US3512876A - Dipolar electro-optic structures - Google Patents

Dipolar electro-optic structures Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3512876A
US3512876A US3512876DA US3512876A US 3512876 A US3512876 A US 3512876A US 3512876D A US3512876D A US 3512876DA US 3512876 A US3512876 A US 3512876A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
particles
dipolar
electro
light
cell
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Alvin M Marks
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ALVIN M MARKS
Original Assignee
Alvin M Marks
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Alvin M Marks filed Critical Alvin M Marks
Priority to US37883664A priority Critical
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3512876A publication Critical patent/US3512876A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour 
    • G02F1/17Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on variable-absorption elements not provided for in groups G02F1/015 - G02F1/169
    • G02F1/172Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour  based on variable-absorption elements not provided for in groups G02F1/015 - G02F1/169 based on a suspension of orientable dipolar particles, e.g. suspended particles displays

Description

' A. M. MARKS DIPOLAR ELECTED-OPTIC STRUCTURES May 19, 1970 18 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 29, 1964 I NVENTOR. W M Mazes BY QZK'Z w: 21

A'fffien/c' May 19, 197-0 A. M. MARKS 3,512,876

BIPOLAR ELECTRO-OPTIC STRUCTURES Filed June 29, 1964 18 Sheets-Sheet 15 4172244427444 AZEJ/Z/C F/ G. INVENTOR ,477UZA/EY May 19, 1,970 A. M. MARKS 3, 1

DIPOLAR ELECTED-OPTIC STRUCTURES Filed June 29, 1964 18 Sheets-Sheet 5 6 F/ G 23 WQVEZE/ V'TA F/ 6. 27 PHYS/('94 42455 555/0 7( T gm 1 @I Zip/19770 I N VENTOR. #4 v//\/ M Mmex s l /m new;

May 19, 1970 A M, MARKS 3,512,876

BIPOLAR ELECTED-OPTIC STRUCTURES 7 Filed June 29, 1964 8 l8 Sheets-Sheet 6 Z4A/0&M Mae/4 44 5x far/a0 0/64/20/6 597/ b I I 0 /0 20 30 & 5'0 6'0 70 I NVE N TOR.

May 19, A. M. MARKS I BIPOLAR ELECTRO-OPTIC STRUCTURES Filed June 29, 1964 18 Sheets-Sheet 7 [um/E (gm .4: A/TEflT/OA/ 1,5 ,3 5'

A 0 89 x /0 a. 200 22 6 5 o. 35 x/@ a. 040 44 l g l l May 19, 1970 A. M. MARKS 3,512,876

DIPOLAR ELECTRO-QPTIC STRUCTURES Filed June 29, 1964 l8 SheetS-Sheet 9 a FIG. 44

dur

May 19, 1970 Filed June 29, 1964 A. M. MARKS 3,512,876

| l I l l 50 m A50 2M 250 240 350 INVENTOF ,441/m/ M M42 5 f/Mi fll/zzosicm/as May 19, 1970 A. M. MARKS 3,512,876

BIPOLAR ELECTRO-OPTIC STRUCTURES Filed June 29, 1964 l8 SheetsSheet 12 aA/cf/we Arm/v a. 05 4/75. A/ P14?! P52 (M sasp /vs/m/ 1 5605/ r v 25 c. 5.

/ z 5 4 J 6 l l I l I I l May 19, 1970 A. M. MARKS DIPOLAR ELECTRO-OPTIC STRUCTURES l8 Sheets-Sheet 14 Filed June 29, 1964 f d a INVENTOR 4i V//\/ M M ygg A. M. MARKS 3,512,876

18 Sheets-Sheet 15 /4 M M e i/gima 1 mm A raeA/f May 19, 1970 DIPOLAR ELECTRO-OPTIC STRUCTURES Filed June 29, 1964 n" R. O i W W E 2 G F 1 IIII I f 3 vb u i m 4 fi n J .fllllllill; 4 9 9 3 a FIG.4OI

FIG. 42

May 19, 1970 A. M. MARKS BIPOLAR ELECTRO-OPTIC STRUCTURES Filed June 29, 1964 FIG. 45

18 Sheets-Sheet l6 z; /6 3 T I L 5 200 v \50 i P/Pdf a m F' .5529

Paar

INVENTOR ArraeMa/s United States Patent Office 3,512,876 Patented May 19, 1970 3,512,876 DIPOLAR ELECTRO-OPTIC STRUCTURES Alvin M. Marks, 153-16 10th Ave., Whitestone, N.Y. '11357 Filed June 29, 1964, Ser. No. 378,836 Int. Cl. G021? 1/18, 1/30 US. Cl. 350-267 16 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An electro-optic light controlling device in which a suspension of minute assymetric particles having at least one dimension of the order of A/Zm are subjected to a varying electrical field for the purpose of controlling transmitted or reflected light. Various types of assymetric particles are disclosed.

This invention relates to methods and apparatus for controlling light and related forms of electromagnetic radiation. In particular, this invention relates to novel electro-optical media comprising dipolar particle suspensions and novel methods and apparatus for the electrical or magnetic control of the optical properties of the media by orienting and disorienting the dipolar particles in the suspension.

It has previously been suggested to employ a suspension of orientable dipolar particles as a light-controlling element, and to orient the particles in such a suspension by the application of an external electric or magnetic force field. Devices of this general type that have so far been proposed, however, have had little use because of a number of important deficiencies. One of such prior art faults was the tendency of the oriented particles to coagulate or clump together, rather than remain uniformly dispersed. Another shortcoming was that the optical properties of the devices, either in the oriented or disoriented condition, were of a low order. Thus, when such a suspension Was switched from maximum transmittance to minimum transmittance, or maximum reflectance to minimum reflectance, the obtainable ratios of these transmittances, or reflectances, were too small. Moreover, clear suspensions of dipolar particles, free from light scatter, were not available. Furthermore, the response of such a system to an applied electric or magnetic force field tended to be slow. Orientation and disorientation control techniques were lacking. Consequently, prior art devices were not suitable for incorporation into most electro-optical systems. In general the underlying physical laws gverning electrodichroic systems were not well understood, and the physical parameters of such systems were relatively unknown.

DEFINITIONS Electrodichroic systems as used herein means, dipolar suspensions which exhibit changes in optical properties upon the application of electric or magnetic fields.

Optical density is defined as the negative logarithm to the base of the light transmittance of an optical element. Thus, if the element is completely transparent, it transmits 100% of the incident light, the transmittance is 1.00, and the optical density is -log 1.0, or 0.

Similarly, if the element transmits 10% of the incident light, the transmittance is 0.10 and the optical density is:

Similarly, if an element transmits 1% of the incident light, the transmittance is 0.01, and the optical density is 2. In the same way an element that transmits 0.1% of the incident light corresponds to a transmittance of 0.001, and an optical density of 3, etc.

The electrodichroic ratio is defined as the ratio of the optical density in the opaque condition for dipoles in random orientation, to the optical density in the transparent condition for dipoles partially or completely oriented in the electric field direction.

The parallel electrodichroic ratio refers to the electric field applied parallel to the light path, and the normal electrodichroic ratio refers to the electric field applied normal to the light path.

For most eflYective performance, an electro-optical shutter should be characterized by an electrodichroic ratio of preferably 10 or more.

An electrodichroic ratio of 15, therefore, signifies that the optical density of the shutter in the opaque condition is 15 times that of optical density of the same shutter in the transparent condition.

As a specific example, a shutter capable of transmitting 60% of the incident light in the transparent state, and only 0.1% of the incident light when in the opaque state, would have the following optical densities:

Transparent:

D =log (/60) =0.22 Opaque:

=log 100/ 0.1):3

The electrodichroic ratio of such a shutter, then would be:

The electrodichroic response is defined as the rate of change of electrodichroic ratio with respect to the change in the electric field intensity.

The electrodichroic sensitivity is defined as the rate of change of electrodichroic ratio with respect to the change in electric field intensity, per unit of mass in a unit area in the optical path. Thus the electrodichroic sensitivity is the electrodichroic response per unit mass of a dipole suspension.

Relaxation means the disorientation in the absence of aligning field of previously aligned dipolar particles.

To simplify description of various embodiments of the invention and the methods of making and using the same, it is sometimes useful to employ the following convention: The plane of the cell (which in most embodiments is a thin, fiat container) is taken as the XY plane, X generally being considered the horizontal and Y the vertical aXis. The direction of incident light normal to the plane of the cell is taken as the Z axis. The X, Y and Z axes are all mutually perpendicular.

An object of the present invention, is to provide improved dipole particle suspensions, and methods and apparatus for electrically controlling light and other electromagnetic radiation.

Another object is to provide light-controlling compositions Whose optical properties can be varied electrically without the use of mechanical moving parts.

Still another object is to provide light-controlling compositions and devices as aforesaid, characterized by, improved electro-optical characteristics, greater electrodichroic ratios, greater electrodichroic sensitivity and requiring less time to randomize an oriented suspension in the absence of an electric field.

A further object is to provide an electro-optical sheet having an electrodichroic ratio in excess of 10.

Another object still is to provide a light controlling sheet having electrical means for elfecting dipole relaxation.

Another object is to provide a light controlling sheet having electrical means for effecting dipole orientation or relaxation, which is selectively confined to a particular area.

Yet another object is to provide a thin electro-optical light control device of large area also herein termed a panel or shutter, suitable for use as an electrically controlled variable density window, visor, optical elements, or ophthalmic lens.

A feature of the present invention is the use as a lightcontrolling medium of a suspension of dipole particles having optimum optical and electrical properties resulting from novel relationships established amongst the physical dimensions, resistivity, concentration, and suspending fluid viscosity.

Still another feature is the utilization of the antenna effect influencing the optical properties of dipolar particles, as hereinafter more fully described.

Another feature of the present invention is the control of alignment rise time to maximum transmittance of a suspension of dipolar particles by correlation of concen tration of the dipolar particles, and the viscosity of the suspending fluid, and the application of pulsed electric fields of high intensity.

Another feature is the use of an electric or magnetic field to orient or disorient the dipole particles in such a suspension.

Another feature is the use of current-carrying shielding means for confining a reorienting electric field.

Still another feature is the use of transparent conductive films which serve as electrode means of current-carrying shielding means for establishing different orientations of the dipolar particles to change the transmittance or reflectance of the device.

Another feature of the invention is the use of the curtain effect, and non-current carrying transparent shielding electrodes to reorient a dipolar suspension.

A further feature of this invention is a novel electrooptical iris or curtain diaphragm without mechanical moving parts.

Other objects, advantages, and novel features of the present invention will become apparent from the following more complete description and claims.

In one form, the present invention contemplates a lightcontrolling device employing a suspension of particles hereinafter referred to as dipoles or dipole particles, said particles having at least one dimension large relative to at least one other dimension. The suspended particles are orientable in response to an applied electric, magnetic or mechanical shear field. The application of a nonconstant force field to said suspension enables maximum alignment to be attained without coagulation of the particles.

In another form, this invention contemplates an electrooptical light control device having a cell containing a suspension of dipole particles in a transparent medium, capable of interacting with electromagnetic radiation, said cell having spaced transparent walls and being provided with spaced, transparent electrically conductive films generally parallel with the transparent walls. This embodiment also has a pair of electrodes at oppoosite edges of the cell, near the edges of the transparent walls, and insulated from the conductive films. Such a cell is made transparent by orienting the dipole particles in the suspension with their long dimensions normal to the transparent walls. Orientation is achieved by imposing an electrical potential between the transparent conductive films. The cell is rendered opaque by starting to orient the long dimensions of the dipole particles parallel with the transparent walls, but stopping the orienting influence by imposing an electrical potential of given direction between the electrodes at the edges of the cell, while the particles are in an intermediate, random phase.

In this phase of operation, the field between the two edge electrodes is confined within the cell by simultaneously passing an electric current through each of the conductive films. Passage of such a current effectively prevents the lines of force from short-circuiting through the conductive films and thus by-pass'lng the interior of the cell where the dipole particles are located.

In still another form, this invention contemplates an electro-optical light control device comprising in combination a first cell and a second cell, each of which is enclosed in part by generally parallel, spaced, transparent walls, both of said cells being located in the space between a pair of generally parallel spaced conductive loops. The first cell has a first pair of electrodes located at opposite edges of the cell, and a second pair of electrodes, angularly spaced from the first pair of electrodes by approximately degrees measured in a plane parallel with the transparent walls. The shutter is rendered transparent by imposing an electrical potential between the conductive loops, thus creating an electrostatic field which tends to orient the particles in both cells normal to the transparent walls. When it is desired to render the cell opaque, the loops are de-energized and each of the two pairs of electrodes is connected to a source of electrical potential, thereby creating an electrical field between the first pair of electrodes in the first cell, and a second electrical field between the second pair of electrodes in the second cell. The effect of the two force fields is to orient the dipole particles in the first cell in a first direction parallel to the transparent walls, and the dipoles in the second cell in a second direction parallel to the transparent walls and perpendicular to the direction of the dipoles in the first cell. Since the dipole particles, when aligned normal to the light path, act like polarizing elements, the cross-orientation effectively blocks all but a very small proportion of the light.

The invention consists in the construction, combination and arrangement of parts and of operating steps as hereinafter more fully described and claimed, and as illustrated in the drawings, in which like parts appearing in more than one view are given the same reference numeral throughout, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a fragmentary view on an enlarged scale of an electrically responsive light-controlling structure made in accordance with the present invention showing disoriented dipole particles in a reflecting or light absorbing state.

FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. 1, showing the dipole particles in aligned orientation, with the long dimension of the particle normal to the plane of the structure, in a transmittive state.

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary view similar to FIGS. 1 and 2, showing a protective coating between the conductive coating and the dipole suspension.

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view showing a structure similar to that shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, provided with an electromagnet to effect orientation.

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the invention, showing a comparatively bulky high voltage switching device utilizing a single plane dipolar suspension and unshielded electrostatic fields for controlling the orientation of a dipolar particle suspension.

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary diagrammatic detail of a portion of the embodiment of FIG. 5, on a larger scale.

FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 6, showing another stage in the operation of the device in FIG. 5.

FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of an electrical circuit used to apply potential to the electrodes of the device in FIG 5 FIG. 9 is a fragmentary view, on a greatly enlarged scale, of a single dipole in an elementary volume of suspending fluid.

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary perspective view, similar to FIG. 1, of another embodiment of the invention, namely a refiective-absorptive panel.

FIG. 11 is a partially cut away perspective view, partially schematic, of another embodiment of the invention, in the nature of an electro-optical iris diaphragm.

FIG. 12 is a perspective View of the same electro-optic

US3512876D 1964-06-29 1964-06-29 Dipolar electro-optic structures Expired - Lifetime US3512876A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US37883664A true 1964-06-29 1964-06-29

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3512876A true US3512876A (en) 1970-05-19

Family

ID=23494729

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US3512876D Expired - Lifetime US3512876A (en) 1964-06-29 1964-06-29 Dipolar electro-optic structures

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3512876A (en)

Cited By (81)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3655267A (en) * 1970-04-01 1972-04-11 Research Frontiers Inc Light valves with high frequency excitation
US3704060A (en) * 1971-08-31 1972-11-28 Joseph T Mcnaney Electrically controllable light conducting device
US3736046A (en) * 1971-04-15 1973-05-29 Honeywell Inc Optical spot size changer
JPS4841756A (en) * 1971-09-22 1973-06-18
US3741629A (en) * 1971-10-26 1973-06-26 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Electronically variable iris or stop mechanisms
US3756700A (en) * 1972-02-09 1973-09-04 Research Frontiers Inc Method and apparatus for increasing optical density ratios of light valves
JPS48101948A (en) * 1972-04-07 1973-12-21
US3799650A (en) * 1972-04-12 1974-03-26 Research Frontiers Inc One-way light valve
JPS4940543A (en) * 1972-08-18 1974-04-16
JPS4946753A (en) * 1972-09-08 1974-05-04
JPS4953058A (en) * 1972-09-20 1974-05-23
JPS4953059A (en) * 1972-09-20 1974-05-23
JPS4953057A (en) * 1972-09-20 1974-05-23
JPS4953056A (en) * 1972-09-20 1974-05-23
JPS4960751A (en) * 1972-10-12 1974-06-12
JPS4960938A (en) * 1972-10-16 1974-06-13
JPS4960939A (en) * 1972-10-16 1974-06-13
JPS4984642A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-08-14
JPS4984669A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-08-14
US3841732A (en) * 1970-03-04 1974-10-15 A Marks Dipolar electro-optic structures and method
US3876288A (en) * 1972-09-08 1975-04-08 West Electric Co Light controlling device
US3876287A (en) * 1973-06-29 1975-04-08 Ibm Birefringent liquid crystal structure
US3883227A (en) * 1972-06-05 1975-05-13 Ise Electronics Corp Liquid crystal display devices
JPS5068152A (en) * 1973-10-19 1975-06-07
US3891307A (en) * 1973-03-20 1975-06-24 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Phase control of the voltages applied to opposite electrodes for a cholesteric to nematic phase transition display
US3900417A (en) * 1970-02-13 1975-08-19 Alvin M Marks Method and apparatus for forming submicron dipole particles
US3910687A (en) * 1972-08-18 1975-10-07 West Electric Co Light control device
US3930719A (en) * 1973-04-09 1976-01-06 Xerox Corporation Edge brightness display and method using a material exhibiting dielectric anisotropy
JPS519602Y1 (en) * 1970-09-14 1976-03-15
US4072411A (en) * 1976-05-03 1978-02-07 Eastman Kodak Company Display device having image sense reversal capability
US4099854A (en) * 1976-10-12 1978-07-11 The Unites States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Optical notch filter utilizing electric dipole resonance absorption
US4212519A (en) * 1978-03-01 1980-07-15 Eastman Kodak Company Light control device and fabrication methods therefor
US4247175A (en) * 1978-10-31 1981-01-27 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing improved light valve suspension
US4270841A (en) * 1978-10-31 1981-06-02 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing suspension of perhalide of alkaloid acid salt
US4273422A (en) * 1978-08-10 1981-06-16 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing liquid suspension including polymer stabilizing system
US4294518A (en) * 1978-11-30 1981-10-13 The Bendix Corporation Dual mode light valve display
US4311361A (en) * 1980-03-13 1982-01-19 Burroughs Corporation Electrophoretic display using a non-Newtonian fluid as a threshold device
US4442019A (en) * 1978-05-26 1984-04-10 Marks Alvin M Electroordered dipole suspension
US4657349A (en) * 1984-08-14 1987-04-14 Temple University Electro- and magneto-optic devices
US4714324A (en) * 1985-09-19 1987-12-22 Eastman Kodak Company Apparatus utilizing dispersion shear
US5017007A (en) * 1989-07-27 1991-05-21 Milne Christopher G Apparatus and microbase for surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy system and method for producing same
US5364689A (en) * 1992-02-21 1994-11-15 Hashimoto Forming Industry Co., Ltd. Painting with magnetically formed pattern and painted product with magnetically formed pattern
US5475043A (en) * 1989-09-02 1995-12-12 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Material with variable viscoelasticity
US6441945B1 (en) * 1999-08-13 2002-08-27 California Of Technology Optoelectronic device and method utilizing nanometer-scale particles
US6491416B1 (en) 2001-05-25 2002-12-10 Illume, L.L.C. Headlight masking method and apparatus
US6550943B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2003-04-22 Illume, L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US6558026B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2003-05-06 Illume, L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US20030202357A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-10-30 Illume, L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US20030206418A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-11-06 Illume, L.L.C. Taillight apparatus and method of making
US20040047579A1 (en) * 2002-09-06 2004-03-11 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Light guide containing light-scattering particles arranged to realize desired light-output efficiency and method for designing the same
US20050185104A1 (en) * 2002-07-25 2005-08-25 Genewave Optically active glazing
US7036966B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2006-05-02 Illume, Inc. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US7312916B2 (en) * 2002-08-07 2007-12-25 E Ink Corporation Electrophoretic media containing specularly reflective particles
US7724419B1 (en) * 2008-12-11 2010-05-25 Chungwa Picture Tubes, Ltd. Display
US20100302624A1 (en) * 2005-09-08 2010-12-02 Spd Control Systems Corporation Suspended particle device electronic control processes
WO2013104734A1 (en) * 2012-01-12 2013-07-18 Visitret Displays OÜ Display device with suspended ferroelectric particles
US20140157896A1 (en) * 2011-11-22 2014-06-12 Giorgio Casinovi Method and apparatus for self-calibration of gyroscopes
US9744429B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2017-08-29 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change and restitution matching
US9764216B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2017-09-19 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change to different colors dependent on location in variable-color region of single normal color
USD799598S1 (en) 2016-07-22 2017-10-10 Target Brands, Inc. Interactive amusement device
US9789381B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2017-10-17 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with pressure spreading and pressure-sensitive color change
US9855485B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-01-02 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with intelligently controlled impact-sensitive color change
US9925415B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-03-27 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change chosen to accommodate color vision deficiency
US10004948B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-06-26 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color changing incorporated into tennis court
US10010751B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-07-03 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color changing incorporated into football or baseball/softball field
US10030961B2 (en) 2015-11-27 2018-07-24 General Electric Company Gap measuring device
US10071283B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-09-11 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color changing incorporated into sports-playing structure such as basketball or volleyball court
US10112101B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-10-30 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change and sound generation
US10130844B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-11-20 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change to different colors dependent on impact conditions
US10252108B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-09 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change dependent on object tracking
US10258827B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color-change and image generation
US10258859B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with visible record of color-changed print area at impact location
US10258860B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with compensation to increase size of color-changed print area
US10258825B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with separate impact-sensitive and color-change components
US10258826B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with post-impact duration-adjustable impact-sensitive color change
US10279215B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-05-07 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change of pre-established deformation-controlled extended color-change duration
US10288500B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-05-14 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure using electrode assembly for impact-sensitive color change
US10300336B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-05-28 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with cell arrangement for impact-sensing color change
US10328306B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-06-25 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change and overlying protection or/and surface color control
US10357703B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-07-23 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure having rapid impact-sensitive color change achieved with separate impact-sensing and color-change components
US10363474B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-07-30 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change by light emission

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1955923A (en) * 1932-08-11 1934-04-24 Land Edwin Herbert Light valve and method of operation
US2543793A (en) * 1946-11-16 1951-03-06 Alvin M Marks Three-dimensional intercommunicating system
US2595616A (en) * 1942-02-17 1952-05-06 Products & Licensing Corp Light diffusing surface made out of electrooptical elements controlled electrostatically
US3040625A (en) * 1958-09-12 1962-06-26 Westinghouse Electric Corp Beam scanning apparatus

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1955923A (en) * 1932-08-11 1934-04-24 Land Edwin Herbert Light valve and method of operation
US2595616A (en) * 1942-02-17 1952-05-06 Products & Licensing Corp Light diffusing surface made out of electrooptical elements controlled electrostatically
US2543793A (en) * 1946-11-16 1951-03-06 Alvin M Marks Three-dimensional intercommunicating system
US3040625A (en) * 1958-09-12 1962-06-26 Westinghouse Electric Corp Beam scanning apparatus

Cited By (108)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3900417A (en) * 1970-02-13 1975-08-19 Alvin M Marks Method and apparatus for forming submicron dipole particles
US3841732A (en) * 1970-03-04 1974-10-15 A Marks Dipolar electro-optic structures and method
US3655267A (en) * 1970-04-01 1972-04-11 Research Frontiers Inc Light valves with high frequency excitation
JPS519602Y1 (en) * 1970-09-14 1976-03-15
US3736046A (en) * 1971-04-15 1973-05-29 Honeywell Inc Optical spot size changer
US3704060A (en) * 1971-08-31 1972-11-28 Joseph T Mcnaney Electrically controllable light conducting device
JPS549895B2 (en) * 1971-09-22 1979-04-28
JPS4841756A (en) * 1971-09-22 1973-06-18
US3741629A (en) * 1971-10-26 1973-06-26 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Electronically variable iris or stop mechanisms
US3756700A (en) * 1972-02-09 1973-09-04 Research Frontiers Inc Method and apparatus for increasing optical density ratios of light valves
JPS48101948A (en) * 1972-04-07 1973-12-21
US3799650A (en) * 1972-04-12 1974-03-26 Research Frontiers Inc One-way light valve
US3883227A (en) * 1972-06-05 1975-05-13 Ise Electronics Corp Liquid crystal display devices
JPS4940543A (en) * 1972-08-18 1974-04-16
JPS5347704B2 (en) * 1972-08-18 1978-12-22
US3910687A (en) * 1972-08-18 1975-10-07 West Electric Co Light control device
JPS5414933B2 (en) * 1972-09-08 1979-06-11
JPS4946753A (en) * 1972-09-08 1974-05-04
US3876288A (en) * 1972-09-08 1975-04-08 West Electric Co Light controlling device
JPS5347707B2 (en) * 1972-09-20 1978-12-22
JPS4953059A (en) * 1972-09-20 1974-05-23
JPS5347706B2 (en) * 1972-09-20 1978-12-22
JPS4953058A (en) * 1972-09-20 1974-05-23
JPS5347705B2 (en) * 1972-09-20 1978-12-22
JPS4953057A (en) * 1972-09-20 1974-05-23
JPS4953056A (en) * 1972-09-20 1974-05-23
JPS4960751A (en) * 1972-10-12 1974-06-12
JPS5348106B2 (en) * 1972-10-12 1978-12-26
JPS5348107B2 (en) * 1972-10-16 1978-12-26
JPS5431692B2 (en) * 1972-10-16 1979-10-09
JPS4960938A (en) * 1972-10-16 1974-06-13
JPS4960939A (en) * 1972-10-16 1974-06-13
JPS5414934B2 (en) * 1972-12-20 1979-06-11
JPS4984669A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-08-14
JPS4984642A (en) * 1972-12-20 1974-08-14
JPS5348108B2 (en) * 1972-12-20 1978-12-26
US3891307A (en) * 1973-03-20 1975-06-24 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Phase control of the voltages applied to opposite electrodes for a cholesteric to nematic phase transition display
US3930719A (en) * 1973-04-09 1976-01-06 Xerox Corporation Edge brightness display and method using a material exhibiting dielectric anisotropy
US3876287A (en) * 1973-06-29 1975-04-08 Ibm Birefringent liquid crystal structure
JPS5415217B2 (en) * 1973-10-19 1979-06-13
JPS5068152A (en) * 1973-10-19 1975-06-07
US4072411A (en) * 1976-05-03 1978-02-07 Eastman Kodak Company Display device having image sense reversal capability
US4099854A (en) * 1976-10-12 1978-07-11 The Unites States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Optical notch filter utilizing electric dipole resonance absorption
US4212519A (en) * 1978-03-01 1980-07-15 Eastman Kodak Company Light control device and fabrication methods therefor
US4442019A (en) * 1978-05-26 1984-04-10 Marks Alvin M Electroordered dipole suspension
US4273422A (en) * 1978-08-10 1981-06-16 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing liquid suspension including polymer stabilizing system
US4247175A (en) * 1978-10-31 1981-01-27 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing improved light valve suspension
US4270841A (en) * 1978-10-31 1981-06-02 Research Frontiers Incorporated Light valve containing suspension of perhalide of alkaloid acid salt
US4294518A (en) * 1978-11-30 1981-10-13 The Bendix Corporation Dual mode light valve display
US4311361A (en) * 1980-03-13 1982-01-19 Burroughs Corporation Electrophoretic display using a non-Newtonian fluid as a threshold device
US4657349A (en) * 1984-08-14 1987-04-14 Temple University Electro- and magneto-optic devices
US4714324A (en) * 1985-09-19 1987-12-22 Eastman Kodak Company Apparatus utilizing dispersion shear
US5017007A (en) * 1989-07-27 1991-05-21 Milne Christopher G Apparatus and microbase for surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy system and method for producing same
US5475043A (en) * 1989-09-02 1995-12-12 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho Material with variable viscoelasticity
US5364689A (en) * 1992-02-21 1994-11-15 Hashimoto Forming Industry Co., Ltd. Painting with magnetically formed pattern and painted product with magnetically formed pattern
US5630877A (en) * 1992-02-21 1997-05-20 Hashimoto Forming Industry Co., Ltd. Painting with magnetically formed pattern and painted product with magnetically formed pattern
US6441945B1 (en) * 1999-08-13 2002-08-27 California Of Technology Optoelectronic device and method utilizing nanometer-scale particles
US20030185011A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-10-02 Illume, L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US6550943B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2003-04-22 Illume, L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US6558026B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2003-05-06 Illume, L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US6491416B1 (en) 2001-05-25 2002-12-10 Illume, L.L.C. Headlight masking method and apparatus
US20030202357A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-10-30 Illume, L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US20030206418A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2003-11-06 Illume, L.L.C. Taillight apparatus and method of making
US7036966B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2006-05-02 Illume, Inc. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US6902307B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2005-06-07 Illume, L.L.C. Taillight apparatus and method of making
US7029151B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2006-04-18 Illume L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US6913375B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2005-07-05 Illume, L.L.C. Lamp masking method and apparatus
US20050185104A1 (en) * 2002-07-25 2005-08-25 Genewave Optically active glazing
US7312916B2 (en) * 2002-08-07 2007-12-25 E Ink Corporation Electrophoretic media containing specularly reflective particles
US6907177B2 (en) * 2002-09-06 2005-06-14 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Light guide containing light-scattering particles arranged to realize desired light-output efficiency and method for designing the same
US20040047579A1 (en) * 2002-09-06 2004-03-11 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Light guide containing light-scattering particles arranged to realize desired light-output efficiency and method for designing the same
US9261752B2 (en) 2005-09-08 2016-02-16 Spd Control Systems Corporation Enhanced functionality of SPD electronic controllers
US9658509B2 (en) 2005-09-08 2017-05-23 Spd Control Systems Corporation Multi-nodal SPD controller networking
US20100302624A1 (en) * 2005-09-08 2010-12-02 Spd Control Systems Corporation Suspended particle device electronic control processes
US20100308207A1 (en) * 2005-09-08 2010-12-09 Spd Control Systems Corporation Application independent operational controls of a suspended particle device
US8098421B2 (en) 2005-09-08 2012-01-17 SPD Control Systems Corporation Center for Wireless & Info. Technology Application independent operational controls of a suspended particle device
US8120839B2 (en) * 2005-09-08 2012-02-21 Spd Control Systems Corporation Suspended particle device electronic control processes
US8792154B2 (en) 2005-09-08 2014-07-29 Spd Control Systems Corporation Electronic operations of a suspended particle device
US20100149628A1 (en) * 2008-12-11 2010-06-17 Chunghwa Picture Tubes, Ltd. Display
US7724419B1 (en) * 2008-12-11 2010-05-25 Chungwa Picture Tubes, Ltd. Display
US9915532B2 (en) 2011-11-22 2018-03-13 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method and apparatus for self-calibration of gyroscopes
US20140157896A1 (en) * 2011-11-22 2014-06-12 Giorgio Casinovi Method and apparatus for self-calibration of gyroscopes
US9347775B2 (en) * 2011-11-22 2016-05-24 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Method and apparatus for self-calibration of gyroscopes
WO2013104734A1 (en) * 2012-01-12 2013-07-18 Visitret Displays OÜ Display device with suspended ferroelectric particles
US10030961B2 (en) 2015-11-27 2018-07-24 General Electric Company Gap measuring device
USD799598S1 (en) 2016-07-22 2017-10-10 Target Brands, Inc. Interactive amusement device
US10363474B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-07-30 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change by light emission
US9855485B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-01-02 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with intelligently controlled impact-sensitive color change
US9789381B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2017-10-17 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with pressure spreading and pressure-sensitive color change
US9925415B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-03-27 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change chosen to accommodate color vision deficiency
US10004948B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-06-26 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color changing incorporated into tennis court
US10010751B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-07-03 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color changing incorporated into football or baseball/softball field
US9764216B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2017-09-19 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change to different colors dependent on location in variable-color region of single normal color
US10071283B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-09-11 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color changing incorporated into sports-playing structure such as basketball or volleyball court
US9744429B1 (en) 2016-11-03 2017-08-29 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change and restitution matching
US10130844B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-11-20 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change to different colors dependent on impact conditions
US10252108B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-09 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change dependent on object tracking
US10258827B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color-change and image generation
US10258859B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with visible record of color-changed print area at impact location
US10258860B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with compensation to increase size of color-changed print area
US10258825B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with separate impact-sensitive and color-change components
US10258826B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-04-16 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with post-impact duration-adjustable impact-sensitive color change
US10279215B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-05-07 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change of pre-established deformation-controlled extended color-change duration
US10288500B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-05-14 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure using electrode assembly for impact-sensitive color change
US10300336B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-05-28 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with cell arrangement for impact-sensing color change
US10328306B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-06-25 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change and overlying protection or/and surface color control
US10357703B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2019-07-23 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure having rapid impact-sensitive color change achieved with separate impact-sensing and color-change components
US10112101B2 (en) 2016-11-03 2018-10-30 Ronald J. Meetin Information-presentation structure with impact-sensitive color change and sound generation

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3551026A (en) Control of optical properties of materials with liquid crystals
US3627408A (en) Electric field device
US3499112A (en) Electro-optical device
US3625591A (en) Liquid crystal display element
US3508809A (en) High efficiency light polarization system
US3499700A (en) Light beam deflection system
US2984825A (en) Magnetic matrix storage with bloch wall scanning
US5343313A (en) Eye protection system with heads up display
US3517206A (en) Apparatus and method for optical read-out of internal electric field
US3503670A (en) Multifrequency light processor and digital deflector
US4822145A (en) Method and apparatus utilizing waveguide and polarized light for display of dynamic images
US20040164927A1 (en) Optical device and three-dimensional display device
EP2899015A1 (en) Indefinite materials
US5276747A (en) Polarization-independent optical switch/attenuator
US20020027624A1 (en) Optical component for producing linearly polarized light
US4127322A (en) High brightness full color image light valve projection system
CA1059601A (en) Variable vergency focussing apparatus
US4019807A (en) Reflective liquid crystal light valve with hybrid field effect mode
US4969717A (en) Optical switch
US4385806A (en) Liquid crystal display with improved angle of view and response times
JP3922467B2 (en) The liquid crystal shutter
CA1219692A (en) Field sequential color display system
US6239778B1 (en) Variable light attentuating dichroic dye guest-host device
US3609002A (en) Multiple element optical memory structures using fine grain ferroelectric ceramics
US5114218A (en) Liquid crystal sunglasses with selectively color adjustable lenses