US3613675A - Photocurable resin impregnated bandage for forming rigid surgical casts - Google Patents

Photocurable resin impregnated bandage for forming rigid surgical casts Download PDF

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US3613675A
US3613675A US3613675DA US3613675A US 3613675 A US3613675 A US 3613675A US 3613675D A US3613675D A US 3613675DA US 3613675 A US3613675 A US 3613675A
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cast
bandage
carbon
photocurable resin
resin
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Donald Wayne Larsen
Raymond John Ceresa
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W R Grace and Co-Conn
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Donald Wayne Larsen
Raymond John Ceresa
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Assigned to W.R. GRACE & CO.-CONN. reassignment W.R. GRACE & CO.-CONN. MERGER (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). EFFECTIVE DATE: MAY 25, 1988 CONNECTICUT Assignors: GRACE MERGER CORP., A CORP. OF CONN. (CHANGED TO), W.R. GRACE & CO., A CORP. OF CONN. (MERGED INTO)
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/04Plaster of Paris bandages; Other stiffening bandages
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L15/00Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads
    • A61L15/07Stiffening bandages

Abstract

A lightweight strong cast for the repair of broken bones is made by impregnating a fibrous felt with a photocurable resin, wrapping the felt in bandage form around the injured member until a sufficient thickness is built up, then curing the resin by exposing the wrapped ''''cast'''' to actinic radiation for a time sufficient to convert the impregnated wrapping into a rigid substance.

Description

United States Patent [72] Inventors Donald Wayne Larsen 208 Ashlawn Drive, Ashton, Md. 20702; Raymond John Ceresa, Alpine 2 St. Andrews Park, Histon, Cambridge,

England [21] App1.No. 818,238 [22] Filed May 22, 1969 [45] Patented Oct. 19, 1971 [54] PHOTOCURABLE RESIN IMPREGNATED BANDAGE FOR FORMING RIGID SURGICAL CASTS 5 Claims, 2 Drawing Figs.

[52] US. Cl 128/90, 260/79, 204/159.18 [51] Int. Cl A6lf 13/04 [50] Field of Search 128/89, 90;

' [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,127,552 8/1938 Dahmen 128/90 3,338,810 8/1967 Warner 204/l59.18 3,421,501 l/l969 Beighto] 128/90 Primary ExaminerRichard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Ronald L. Frinks AttorneysRichard P. Plunkett and Kenneth E. Prince ABSTRACT: A lightweight strong cast for the repair of broken bones is made by impregnating a fibrous felt with a photocurable resin, wrapping the felt in bandage form around the injured member until a sufi'rcient thickness is built up, then curing the resin by exposing the wrapped cast" to actinic radiation for a time sufficient to convert the impregnated wrapping into a rigid substance.

PATENTEDUBT 19 I97! Raymond J. Ceresa Donald W Larsen INVENTORS filing? PHOTOCURABLE RESIN IMPREGNATED BANDAGE FOR FORMING RIGID SURGICAL CASTS Despite the efficacy and the rigidity which surgeons secure in a well-made plaster cast, its weight is a serious disadvantage. Numerous attempts have been made to secure the same rigidity to maintain the bones in proper position throughout the healing process, and at the same time greatly reduce the weight of the cast. Most of these expedients have made use of some preform: an aluminum traylike support, e.g. for a broken forearm, or molded fibrous supports.

The proper setting of bones, however, requires a highly individualized cast, and in a considerable number of instances the traylike supports for broken bones cannot be used.

We have discovered that it is possible to produce casts for the repair of broken bones which can be completely molded to fit exactly the arm or leg or other injured member by impregnating a bandage base, which may be an airlaid or waterlaid felt or woven textile with a photocurable resin.

The improved mold may have densities which are no greater than that of water, and very considerable stiffness in thin sections. The cast" can be made tough, mechanically strong, and very much thinner than is the customary plaster cast, with the result that although the site of injury is made completely immobile, the patient may move without dragging or lifting the heavy weight of plaster as formerly was necessary.

An additional advantage is that the cast can be applied to the patient immediately. It requires only that the prepared casting substance be unwrapped and bandaged onto the limb. It requires neither a pail of plaster-of-paris, nor the soaking of prepared plaster-gauze material. It has the advantage, too, that no new equipment is required. Most hospitals have sources of actinic radiation: the cast can be converted into a solid substance in a very few minutes merely by focusing the rays of a sun lamp onto the cast.

In the drawing:

FIG. 1 illustrates in perspective and in section the bandage when formed on a felt fibrous base, and

FIG. 2 shows in perspective and in section the bandage when formed on a textile base.

Photocurable compositions which are operable in the instant invention are those obtained by admixing polyenes or polyynes containing two or more reactive unsaturated carbon to carbon bonds located terminally, near terminally, or pendant from the main chain with a polythiol containing two or more thiol groups per molecule.

Operable compositions are disclosed in the copending application of Kehr & Wszolek, Ser. No. 617,801, filed Feb. 23, 1967, now abandoned, and assigned to the assignee of the present invention. The entire disclosure of application Ser. No. 617,801, is herein incorporated by reference. Many of the compositions disclosed in the said application may be used in the present invention, even those which are malodorous are operative, but the odor of some makes their use impossible.

As a general definition, the group of polyenes includes those having molecular weight in the range of 300 to 20,000, a viscosity ranging from to 20 million centipoises at 70 C. of

the general formflla; j wherein X is a member of a R R t the group consis mg of l and R OEC-; m is at least 2; R is independently selected from the gr oupconsisting of hydrogen, halogen aryl, substituted aryl, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, aralkyl, substituted aralkyl and alkyl and substituted alkyl groups containing 1 to 16 carbon atoms and A is a polyvalent organic moiety free of l) reactive carbon to carbon unsaturation and (2) unsaturated groups in conjugation with the reactive eye or yne groups in X. Thus A may contain cyclic groupings and minor amounts of hetero atoms such as N, S, P, or 0 but contains primarily carbon-carbon, carbon-oxygen or silicon-oxygen containing chain linkages without any reactive carbon to carbon unsaturation.

A further group of polyenes which are operable in the instant invention includes unsaturated polymers in which the double or the triple bonds occur also within the main chain of molecules. Examples of these include conventional elastomers derived primarily from diene monomers, i.e. polyisoprene, polybutadiene, styrenebutadiene rubber, isobutyleneisoprene rubber, polychloroprene, styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, and the like, unsaturated polyesters, polyamides, and polyurethanes derived from monomers containing reactive unsaturation, e.g. adipic acid-butene diol, 1,6-hexanediaminefumaric acid, and 2,4-tolylene diisocyanatebutenediol condensation polymers. 7

The polythiols useful in this invention may be simple or complex organic compounds having at least 2 pendant or terminally positioned SH functional groups per average molecule. Useful polythiols may have a viscosity range of 0 to 20 million centipoises at 70 C. as measured by a Brookfield viscometer, and usually have molecular weights in the range of 50 to 20,000, the preferable range being from l00 to l0,000.

A general'formula forsuch compounds is RaSH) where n is at least 2 and R is a polyvalent organic moiety free from reactive carbon to carbon unsaturation. Thus R may contain cyclic groupings and minor amounts of hetero atoms such as N, S, P, or 0 but primarily contains carbon-hyrdogen, carbonoxygen, or silicon-oxygen containing chain linkages free of any reactive carbon to carbon unsaturation.

One class of polythiols which is particularly useful in connection with this invention, because essentially odorless cured polyether casts" result, are the esters of thiol-containing acids of the general formula HSR -COOH where R, is an organic moiety containing no reactive carbon to carbon unsaturation with polyhydroxy compounds of the general structure: R1DOH) where R is an organic moiety containing no reactive" carbon to carbon unsaturation and n is 2 or greater. These components will react under suitable Conditions to give a polythiol having the general structure R|o OC-R sH) where R and R are organic moieties containing no reactive" carbon to carbon unsaturation and n is 2 or greater.

In suitable compositions, the total combined functionality of (a) the unsaturated carbon to carbon bonds per molecule in the polyene and (b) the thiol groups per molecule in the polythiol is greater than 4.

As the impregnating base, I prefer to use airlaid felts. They may be made very lofty and will hold substantial amounts of resin impregnant. 200 percent of resin impregnant calculated on the dry weight of the fibers is a practicable and useful degree of impregnation for bandages which are to be converted to rigid structures. Soft, lofty, water-laid felts are use ful, and impregnated fabrics also are useful and find particular use as the outer layer of my improved cast.

In the case of textiles, it is somewhat harder to include a very high proportion of resin, but high resin proportions may be secured by first impregnating the sheet with the photocurable composition, allowing the sheet to dry in the dark, and then recoating the sheet with the same photocurable composition under a knife spreader or an accurate calendar.

Example I A strip of lofty, air-laid Dynel" felt, 5 yards long, basis weight 3 oz. per square yard, was impregnated with a diene/tetrathiol blend prepared in the following manner: a solid polyesterdiol having a molecular weight of 3,200 was reacted with allylisocyanate to result in a solid diene. The diene then was melted and dissolved in an equal weight of a 50/50 mixture of toluene and ethoxyethylacetate. Penremain in the web. The webwas the n 5613511570 dry for a period of 12 hours, during which time the toluene and ethoxyethylacetate evaporated and the resin crystallized. The web was run through a slitter and cut into 3-inch widths. The slit webs were rolled up an placed in tin cans to exclude light. Sheets of the material were held in the dark and remained uncured for a period of several weeks.

In building up the cast, the usual techniques of protecting the patients skin may be followed: e.g. protective fabrics of medicated gauze or soft padding may first be placed on the skin, or a film of plastic may be applied as a separating medium. The solid polyester composition should be melted at 50 C. and may be cooled to room temperature before application. Thereafter, the bandage is wound on and the cast built up by the usual wrapping techniques. No times for exposures to actinic radiation can be given, for every cast possesses substantial differences in thickness, number of plies, and size. The exposure to actinic radiation should continue until substantially all of the resin in the cast has been converted to a solid substance. As an example, the bandage may be cured under the light flux of an Ascorlux pulsed xenon lamp placed 30 inches from the surface of the cast. Substantial gellation will take place under these conditions through resin coats of 0.030 of an inch thick with 2 minutes of exposure. Thicker casts require longer times of exposure. In all exposures to actinic radiation it is necessary to protect the skin of the patient from are useful only if the weight of the castis of no importance.

"I Accelerators ofthe reacti0n to actinic radiation are highly desirable, and among the photo-initiators or sensitizers are the benzophenones, acetophenone, acenaphthene-quinone, acenaphthol-quinone, methylethyl ketone, etc. They greatly increase the rate of hardening. Many of these compositions can be compounded so that they are pastes rather than' flowable mixtures, and such paste corhpositions are highly useful when an already impregnated base must be top coated.

If the bandages are properly packaged in light-impermeable packs or canisters, they may be stored for months without loss of efficacy,but 666;: they are opened and exposed to daylight, they should be used promptly. The speed, ease of application, and the cleanly conditions surrounding the use of these photoreactive bandages makes the application of a cast a very much simpler and quicker process than formerly. Their rigidity after cure means that a patient, rather thanhaving to put up with the great weight and clumsiness of a plaster-of-paris cast, has a light, thin, individually created support which permits him to move arms or legs with much less effort. The surgeon, too, can begin at once to bind the limb in the set position, and does not have to work with a slippery, pastey, or generally messy material such as plaster-of-paris.

The bandages obviously may be put to mechanical use. An interesting use is in conjunction with archaelogical artifacts which can be supported and made ready for transportation merely by wrapping the discovery in the field. A high degree of cure is secured by exposing the wrapped article to sunlight, and a few hours exposure in most of the locations where explorations are attempted are sufficient to make a rigid, safe transportation package. Other uses where the convenience of a support that will cure itself in sunlight will readily suggest themselves.

What is claimed is:

l. A strip bandage capable, when exposed to actinic radiation, of forming a rigid cast for bone fractures, comprising a web of fibrous material impregnated with a photocurable composition comprising a polyene containing a polar group selected from the group consisting of oxygen and nitrogen containing functionalities and containing at least two unsaturated carbon to carbon bonds per molecule, and a polythiol containing at least two thiol groups per molecule, the total combined functionality of (a) the unsaturated carbon to carbon bonds per molecule in the polyene, and (b) the thiol groups per molecule in the polythiol being greater than 4.

2. A strip bandage as claimed in claim 1 wherein the web of fibrous material is an air-laid felt.

3. A strip bandage as claimed in claim 1 wherein the strip of fibrous material is a woven textile.'

4, A strip bandage as claimed in claim I wherein the webs of fibrous material is formed of polyester fibers.

5. The strip bandage of claim 1 wherein there is added to the photocurable composition a photosensitizer selected from the group consisting of benzophenone, acetophenone, acenaphthenequinone, acenaphthol-quinone and methylethyl ketone.

Claims (4)

  1. 2. A strip bandage as claimed in claim 1 wherein the web of fibrous material is an air-laid felt.
  2. 3. A strip bandage as claimed in claim 1 wherein the strip of fibrous material is a woven textile.
  3. 4. A strip bandage as claimed in claim 1 wherein the webs of fibrous material is formed of polyester fibers.
  4. 5. The strip bandage of claim 1 wherein there is added to the photocurable composition a photosensitizer selected from the group consisting of benzophenone, acetophenone, acenaphthenequinone, acenaphthol-quinone and methylethyl ketone.
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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3874376A (en) * 1971-11-29 1975-04-01 Ici Ltd Photocurable resin impregnated fabric for forming rigid orthopaedic devices and method
US3905376A (en) * 1971-07-23 1975-09-16 Amos N Johnson Pedicure prosthesis for the metatarsal arch of the foot
US4306548A (en) * 1977-03-22 1981-12-22 W. R. Grace & Co. Lightweight porous casts
US4350246A (en) * 1980-04-21 1982-09-21 The Hartford Corporation Releasable surgical products and process of formation thereof
US4512340A (en) * 1983-02-22 1985-04-23 Johnson & Johnson Products, Inc. Visible light cured orthopedic polymer casts
US6490730B1 (en) 1989-09-20 2002-12-10 Robert M. Lyden Shin-guard, helmet, and articles of protective equipment including light cure material
US6681403B2 (en) 2000-03-13 2004-01-27 Robert M. Lyden Shin-guard, helmet, and articles of protective equipment including light cure material

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2127552A (en) * 1935-10-28 1938-08-23 Dahmen Walter Surgical dressing
US3338810A (en) * 1964-10-05 1967-08-29 Phillips Petroleum Co Ultraviolet light reaction between an alkyl polythiol and a liquid diene polymer
US3421501A (en) * 1965-09-22 1969-01-14 Leroy E Beightol Method and application of orthopedic appliances with an ultraviolet curable plastic impregnated bandage

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2127552A (en) * 1935-10-28 1938-08-23 Dahmen Walter Surgical dressing
US3338810A (en) * 1964-10-05 1967-08-29 Phillips Petroleum Co Ultraviolet light reaction between an alkyl polythiol and a liquid diene polymer
US3421501A (en) * 1965-09-22 1969-01-14 Leroy E Beightol Method and application of orthopedic appliances with an ultraviolet curable plastic impregnated bandage

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3905376A (en) * 1971-07-23 1975-09-16 Amos N Johnson Pedicure prosthesis for the metatarsal arch of the foot
US3874376A (en) * 1971-11-29 1975-04-01 Ici Ltd Photocurable resin impregnated fabric for forming rigid orthopaedic devices and method
US4306548A (en) * 1977-03-22 1981-12-22 W. R. Grace & Co. Lightweight porous casts
US4350246A (en) * 1980-04-21 1982-09-21 The Hartford Corporation Releasable surgical products and process of formation thereof
US4512340A (en) * 1983-02-22 1985-04-23 Johnson & Johnson Products, Inc. Visible light cured orthopedic polymer casts
US6490730B1 (en) 1989-09-20 2002-12-10 Robert M. Lyden Shin-guard, helmet, and articles of protective equipment including light cure material
US6681403B2 (en) 2000-03-13 2004-01-27 Robert M. Lyden Shin-guard, helmet, and articles of protective equipment including light cure material
US7003803B1 (en) 2000-03-13 2006-02-28 Lyden Robert M Shin-guard, helmet, and articles of protective equipment including light cure material

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Owner name: W.R. GRACE & CO.-CONN.

Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNORS:W.R. GRACE & CO., A CORP. OF CONN. (MERGED INTO);GRACE MERGER CORP., A CORP. OF CONN. (CHANGED TO);REEL/FRAME:004937/0001

Effective date: 19880525