US3677887A - Anticounterfeit ticket - Google Patents

Anticounterfeit ticket Download PDF

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Publication number
US3677887A
US3677887A US3677887DA US3677887A US 3677887 A US3677887 A US 3677887A US 3677887D A US3677887D A US 3677887DA US 3677887 A US3677887 A US 3677887A
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Prior art keywords
sheet
ticket
size
starch
indicia
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Expired - Lifetime
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Kenneth P Rowsam
De Witt M Yost
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Sorg Paper Co
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Sorg Paper Co
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H17/00Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its constitution; Paper-impregnating material characterised by its constitution
    • D21H17/20Macromolecular organic compounds
    • D21H17/33Synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • D21H17/46Synthetic macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • D21H17/47Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H17/00Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its constitution; Paper-impregnating material characterised by its constitution
    • D21H17/20Macromolecular organic compounds
    • D21H17/21Macromolecular organic compounds of natural origin; Derivatives thereof
    • D21H17/24Polysaccharides
    • D21H17/28Starch
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H17/00Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its constitution; Paper-impregnating material characterised by its constitution
    • D21H17/60Waxes
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H21/00Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its function, form or properties; Paper-impregnating or coating material, characterised by its function, form or properties
    • D21H21/14Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its function, form or properties; Paper-impregnating or coating material, characterised by its function, form or properties characterised by function or properties in or on the paper
    • D21H21/40Agents facilitating proof of genuineness or preventing fraudulent alteration, e.g. for security paper

Abstract

AN ANTICOUNTERFIET TICKET FORMED FROM A PAPER SHEET WHICH PERMITS THE INK USED TO PRINT THE INDICIA ON THE TICKET AT THE TIME IT IS ISSUED TO PENETRATE COMPLETELY THROUGH THE SHEET SO THAT THE INDICIA WILL BE READILY VISIBLE FROM EITHER SIDE. THE SHEET IS FORMED FROM A FURNISH OF 40-75% OF A HIGH ALPHA (92% OR MORE ALPHA CELLULOSE) PULP AND THE REMAINDER A CHEMICAL WOOD PULP. THE FINISHED SHEET HAS A BASIS WEIGHT OF 45-102 LBS. PER REAM AND A CALIPER OF .007 TO .012 INCH. THE SHEET CONTAINS A SIZE OF 5% WAX, 73% STARCH AND 22% THERMOSETTING FORMALDEHYDE CONDENSATION RESIN WHICH PROVIDES AN OPEN SHEET IN WHICH THE FIBERS ARE INTERLOCKED.

Description

July 18, 1972 K p RQWSAM ET AL 3,677,887

ANTICOUNTERFEIT TICKET Filed March 31, 1971 TRACK O flnAFu-r 2 325$; gy 8 Z 3 5-9 S 3 o o o 0 o O I 5 TE T 3/2 g :s": a g f 3 N0. 42 5 ah .0 g 7 sscowmmRAcEi-a aoAmsmmoaazg "'"z C) Q 3 3001119682- LBQLTOM W FIG. 1 FIG. 2

INVENTOR/S KENNETH P POWSA/W DE [/V/TTM V057 ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,677,887 ANTICOUNTERFEIT TICKET Kenneth P. Rowsam, Monroe, and De Witt M. Yost,

Middletown, Ohio, assignors to The Sorg Paper Company, Middletown, Ohio Continuation-impart of abandoned application Ser. No. 776,626, Nov. 18, 1968. This application Mar. 31, 1971, Ser. No. 129,910

Int. Cl. D21h 5/10 US. Cl. 162-140 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An anticounterfeit ticket formed from a paper sheet which permits the ink used to print the indicia on the ticket at the time it is issued to penetrate completely through the sheet so that the indicia will be readily visible from either side. The sheet is formed from a furnish of 40-75% of a high alpha (92% or more alpha cellulose) pulp and the remainder a chemical wood pulp. The finished sheet has a basis weight of 45-102 lbs. per ream and a caliper of .007 to .012 inch. The sheet contains a size of 5% wax, 73% starch and 22% thermosetting formaldehyde condensation resin which provides an open sheet in which the fibers are interlocked.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 776,626, filed Nov. 18, 1968, entitled Anticounterfeit Ticket or the Like, now abandoned.

The counterfeiting and alteration of betting tickets have been a long standing problem, and numerous means have hitherto been employed to produce tickets which are readily identifiable for cashing purposes and yet having sufiicient safety features to deter counterfeiting. So-called safety inks have been used to print the tickets, such inks acting to change colors or bleed when subjected to bleaching agents which are sometimes used by counterfeiters to alter the indicia on the tickets. Various tag stocks have also been used which incorporate filler fibers in various colors so that when the ticket is torn the inside of the sheet stock will be displayed, thereby indicating whether it matches the particular stock in use at the time. In spite of such precautions, there were still extensive losses due to counterfeiting.

In order to prevent counterfeiting, as well as to utilize the other available safeguards, such as safety inks, it was sought to produce a ticket in which the ink would penetrate completely through the sheet so that the winning number would be visible from either side. This had to be accomplished while at the same time retaining the other necessary and desirable characteristics of a betting ticket. In particular, the tickets must be so constituted that they will be resistant to water penetration and retain a high degree of stiffness under excessive humidity conditions in the range of 90% or more. The jamming of the ticket dispensing machines due to too flimsy or limp tickets during the short period between the time the betting windows are open and the time of the race simply cannot be tolerated. The tickets also must handle well from the standpoint of counting and verification. In addition, the tickets must be readily receptive both to fiexographic pre-printing, which usually indicates the type of bet, i.e., win, place, show, daily double, etc., as well as to the printing which takes place when the ticket is sold and dispensed from the ticket machine, such ticket machine printing the number, date, and a race code on the ticket as it is dispensed.

Several approaches have hitherto been taken to manu- 3,677,887. Patented July 18, 1972 facture a betting ticket which fulfills the foregoing needs. One approach was to use a ticket stock containing a high content of strong Manila rope fiber. These tickets failed, however, because of loss of stiffness in high humidities and resultant jamming in the ticket dispensing machines. Another approach was the provision of a sheet incorporating glass fibers which, while producing an extremely stiff ticket, exhibited a marginal degree of ink penetration. In addition, the presence of the glass fibers irritated the skin of the persons handling the tickets. Neither of the aforementioned types of tickets exhibited adequate split resistance.

In contrast to the foregoing, the instant invention provides an anticounterfeit ticket sheet in which the indicia printed on the tickets by the dispensing machines will penetrate completely through the sheet without objectionable lateral bleeding, the sheet also meeting all of the other requirements for a commercially usable ticket.

RESUME on THE INVENTION Ticket stock in accordance with the present invention is produced by providing a high bulk furnish which results in a highly porous or open sheet. This furnish is treated on the paper making machine to produce a sheet of maximum thickness for a given basis weight. Such thickness or bulkiness results in increased stiffness for a given basis weight and also provides the necessary openness to allow the mineral spirit or other organic solvent type printing ink used in the ticket dispensing machines to penetrate theinterstices in the sheet to result in the twosided legibility or anticounterfeiting characteristic of the tickets.

To provide the ticket stock with the necessary stiffness and to afford the necessary water and moisture resistance, as well as interlock the fibers, the stock is impregnated with a sizing solution comprising a major proportion of starch in combination with an insolubilizing agent, such as a thermosetting resin, together with a wax emulsion.

It has been found that where the furnish is treated in the manner specified, a sheet is produced which provides controlled penetration of the ink without objectionable lateral bleeding of the ink, and at the same time the sheet is sufliciently stiff, even under conditions of high humidity, to permit it to be fed and dispensed from conventional ticket dispensing machines. The sheet is also readily severable by the cutoff knives in the dispensing machines and is essentially free from any tendency to delaminate.

THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a plan view of the front side of a betting ticket in accordance with the invention.

FIG. 2 is the reverse side of the ticket.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Paper in accordance with the invention may be manufactured utilizing conventional paper making equipment, usually a Fourdrinier paper making machine and will be so described. Of primary consideration is the production of a relatively light-weight sheet having the stiffness of conventional tickets, which have a basis weight of about pounds per ream at a thickness of .0085 inch. Such conventional tickets have a density of about 16.0, density being measured by dividing basis weight by caliper (thickness). In contrast, sheet stock in accordance with the present invention has a basis weight of from about 45 pounds per ream to about 102 pounds per ream at a thickness of from .007 to .012 inch, which results in a density of from about 6.5 to about 8.5. In order to produce a stock having a density of 8.5 or less, it is essential to utilize a furnish which will bulk.

The furnish for the base stock comprises from about 40% to about 75% of a high alpha saturating pulp which contains 92% or more alpha cellulose, the remainder of the furnish comprising a chemical wood pulp alone or admixed with a minor percentage of a filler material, such as cotton linters, rayon fibers or even glass fibers, although the latter fibers are not preferred due to possible irritation of the hands when handling the tickets. Numerous high alpha saturating pulps are commercially available, including Mersanier X-J, produced by Rayonier Corporation; Alphacel, produced by Weyerhauser Corporation; and Buckeye HPZ, which is a mercerized, bleached southern or western soft wood sulfate pulp produced by Buckeye Cellulose Corporation. The latter pulp is preferred, although others may be employed, the primary consideration being the provision of a furnish which will result in an open sheet. While it is possible to increase the quantity of the high alpha saturating pulp somewhat above 75%, where this is done it is necessary to add bonding agents to the furnish as it is treated in the beater, which adds to the cost of the furnish and also tends to inhibit the effectiveness of the sizing treatment.

The remainder of the furnish may comprise a chemical wood pulp, such as bleached or semi-bleached kraft fibers, which are also sulfate pulps, or sulfite pulp may be employed. Semi-bleached kraft is preferred, particularly when blended with a mercerized soft Wood sulfate pulp. The pulp may be treated and blended in conventional fashion, and delivered to the headbox of the paper making machine, as will be understood by the skilled worker in the art. Normally, the tickets will be supplied in various colors so that win, place, and show bets, etc., may be color coded. This may be conveniently done by adding conventional color pigments to the furnish as it is processed for delivery to the headbox of the paper making machine. Of course, the desired color may be printed on the finished sheets.

In order to develop directional stiffness in the stock, it is desirable to have no pressure in the headbox, and to maintain as low a head as possible, preferably 4 inches at machine speeds of approximately 300 feet per minute. In the paper making machine, the furnish will be felted in the usual manner, the formed web passed through the conventional press and driers, whereupon the web is delivered to the size press for the sizing treatment and subsequent finishing. The finished sheet will preferably have a caliper of .0085 inch to .0095 inch, although additional latitude is permissible and the caliper of the sheet may vary between .007 inch and .012 inch.

The sizing of the sheet is also important, the primary consideration being the utilization of a size which is not a film former but rather will strike into the sheet and lock the fibers, yet the size must not block the interstices in the sheet so as to prevent strike-through of the mineral spirit ink. Preferably, the size is a combination of three materials, namely, starch, thermosetting resin, and wax, which will be applied by a shower on the wet side of the paper making machine, i.e., in advance of entering the sizing press.

The major constituent of the size is a starch characterized by a high solids content at low viscosity, the objective being to provide maximum stiffening without the formation of a surface film, i.e., the starch must strike into the sheet to interlock the fibers. The starch constituent of the size should have minimum viscosity of 35 seconds as measured with a Dudley pipette at 21% solids at 140 F. and a maximum viscosity of 55 seconds under the foregoing conditions. An oxidized potato starch, such as Arogum 50, produced by Stein-Hall & Co. may be employed, as may be any other type of oxidized converted starch. Cornstarches may also be employed, such as an acid-thinned hydroxyethylated cornstarch, manufactured by Stein-Hall & Co. under the trademark Ethylex 2020. It may be noted, however, that while cornstarch readily lends itself to cross-linkage with the resin constituent of the size, a size composed of all cornstarch is not desirable since the sheet becomes too stiff and tends to be brittle. A preferred starch constituent comprises a blend of equal parts by weight of an oxided potato starch and hydroxyethylated cornstarch, although it is to be understood that any starch or mixture of starches meeting the above enumerated viscosity requirements may be employed, an essential consideration being the provision of a starch constituent which will result in the desired wet and dry stiffnesses as hereinafter enumerated.

The resin constituent of the size is primarily intended to cross-link with the starch to insolubilize it and add stiffness to the sheet as well as contribute to its moisture resistance without unduly blinding or sealing the sheet so as to prevent ink penetration. The resin should be of the thermosetting type which is a formaldehyde condensation resin, such as urea formaldehyde or melamine formaldehyde. Amres 212, produced by Pacific Resins & Chemical Corporation is an example of a urea formaldehyde resin, and Parez Resin 707, produced by American Cyanamide Corporation is exemplary of a melamine formaldehyde resin. The latter is preferred in that it has a greater pot life than the urea types.

The resin constituent should be present in an amount of from about 15% to 25% by weight of the size. If more than 25% resin is employed, it will build up the viscosity of the size to an undesirable level and also will shorten the pot life. If less than 15 resin is used, there will be insuificient cross-linkage to insolubilize the starch.

The wax constituent of the size also acts to enhance the moisture resistance of the sheet as well as the feel of the sheet, and it also serves to prevent lateral bleeding of the ink. Numerous waxes may be employed, inclusive of parafiin, microcrystalline, stearic and natural, the essential consideration being the use of a wax emulsion which is stable between the range of pH 68 and has a melting point above the 140 F.l50 F. temperatures encountered during application. A preferred wax is a 44% solids emulsion consisting of wax and 20% rosin. Paracol 405 6-6 manufactured by Hercules Powder Company, Inc. has been found to be highly suited for the purpose. Various other blends also may be employed, although it is preferred not to use all rosin since it is too sticky and detracts from the feel of the sheet.

It has been found that while the Wax constituent adds materially to the water and moisture resistance of the sheet, the presence of an excessive quantity of wax tends to render the sheet non-receptive to the solvent constituents of the mineral spirit or other inks used in the ticket dispensing machines to print indicia on the tickets as they are dispensed. The wax constituent preferably comprises about 5% by weight of the size although it may be varied from about 2% to 8% on a dry weight basis without departing from the invention.

As should now be apparent, the starch constituent of the size may comprise from about 67% to about 83% of the size on a dry weight basis, with the resin constituent comprising from 15% to 25%, and the wax constituent from about 2% to about 8%. A preferred sizing composition contains 73% starch, 22% thermosetting resin and 5% wax, the total solids content being approximately 15% by weight. In terms of a size pick-up, the sheet should contain from 10% to 20% size based on the total weight of the sized sheet. Using the preferred sizing composition set forth above, a 14 /2% size pick-up is preferred.

Following the application of the size, the stock is fed into another drier section of the paper making machine where it is dried to a moisture content of about 4%. In this connection, the drying of the sheet to a low moisture content assists in insuring maximum cross-linkage between the thermosetting resin and the starch. Where the thermosetting resin comprises a melamine formaldehyde resin of the character hereinbefore described, it has been found that the resin is cured as it is removed from the paper machine and reaches 99% cure after aging in rolled condition for approximately 21 days.

In finishing the sheet stock it is preferred to calender it through a single nip to provide a minimum surface finish, although the extent of calendering does not constitute a limitation of the invention, provided it is insufficient to build up a surface finish which will retard the penetration of the printing ink. Stiffness along with penetrability by the initial spirit ink are prime requisites of the sheet. A dry stifiness of 900 milligrams is preferred, as measured on a Gurley Stifiness Tester, the stock being measured in an atmosphere of 50% relative humidity at a temperature of 72 F. While a Wet stiffness of at least 500' milligrams is preferred, the stock being measured after being conditioned for 24 hours at 90% relative humidity and 80 F., stifinesses as low as 350-375 milligrams are operative although performance is marginal in the ticket dispensing machines. Dry stiffness materially in excess of 900 milligrams is unnecessary in that the stock can be readily handled and mechanically dispensed at 900 milligrams.

It should also be explained that the pre-printing of the tickets is generally performed on a Flexographic press using color pigmented ink in a latex binder. Such inks dry by evaporation and hence do not rely wholly on absorption. Consequently, and with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawing which show the opposite sides of a betting ticket 1, the pre-printing would normally comprise the indicia indicating the type of bet, as indicated at 2 and 3, and on the reverse side an indication of the issuing organization, as indicated at 4, and possibly a validating signature, as indicated at 5. Of course, additional indicia, such as the amount of the bet may be pre-printed, if desired, and the extent and location of the pre-printed indicia does not constitute a limitation on the invention.

As the ticket is sold and dispensed, the dispensing machine will print additional pertinent information on the ticket, such as the amount of the bet, indicated at 6, the number of the horse or dog, indicated at 7, the number and date of the race, indicated at 8, and the track code, indicated at 9. Here again, it will be understood that the indicia will vary, and the ticket illustrated is intended to be merely exemplary of the character of indicia which is printed on the ticket at the time it is dispensed.

It is this latter ink which penetrates completely through the sheet and is readily visible from the reverse side, as will be evident in FIG. 2 wherein the areas 6', 7', 8' and 9' are readily visible in reverse image. Such inks normally comprise a hydrocarbon vehicle, such as mineral spirits, and a combination of dyes and pigments which are insoluble in the normal bleaching agents.

The instant invention thus provides a betting ticket which is readily receptive to conventional mineral spirit printing inks and will permit such inks to strike completely through the sheet so as to be visible on the reverse side without undue bleeding or distortion of the printed indicia, the sheet at the same time exhibiting a stiffness preferably within the range of 450-550 milligrams at a relative humidity of as much as 90% at 80 F. While numerous embodiments of the invention have been set forth, it will be evident that modifications may be made in the invention without departing from its spirit and purpose.

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:

1. A paper sheet capable of permitting a mineral spirit ink to penetrate completely through the sheet so that printed indicia will be readily visible from either side of the sheet, said sheet consisting essentially of a furnish composed of from 40% to 75% of a high alpha saturating pulp containing 92% or more alpha cellulose and the remainder a chemical wood pulp, said sheet being impregnated with a size composed of from 15% to 25% thermosetting formaldehyde condensation resin, 2% to 8% wax emulsion which is stable between a pH range of 6 to 8 and has a melting point of at least about 140-150 P1, and the remainder starch having a minimum viscosity of 35 seconds and a maximum viscosity of 55 seconds as measured with a Dudley pipette at 21% solids at 140 F., all ingredients of the size being on a dry weight basis, the said size being incorporated in the sheet in a quantity of from 10% to 20% based on the total weight of the sized sheet, said sheet having a basis weight of from 45 to 102 lbs. per ream and a caliper of from .007 to .012 inch.

2. The paper sheet claimed in claim 1 wherein the starch constituent is an essentially equal blend by weight of hydroxyethylated cornstarch and oxidized potato starch.

3. The paper sheet claimed in claim 2 wherein said thermosetting resin is a melamine formaldehyde resin.

4. The paper sheet claimed in claim 3 wherein said wax constituent comprises a 44% solids emulsion consisting of wax and 20% rosin.

5. An anticounterfeit paper sheet capable of permitting a mineral spirit printing ink used to print indicia on the sheet to penetrate completely through the sheet so that the indicia will be readily visible from either side while at the same time providing a sheet having a Wet stiffness of from 450-550 milligrams when measured on a Gurley Stiffness Tester, after a conditioning period of 24 hours at a relative humidity of and a temperature of 80 F., said sheet consisting essentially of a furnish composed of from substantially 40%-75% of a high alpha saturating pulp containing 92% or more alpha cellulose and the remainder a chemical wood pulp, said finished sheet having a basis weight of from 45 to 102 lbs. per ream when said sheet has a caliper of .007 to .012 inch, said sheet containing a size composed of substantially 5% wax, 73% starch and 22% thermosetting formaldehyde condensation resin, all on a dry weight basis, the starch constituent of said size being a substantially equal blend by weight of hydroxyethylated comstarch and an oxidized potato starch, the resin constituent of said size being a non-ionic water soluble thermosetting resin consisting essentially of melamine formaldehyde, and the wax constituent of said size being a 44% solids emulsion consisting of 80% paraffin wax and 20% rosin, said size being present in a quantity of substantially from 10% to 20% based on the total weight of the sized sheet.

6. The paper sheet claimed in claim 5 wherein the furnish consists of substantially equal parts by weight of mercerized bleached softwood sulfate pulp and semibleached kraft fibers.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,399,489 10/1943 Landes 117-155 L 690,148 12/ 1901 Higgins 1l71 S. LEON BASHORE, Primary Examiner R. H. ANDERSON, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4500548A (en) * 1982-03-15 1985-02-19 Stauffer Chemical Company Fermentation aid for conventional baked goods
US4936607A (en) * 1988-01-27 1990-06-26 Moore Business Forms, Inc. Security for images formed by impact based systems
US5033773A (en) * 1988-01-27 1991-07-23 Moore Business Forms Security for images formed by impact based systems
US5523167A (en) * 1994-08-24 1996-06-04 Pierce Companies, Inc. Indelible magnetic transfer film
US5575214A (en) * 1994-03-15 1996-11-19 Jean-Pierre Braunstein Apparatus for printing any documents and making them unfalsifiable

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4500548A (en) * 1982-03-15 1985-02-19 Stauffer Chemical Company Fermentation aid for conventional baked goods
US4936607A (en) * 1988-01-27 1990-06-26 Moore Business Forms, Inc. Security for images formed by impact based systems
US5033773A (en) * 1988-01-27 1991-07-23 Moore Business Forms Security for images formed by impact based systems
US5575214A (en) * 1994-03-15 1996-11-19 Jean-Pierre Braunstein Apparatus for printing any documents and making them unfalsifiable
US5523167A (en) * 1994-08-24 1996-06-04 Pierce Companies, Inc. Indelible magnetic transfer film

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