US3597875A - Toy building set - Google Patents

Toy building set Download PDF

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Publication number
US3597875A
US3597875A US3597875DA US3597875A US 3597875 A US3597875 A US 3597875A US 3597875D A US3597875D A US 3597875DA US 3597875 A US3597875 A US 3597875A
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Prior art keywords
studs
element
primary
elements
smaller
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Godtfred Kirk Christiansen
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Interlego AG
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Interlego AG
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63HTOYS, e.g. TOPS, DOLLS, HOOPS, BUILDING BLOCKS
    • A63H33/00Other toys
    • A63H33/04Building blocks, strips, or similar building parts
    • A63H33/06Building blocks, strips, or similar building parts to be assembled without the use of additional elements
    • A63H33/08Building blocks, strips, or similar building parts to be assembled without the use of additional elements provided with complementary holes, grooves, or protuberances, e.g. dovetails
    • A63H33/086Building blocks, strips, or similar building parts to be assembled without the use of additional elements provided with complementary holes, grooves, or protuberances, e.g. dovetails with primary projections fitting by friction in complementary spaces between secondary projections, e.g. sidewalls

Abstract

This application discloses toy building blocks of similar shape but constructed to different modules. They are buildable together and, to this end, the inner protrusions of the smaller blocks coact with the outer projections of the larger blocks differently from the coaction within the module which is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,005,282.

Description

D United States Patent 1111 3,597,875

1 1 lnvenwr (Mum! Kirk Christiansen 3,005,282 10/1961 Christiansen 46/25 Bull-Ind, Denmark 3,034,254 5/1962 Christiansen.... 46/25 1 1 pp 776.607 3,162,973 12/1964 Christiansen.... 46/25 1 1 Filed 18,!968 3,224,135 12/1965 Wright et al. 46/25 x [45] Patented Aug. 10, 1971 FOREIGN PATENTS [73] Assugnee luterlego A.G.

lug, swimflud 629,732 10 1961 Canada 46/25 Priorities Nov- 29. Feb. 3 Great Britaln [33] Denmark; Germany OTHER REFERENCES 5973; Playthings Vol. 62 #7 (Kenner s) July, 1964, pp. 101- American Calmac Corp. March 10, 1966, Cover (front &

back) 5 TOY BUiLmNG SET Primary Examiner-Louis G. Mancene 7 C i 2 Drawing p Assistant Examiner-D. L. Weinhold 52 us. 01. 46/25 Momekstevens' Davis Mmemnd Mosh [SI] lnt.Cl A63h 33/08 [50] Field 0 Search 46/25 ABSTRACT; This application discloses toy building blocks of similar shape but constructed to different modules. They are [56] Rdemnws Clad buildable together and, to this end, the inner protrusions of UNITED STATES PATENTS the smaller blocks coact with the outer projections of the 349,646 9/1886 Grigg 46/25 larger blocks difi'erently from the coaction within the module 460,177 9/1891 Cook 46/25 UX whi h i iscl in Pat.

Patentd Aug. 10, 1971 3,597,875

INVENT OR GDDTFRED 1r. CHRIST/AN 3 EN ATTORNEYS Toy BUILDING sr'r This invention relates to a toy building set of the type comprising downwardly open, box-shaped building elements, each of which is provided on the upper'surface with coupling studs serving to couple thcelement to a corresponding element by engagement between the sidewalls of the latter element. Such building sets are constructed so that the dimensions of each building element is an integral multiple of a given basic module, but so that the said coupling studs have the same dimensions and are spaced equally in all the elements, which thus simply have different numbers of such coupling studs according to their size.

When making a building structure from such elements it may in certain cases be of interest to use larger elements than the normal, i.e. elements which are both'of greater height and of. greater width than the normal elements. Also to arouse the interest of smallcr'children it may be an advantage that they can start playing with a building set with larger elements which are easier to handle for small children, who may then later on become interested in more advanced and detailed structures composed of smaller elements. it is therefore the object of the present invention to provide a toy building set which is constructed to permit small and large elements to be combined, and this has been achieved by a' building'set which, besides base elements of a given basic module with respect to external dimensions, and dimensions and positioningof the coupling studs, comprises elements the module of which is an integral -niultipl e ofthesaid basic module. By'dirnensioningthe elements like this it has been rendered possible to couple small 7 elements to elements, and the'elerhents may bejoined in any combination so that for instance a structure commenced with large elements may be continued and modified larly efficient coupling, and in order that this coupling may be effective both between large elements alone, between small elements alone and between large and small elements, the

1 building set according to the invention may comprise elements the module of which is twice the said basic module and which are provided with tubular primary studs the internal diameter of which corresponds to the external diameter of the secondary studs of the base element. in this manner the secondary studs of the small elements will engage the tubular primary studs of the large elements and thus ensure an efficient coupling.

In a specific embodiment of the invention which is based on the theoretically correct relation between the dimensions of the and secondary studs, the ratio of the outer radius "A" of the said tubular primary studs to the radius "a" of the primary studs of the base element and its wall thickness "b" is substantially as follows:

. A= +ga+b)(2/) though suitable tolerance must ta en .rnto account so that the required friction'may be provided between engaging members when the elements are joined. Moreover it will be expedient to make the secondary studs of the large elements :slightly shorter the height of the sidewalls so that these secondlrystuds'will'not be in the way of the primary studs of a small element coupled to the underside of the large element.

The same efi'ect, however, may be achieved according to the invention by providing the secondary studs of the large To further ensure an efficient coupling where a small element is made to engage the underside of a large element, the

inner face of the sidewalls of the large element of a building set according to the invention may be provided with recesses for receiving the primary studs of the small elements.

By defining the ratio of the stud radii as stated above it will be possible to make building sets not only with elements in two different sizes but virtually, if desired, in a great number of sizes, though the various sizes will not automatically become proportional. If it is desired to have elements in a larger number of sizes it will be expedient to dimension them with 10 :91 2. l-lereby complete proportionality will be provided between the different sizes of elements, in that both wall thickness and the dimensions of primary and secondary studs and the main dimensions of the elements will have the following proportions: 1:2:416 etc.

The invention will be explained here with reference to the drawing, in which:

FIG. 1 shows two assembled building elements according to the invention, viewed in perspective, and

FIG. 2 the same elements viewed from above and in larger measure. i

The building elements 1 and 2 shown in FIG. 1 are coupled together by means of the studs 3 on the surface of the element 1 hereinafter called primary studs which cooperate with one or more secondary studs disposed within the hollow spac of the element 2 and in FIGQZ designated 4. It will be srnn directly from this figure that the module of the element 1 can responds to twice the basic module indicated with respect to the element 2.

In FIG. 2 the two elements 1 and 2 are viewed from above, and it will be seen that-the'element -l has upwardly facing-primary studs} and downwardly facing secondary studs 6. Correspondi gly. the'e'lement 2 has upwardly facing primarystuds 5 and downwardly facing secondary studs 4 of approximately the same eritemal diameter as the internal diameter of the tubular primary studs 3.

in order that a'sr'nall element may also be coupled to the underside of the'large element 1, the side and end walls la and lb are provided with recesses 10 for receiving the primary studs 5.

The geometrical conditions for obtaining the desired coupling possibilities between the elements 1 and 2 may be derived from FIG. 2:

If "a' designates the radius of the primary stud S, b" the wall thickness of the element 2, "c" the outer radius of the secondarylstud .4 ,-A" the outer radius of the primary stud 3, B" the efi'ective wall thickness of the element 1, C" the outer radius of the secondary stud 6, A, the inner radius of the primary stud 3, and B,' the reduced wall thickness of the element 1, the following ratios between wall thickness and stud dimensions will be obtained:

it will also be seen from the drawing that the free ends of the secondary studs 6 are provided with recesses 7 forreceiving primary studs 5 of a small element 2 disposed under the large element 1.

What I claim is:

l. A toy building set of the type comprising downwardly open, rectangular, box-shaped building elements, each of which on the outer surface opposite the openside is provided with an even number, not less than four, of rimary coupling studs serving to couple the element to a corresponding element by engagement betweenthe sidewalls of the latter ele ment said primary coupling studs being arranged with their axes in the corner of squares, said toy building set comprising at least two types of elements, smaller-type elements and larger-type elements, the smaller-type elements having a given basic module with respect to external dimensions and positioning of coupling studs, having a secondary stud arranged within the hollow space of the element centrally in relation to each square formedby the axes of the primary studs and so dimensioned as toengage four primary studs of another elemerit of the same basic module, the larger-type elements havsecondary studs of a smaller-type element are capable of being gripped alternately within and between adjacent primary coupling studs of a larger-type element.

2. A toy building set according to claim 1, characterized in 7 that the ratio of the outer radius 14" ofthe said tubular primary studs to the radius 41" of the primary studs of the base element and its wallthickness b is substantially as follows: A=a HHA 3. A toy building set according to claim 1, characterized in that in the inner faceof the sidewalls of the large elements there are recesses for receiving the primary studs of small elemcnts.

4..A toy building set according to claim 1, characterized in that-:bfig

5. A toy building set of the type comprising downwardly open, box-shaped building elements, each of which on .the outer surface opposite the open side is provided with primary coupling studs serving to couple the element to a corresponding element by engagement between the sidewalls of the latter element said primary coupling studs being arranged with their axesin the corner of squares, said toy building set comprising i at lessttwo elements,a smaller one ot'which-is considered as a studs of the base element being equal to the internal diamefst of said primary studs of the second element and to the spikebetween adjacent primary studs on 'said secondary clement whereby adjacent secondary studs are capable of being gripped alternately within and between adjacent primary coupling studs of said larger element.

6. A building set comprising at least two box-shaped building elements, a smaller one and a large. one which has a module which is an integral multiple of that of the small one, each having sidewalls, a top wall, the large one having at least two studs'on the upper surface of said top walls and thesmall one having at least three projections on the under surface of its top wall, the studs of said larger block being hollow and having an inside diameter equal to that of the under surface projections of the smaller block and being so spaced that the shortest path between the external surface of adjacent studs is substantially equal to the outside diameter of the projections of the smaller block.

7. A toy building set-of the type comprising downwardly open, box-shaped building elements, each of which on the outer surface opposite the open side is provided with primary coupling studs serving to couple the element to a corresponding element by engagement between the sidewalls of the latter element, said primary coupling studs being arranged with their axes in the corner of squares, each element having secondary studs within the hollow space of .the element for engagement with four primary studs of a block of identical proportions, said toy building set comprising at least two elements, a smaller one of which is considered as a base element of agiven basic module with respect to external dimensions andposi- -tio'nin:'g"of coupling studs, a larg er second element having a

Claims (7)

1. A toy building set of the type comprising downwardly open, rectangular, box-shaped building elements, each of which on the outer surface opposite the open side is provided with an even number, not less than four, of primary coupling studs serving to couple the element to a corresponding element by engagement between the sidewalls of the latter element said primary coupling studs being arranged with their axes in the corner of squares, said toy building set comprising at least two types of elements, smaller-type elements and larger-type elements, the smaller-type elements having a given basic module with respect to external dimensions and positioning of coupling studs, having a secondary stud arranged within the hollow space of the element centrally in relation to each square formed by the axes of the primary studs and so dimensioned as to engage four primary studs of another element of the same basic module, the larger-type elements having a module which is an integral multiple of the said basic module, its primary coupling studs being tubular, the external diameter of the secondary studs of the smaller-type elements being equal to the internal diameter of said primary studs of the larger-type elements and to the space between adjacent primary studs on such larger-type elements whereby adjacent secondary studs of a smaller-type element are capable of being gripped alternately within and between adjacent primary coupling studs of a largertype element.
2. A toy building set according to claim 1, characterized in that the ratio of the outer radius ''''A'''' of the said tubular primary studs to the radius ''''a'''' of the primary studs of the base element and its wall thickness ''''b'''' is substantially as follows: A a+(a+b) (2- 2).
3. A toy building set according to claim 1, characterized in that in the inner face of the sidewalls of the large elements there are recesses for receiving the primary studs of small elements.
4. A toy building set according to claim 1, characterized in that a b 2.
5. A toy building set of the type comprising downwardly open, box-shaped building elements, each of which on the outer surface opposite the open side is provided with primary coupling studs serving to couple the element to a corresponding element by engagement between the sidewalls of the latter element said primary coupling studs being arranged with their axes in the corner of squares, said toy building set comprising at least two elements, a smaller one of which is considered as a base element of a given basic module with respect to external dimensions and positioning of coupling studs, said base element having at least three secondary studs within the hollow space of the element so dimensioned as to engage centrally four primary studs of another element of the same basic module, a larger second element having a module which is an integral multiple of the said basic module, its primary coupling studs being tubular, the external diameter of the secondary studs of the base element being equal to the internal diameter of said primary stUds of the second element and to the space between adjacent primary studs on said secondary element, whereby adjacent secondary studs are capable of being gripped alternately within and between adjacent primary coupling studs of said larger element.
6. A building set comprising at least two box-shaped building elements, a smaller one and a large one which has a module which is an integral multiple of that of the small one, each having sidewalls, a top wall, the large one having at least two studs on the upper surface of said top walls and the small one having at least three projections on the under surface of its top wall, the studs of said larger block being hollow and having an inside diameter equal to that of the under surface projections of the smaller block and being so spaced that the shortest path between the external surface of adjacent studs is substantially equal to the outside diameter of the projections of the smaller block.
7. A toy building set of the type comprising downwardly open, box-shaped building elements, each of which on the outer surface opposite the open side is provided with primary coupling studs serving to couple the element to a corresponding element by engagement between the sidewalls of the latter element, said primary coupling studs being arranged with their axes in the corner of squares, each element having secondary studs within the hollow space of the element for engagement with four primary studs of a block of identical proportions, said toy building set comprising at least two elements, a smaller one of which is considered as a base element of a given basic module with respect to external dimensions and positioning of coupling studs, a larger second element having a module, its primary coupling studs being tubular, the external diameter of the secondary studs of the base element being equal to the internal diameter of said primary studs of the second element and to the space between adjacent primary studs of said second element, the secondary studs of the larger element having cavities adapted to accommodate primary studs of the smaller element.
US3597875A 1967-11-29 1968-11-18 Toy building set Expired - Lifetime US3597875A (en)

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DK597367A DK120627C (en) 1967-11-29 1967-11-29 Toy building sets.
DE1678326 1968-02-03

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FR (1) FR1599102A (en)
GB (1) GB1231489A (en)
NL (1) NL160491C (en)

Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4744780A (en) * 1986-02-06 1988-05-17 Tyco Industries, Inc. Adapter block
US4919635A (en) * 1988-12-19 1990-04-24 The Ritvik Group Inc. Toy construction assembly
US5057049A (en) * 1990-04-06 1991-10-15 Kaczperski Thomas E Hexagonal-shaped toy building block
US5238438A (en) * 1990-12-11 1993-08-24 Connector Set Limited Partnership Construction toy and adapter
WO1997010036A1 (en) * 1995-09-14 1997-03-20 Lego A/S A construction building set
US5848927A (en) * 1994-09-29 1998-12-15 Interlego Ag Stackable block system
US5865661A (en) * 1997-10-03 1999-02-02 Parvia Corporation Toy vehicular drive apparatus
EP0612262B1 (en) * 1991-11-06 1999-03-10 Lego A/S A toy building set
US5888114A (en) * 1996-02-16 1999-03-30 Aesop, Inc. Modular storage system, components, accessories, and applications to structural systems and toy construction sets and the like
US5924905A (en) * 1997-09-24 1999-07-20 Parvia Corporation Modular terrain for a toy building set
US5947787A (en) * 1997-09-24 1999-09-07 Parvia Corporation Modular lattice substructure for a toy building set
US5951356A (en) * 1997-10-27 1999-09-14 Parvia Corporation Modular lattice substructure for a toy building set having columns and foundations
US5993283A (en) * 1997-09-30 1999-11-30 Parvia Corporation Modular buildings for a toy building set
US6007401A (en) * 1997-10-03 1999-12-28 Parvia Corporation Optoelectric remote control apparatus for guiding toy vehicles
US6012957A (en) * 1997-10-27 2000-01-11 Parvia Corporation Single beam optoelectric remote control apparatus for control of toys
US6102770A (en) * 1997-10-03 2000-08-15 Parvia Corporation Toy vehicular electromechanical guidance apparatus
US6126506A (en) * 1998-12-11 2000-10-03 90Degrees, Inc. Multi-block structure with multiple rail configuration and pivot means
US6129605A (en) * 1997-09-24 2000-10-10 Parvia Corporation Modular base units for a toy building set
US6142847A (en) * 1998-12-30 2000-11-07 90Degrees, Inc. Reflective I-rail interconnector
US6398612B2 (en) * 1999-03-16 2002-06-04 Keith H. Gudger Construction toy interconnector
US6571525B2 (en) 2001-08-01 2003-06-03 J. David Coleman Construction block
US20070062891A1 (en) * 2003-10-23 2007-03-22 Parfums Christian Dior Product display shelf
US20070086607A1 (en) * 2003-07-23 2007-04-19 Holsheimer Henk H B Toy building element comprising a number of parts
US8105128B1 (en) * 2006-02-10 2012-01-31 Soerensen Soeren Christian Injection molded toy building element
US20130189028A1 (en) * 2011-11-04 2013-07-25 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Hierarchical Functional Digital Materials
WO2014100875A1 (en) * 2012-12-28 2014-07-03 DA SILVA ARAUJO BAPTISTA, Vilma Lid shaped as a building block, use thereof and method for producing the same
US20140315465A1 (en) * 2013-04-23 2014-10-23 Hasbro, Inc. Coupling Building Element For A Toy Construction Set
CN104415552A (en) * 2013-08-29 2015-03-18 龙门县佳茂聚氨酯橡胶有限公司 Conductive adapter building block
US9010059B2 (en) 2011-01-31 2015-04-21 Value Chain Network (Hong Kong) Limited Building blocks and building block fasteners
WO2015117215A1 (en) * 2014-02-10 2015-08-13 Vilma da Silva Araujo Baptista Essentially cylindrical functional cap shaped as a building block, use of the cap, method for producing the cap, and set of at least one cap
USD748981S1 (en) 2013-09-20 2016-02-09 Vilma da Silva Araujo Baptista Multi-functional cap
USD748980S1 (en) 2013-09-20 2016-02-09 Vilma da Silva Araujo Baptista Cap with projections
NL1041318A (en) * 2015-05-22 2016-11-28 Ludento B V Construction System and methods for making and development thereof.
USD806181S1 (en) * 2015-12-30 2017-12-26 Lego A/S Building block for a toy building set

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2118447B (en) * 1982-04-14 1985-10-23 Kassai Kk Block toy
FR2525486B1 (en) * 1982-04-23 1987-05-07 Kassai Kk block construction set
FR2647360B1 (en) * 1989-05-26 1991-08-23 Penillard Philippe The module as a circulating liquid, in particular water construction set
FR2713506B1 (en) * 1993-12-14 1996-01-19 Maurel Jean Yves construction set consisting of connectable elements on all sides.
GB9505383D0 (en) * 1994-04-22 1995-05-03 Fantasy Toys Inc Adaptor block for joining incompatible toy blocks
DK173697B1 (en) * 1999-01-15 2001-07-02 Lego As A building element for a toy

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Cited By (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4744780A (en) * 1986-02-06 1988-05-17 Tyco Industries, Inc. Adapter block
EP0375544A1 (en) * 1988-12-19 1990-06-27 The Ritvik Group Inc. Toy construction assembly
US4919635A (en) * 1988-12-19 1990-04-24 The Ritvik Group Inc. Toy construction assembly
US5057049A (en) * 1990-04-06 1991-10-15 Kaczperski Thomas E Hexagonal-shaped toy building block
US5238438A (en) * 1990-12-11 1993-08-24 Connector Set Limited Partnership Construction toy and adapter
EP0612262B1 (en) * 1991-11-06 1999-03-10 Lego A/S A toy building set
US5848927A (en) * 1994-09-29 1998-12-15 Interlego Ag Stackable block system
WO1997010036A1 (en) * 1995-09-14 1997-03-20 Lego A/S A construction building set
US6200187B1 (en) 1995-09-14 2001-03-13 Interlego Ag Construction building set
US5888114A (en) * 1996-02-16 1999-03-30 Aesop, Inc. Modular storage system, components, accessories, and applications to structural systems and toy construction sets and the like
US5924905A (en) * 1997-09-24 1999-07-20 Parvia Corporation Modular terrain for a toy building set
US5947787A (en) * 1997-09-24 1999-09-07 Parvia Corporation Modular lattice substructure for a toy building set
US6129605A (en) * 1997-09-24 2000-10-10 Parvia Corporation Modular base units for a toy building set
US5993283A (en) * 1997-09-30 1999-11-30 Parvia Corporation Modular buildings for a toy building set
US5865661A (en) * 1997-10-03 1999-02-02 Parvia Corporation Toy vehicular drive apparatus
US6007401A (en) * 1997-10-03 1999-12-28 Parvia Corporation Optoelectric remote control apparatus for guiding toy vehicles
US6102770A (en) * 1997-10-03 2000-08-15 Parvia Corporation Toy vehicular electromechanical guidance apparatus
US6012957A (en) * 1997-10-27 2000-01-11 Parvia Corporation Single beam optoelectric remote control apparatus for control of toys
US5951356A (en) * 1997-10-27 1999-09-14 Parvia Corporation Modular lattice substructure for a toy building set having columns and foundations
US6126506A (en) * 1998-12-11 2000-10-03 90Degrees, Inc. Multi-block structure with multiple rail configuration and pivot means
US6142847A (en) * 1998-12-30 2000-11-07 90Degrees, Inc. Reflective I-rail interconnector
US6398612B2 (en) * 1999-03-16 2002-06-04 Keith H. Gudger Construction toy interconnector
US6571525B2 (en) 2001-08-01 2003-06-03 J. David Coleman Construction block
US20070086607A1 (en) * 2003-07-23 2007-04-19 Holsheimer Henk H B Toy building element comprising a number of parts
US20070062891A1 (en) * 2003-10-23 2007-03-22 Parfums Christian Dior Product display shelf
US8105128B1 (en) * 2006-02-10 2012-01-31 Soerensen Soeren Christian Injection molded toy building element
US9010059B2 (en) 2011-01-31 2015-04-21 Value Chain Network (Hong Kong) Limited Building blocks and building block fasteners
US20130189028A1 (en) * 2011-11-04 2013-07-25 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Hierarchical Functional Digital Materials
US9506485B2 (en) * 2011-11-04 2016-11-29 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Hierarchical functional digital materials
WO2014100875A1 (en) * 2012-12-28 2014-07-03 DA SILVA ARAUJO BAPTISTA, Vilma Lid shaped as a building block, use thereof and method for producing the same
US9539519B2 (en) * 2012-12-28 2017-01-10 Vilma da Silva Araujo Baptista Lid shaped as a building block, use thereof and method for producing the same
US20150336019A1 (en) * 2012-12-28 2015-11-26 Vilma da Silva Araujo Baptista Lid shaped as a building block, use thereof and method for producing the same
US20140315465A1 (en) * 2013-04-23 2014-10-23 Hasbro, Inc. Coupling Building Element For A Toy Construction Set
CN104415552B (en) * 2013-08-29 2017-07-28 龙门县佳茂聚氨酯橡胶有限公司 Conductive adapter blocks
CN104415552A (en) * 2013-08-29 2015-03-18 龙门县佳茂聚氨酯橡胶有限公司 Conductive adapter building block
USD748981S1 (en) 2013-09-20 2016-02-09 Vilma da Silva Araujo Baptista Multi-functional cap
USD748980S1 (en) 2013-09-20 2016-02-09 Vilma da Silva Araujo Baptista Cap with projections
WO2015117215A1 (en) * 2014-02-10 2015-08-13 Vilma da Silva Araujo Baptista Essentially cylindrical functional cap shaped as a building block, use of the cap, method for producing the cap, and set of at least one cap
NL1041318A (en) * 2015-05-22 2016-11-28 Ludento B V Construction System and methods for making and development thereof.
USD806181S1 (en) * 2015-12-30 2017-12-26 Lego A/S Building block for a toy building set

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB1231489A (en) 1971-05-12 application
NL160491C (en) 1979-11-15 grant
JPS4928138B1 (en) 1974-07-24 grant
NL6816435A (en) 1969-06-02 application
FR1599102A (en) 1970-07-15 grant
NL160491B (en) 1979-06-15 application

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