en) * 1986-07-30 1987-07-07 Petro Products, Inc. Protective laminate
EP0320715A2 (en) * 1987-12-15 1989-06-21 MEHLER VARIO SYSTEM GmbH Process for the production of a light-weight sandwiched building material
US4971642A (en) * 1987-12-15 1990-11-20 Mehler Vario System Gmbh Method of making a sandwich lightweight construction material
EP0320715A3 (en) * 1987-12-15 1991-10-16 MEHLER VARIO SYSTEM GmbH Process for the production of a light-weight sandwiched building material
US5952078A (en) * 1994-05-17 1999-09-14 Park; Andrew D. Athletic guard including energy absorbing laminate structure
US5443883A (en) * 1994-05-17 1995-08-22 Park; Andrew D. Ballistic panel
US5443882A (en) * 1994-05-17 1995-08-22 Park; Andrew D. Armored garment
US5437905A (en) * 1994-05-17 1995-08-01 Park; Andrew D. Ballistic laminate structure in sheet form
US5935678A (en) * 1994-05-17 1999-08-10 Park; Andrew D. Ballistic laminate structure in sheet form
US5547536A (en) * 1994-05-17 1996-08-20 Park; Andrew D. Method for fabricating a ballistic laminate structure
US6408733B1 (en) * 2000-02-14 2002-06-25 William J. Perciballi Ceramic armor apparatus for multiple bullet protection
US20030236047A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2003-12-25 Texas Tech University Chemical protective composite substrate and method of producing same
US20050101211A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-05-12 Texas Tech University Chemical protective composite substrate and method of producing same
US20050268443A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-12-08 Texas Tech University Process for making chemical protective wipes and such wipes
US7516525B2 (en) 2002-06-13 2009-04-14 Texas Tech University Process for making chemical protective wipes and such wipes
US20040216595A1 (en) * 2003-03-17 2004-11-04 Dickson Lawrence J. Formed metal armor assembly
US20060191237A1 (en) * 2004-05-10 2006-08-31 Hansen Daniel R Drywall repair patch
US7971405B2 (en) * 2004-05-10 2011-07-05 The Great Wall Patch Co., Inc. Drywall repair patch
US20110185463A1 (en) * 2010-01-29 2011-08-04 Safariland, Llc Soft Body Armor Including Reinforcing Strips

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