US3479784A - Construction panel - Google Patents

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US3479784A
US3479784A US3479784DA US3479784A US 3479784 A US3479784 A US 3479784A US 3479784D A US3479784D A US 3479784DA US 3479784 A US3479784 A US 3479784A
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panel
flange
portion
rib
panels
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Daniel Massagli
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Tru Lok Metal Fabricating Co Inc
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Tru Lok Metal Fabricating Co Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/26Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups
    • E04C2/284Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups at least one of the materials being insulating
    • E04C2/292Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups at least one of the materials being insulating composed of insulating material and sheet metal

Description

NOV. 25, 196g D, S G 3,479,784

CONSTRUCTION PANEL Filed Dec. 196'? 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR DAN/EL MASSAGL/ BY %QWM ATTORNEY 2 Sheets-Sheet Filed Dec. 5, 1967 INVENTOR DAN/EL MASSAGL/ Y A 7' TORNE Y nited States Patent 3,479,784 CONSTRUCTIQN PANEL Daniel Massagli, Covina, Califi, assiguor to Tru-Lok Metal Fabricating Company, Inc., San Dimas, Califi, a corporation of California Filed Dec. 5, 1967, Ser. No. 688,229 Int. Cl. EtMc 1/30; 1504b ]/62 US. Cl. 52583 1 Claim ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A sandwiched, lightweight construction panel having a light gage sheet metal external shell and a rigid foamed plastic filling the internal space of the shell, the plastic filler being bonded to the internal surfaces of the shell cavity, the foamed plastic filler being of the class of rigid polyurethane, polystyrene, or equivalent plastic composi tion, each panel is provided with cooperating, longitudinally extending connecting means that permit assembly and prevent the passage of water through the joint.

This invention relates to a novel construction panel suitable for use in a roof, wall or fence, and in particular to a panel that has improved structural properties, is an excellent insulator against heat, cold and sound, and is insect, mold and vermin proof.

Panels presently employed in the construction of roofs, wall or other types of enclosures have been made of wood, fiber glass, or a single thickness of metal, usually aluminum. Metal panels are commonly used for patio covers but these have the drawback that they transmit most of the heat or cold that comes in contact with the outside of the panel to the space below the covering, making it very diflicult to maintain a comfortable temperature inside such a structure, particularly when it is fully enclosed. Sheet metal roofs of this type have the further drawback that since the metal used to form the panels is thin, the panel possesses poor structural properties and the panels of such a roof must be supported by closely spaced purlines. This factor adds considerably to the cost of the material required for such a roof and considerably more time and labor are required for installation; the closely spaced purlines or supports greatly detract from the appearance of the finished ceiling.

I have provided by my invention a new form of structural panel that actually requires less metal than is presently used in forming the single sheet metal panels and yet the panel is structurally more rigid, permitting greater unsupported spans, thereby reducing the number' of purlines required. The panel is formed by placing a pair of thin sheet metal skins in spaced relationship to each other, and filling the space between the outer skins with a foamed plastic tiller that is securely bonded to the two sheets of v metal. Besides being strong, these panels are excellent insulators against heat, cold, sound and are absolutely bug and vermin proof.

Each panel is provided with some form of longitudinally extending rib on one side that engages a cooperating, longitudinally extending rib that is formed at the cooperating edge of the adjoining panel. A sufiicient number of panels are connected together and when laid in a substantially horizontal or vertical position, can serve to form a sturdy insulated roof, partition, fence or wall. The

thickness of each individual series of panels is determined by the load that the panel is designed to carry.

The proceding and subsequent detailed description will be better understood by referring to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 shows a transverse cross section of one form of panel that is provided with one form of inner and outer cooperating locking ribs.

FIG. 2 shows a portion of a roof formed by a number of assembled panels such as shown in FIG. 1, with the frontpiece and the internal gutter in place.

FIG. 3 shows how an external boxlike rib as in FIG. 1 connects to the internal nesting rib of the adjoining panel.

FIG. 4 shows an alternative form of panel in transverse cross section, the ends being provided with modified tongue and groove elements to permit adjacent panels to be connected. Such panels can form a watertight roof or can be used to form a wall or partition.

FIG. 5 shows a modification of the panel shown in FIG. 1 in transverse cross section, this panel being capable of supporting a greater live load than the panel shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 6 shows another form of panel that is used to span longer distances between supports and still carry the required load.

The sandwiched panel in FIG. 1 will form a watertight roof. This panel comprises external, upper, sheet metal skin 10 and lower, sheet metal skin 11, positioned in spaced relationship to each other. The side margins of skin 10 and skin 11 are combined on each side respectively and the two form the respective rib that extends longitudinally the entire length of the panel on said margins. These ribs permit each panel to connect to the corresponding ribs of the panels on each side.

External boxlike rib 12 comprises an outwardly extending flange 14 that is substantially normal to the flat surface of upper rigid skin 10. Flange 14 continues vertically for a distance to a point that is preferably higher than any other portion of skin 10, and then merges into flange 15 that is normal to flange 14 and is parallel to the surface of upper skin 10 adjoining boxlike rib 12. Flange 15 extends away from the central portion of skin 10 for a suitable distance as shown in FIG. 1 and is parallel to skin 10. Flange 15 continues until it merges into flange portion 16 that is normal to flange 15, extends toward the upper surface of skin 10 to a point that is slightly above the plane passing through the surface of skin 10, and is parallel to flange 14. The end of flange 16 merges with a short lip 17 that is normal to flange 16 and extends a short distance toward flange 14 and is parallel to the upper surface of skin 10.

The opposite side portions of upper skin 10 and lower skin 11 likewise combine to form internal rib or head 19, as previously indicated. Rib 19 can be pivotally nested in external boxlike rib 12, when adjoining panels are connected together. Internal rib 19 comprises a flange 20 that is substantially normal to the upper surface of skin member 10 and extends outwardly therefrom a short distance and then merges with an upwardly extending arcuate portion 21 that is substantially in the form of a quarter round and curves toward the central portion of skin member 10. Upper end 22 of arcuate portion 21 merges into a short horizontally extending portion 23 that is substantially parallel to the upper surface of skin 10 adjoining rib 19.

Flange 23 that merges with flange 24 that is normal to it and extends toward the upper surface of skin the length of flange 24 is such that when the end of flange 24 is seated on lip 17 of rib 12, the upper side of flange 23 will lie just slightly below the inner surface of horizontally extending flange of rib 12, likewise the distance between the outer surface of flange 24 and the flange portion 21 will be slightly less than the distance between flanges 14 and 16 of rib 12.

The outer curved surface of arcuate portion 21 is proportioned to just permit inner cooperating rib 19 to clear the inner surface of flange 14 when end of flange 24 pivots against the inner corner 26 formed between lip 17 and flange 16.

Adjoining panels are connected by their respective ribs to form a continuous deck as follows: end 25 of each internal rib 19 is rested on corner 26 of each external rib 12 so that these are in full contact with each other the entire length of the panel; the panel of rib 12 is horizontal while the panel attached to rib 19 is nearly at right angle to it. The vertical panel is pivoted from the vertical to a substantially horizontal position, and when in this position flange 23 is raised to place it in contact with the inner surface of flange 15 while the outer surface of flange 20 is placed in contact with the inner surface of flange 14. The panels are then secured to their supporting members and will lie substantially in the same horizontal plane. This is shown in detail in FIG. 3.

The panel shown in FIG. 1 shows the central portion of upper skin .10 raised to form a head 27 that extends the entire length of the panel while the outer surface of lower skin 11 is provided with curved or reenforcing grooves 28 that are small compared to 27. The space between upper skin 10 and lower skin 11 is filled with a rigid type of plastic foam such as polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam or other suitable foamable plastic substance. The foam can be made more fire resistant by incorporating fireproofing material into the plastic before it is formed into the foam. These plastic foams are identified and described by stating the number of pounds of plastic required to form one cubic foot of the foam, the lower the number of pounds of plastic used to form one cubic foot the more cellular will be the resulting foam, with a corresponding descrease in density. A foam containing approximately two pounds per cubic foot has been found to be satisfactory, such a filler is marked 29.

The preferred type of foamed plastic filler used in the panels described is a polyurethane foam that has its frothing agent incorporated in the liquid ingredients before polymerization commences and will start to expand the materials upon mixing. This form of polyurethane foam is particularly suitable for the types of cross sections that are employed in forming the panels and is capable of producing the plastic foamed filler having the required density. A frothing agent is a chemical compound that can be added to a foaming composition as a liquid and remain a liquid inside the mixer but becomes a gas at the ambient temperature and pressure of the mixing room after it leaves the mixer. One such substance that is frequently employed for this purpose is difluorodichloromethane which is a liquid under pressure but becomes a gas at room temperatures when the pressure is removed.

FIG. 2 shows a series of panels locked together in the manner previously described to form a portion of a roof that is watertight. A fascia or valence member covers the forward ends of the panels. This fascia may be any desired height, shape or size depending on the nature of the roof. The one shown in the drawing is included by way of example and is equipped with a gutter that receives any water that may drain off the ends of the panels. The fascia illustrated comprises an upper U- shaped channel 30 and a corresponding lower channel 31. These channels form the long upper and lower sides of a frame that extends the entire length of the roof. The ends of the frame (not shown) hold these two members in spaced relationship. The slots of channels 30 and 31 will face each other as shown when the frame is assembled and will retain short panel sections of the required length. These may be cut from a panel similar to the one shown in FIG. 1, or may be, as illustrated, formed from a single sheet of metal that has the same type of locking ribs at each side margin as are shown in FIG. 1. The short panel sections are locked together, inserted between channels 30 and 3.1 before the frame is completed by putting on both ends. The height of the external ribs of the sheet metal panels is just less than the space between the legs that form the sides of the U-shaped channels. These sheet metal sections 32 are generally secured to channels 30 and 31 by any suitable means such as sheet metal screws, bolts, rivets or other fastening after they have been assembled.

Gutter 33 is fastened to the surface of inner leg 34 of channel 30 and is coextensive with all of the panels that form the roof. One form of gutter is shown in FIG. 3 by way of example and comprises a horizontally disposed flange portion 35 that at its forward end merges with flange 36 that is normal to it and extends downwardly the required length. The upper portion of flange 36 is secured to upper channel 30 by any of the means described above for securing the panels to the frame. The lower end of flange 36 merges into a third flange 37 that is normal to flange 36, extends rearwardly and is substantially parallel to flange 35. The rear end of flange 37 merges with a fourth flange 38 that is normal to flange 37 and is substantially parallel to flange 36 but continues upwardly a distance that is considerably less than the width of flange 36. At this point flange 38 merges into lip 39 that is substantially normal to flange 38 and extends away from flange 36 forming a shelf. A gap is thus created between shelf 39 and flange 35 and this gap is suflicient to permit passage of the end portions of the connected panels. Any water draining down the surface of the inclined panels will drop into gutter 33 and will be removed by any suitable discharge means (not shown) such as for example a downspout connected to a suitable positioned opening in flange 37. If desired, the gutter could be made an integral part of the fascia and instead of the panel sections at the front of the fascia, the front of the fascia could also be made of a single piece of sheet metal.

FIG. 4 shows a form of sandwiched panel employing a different connecting means as well as a different seal for preventing the passage of water between adjoining connected panels than the one shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3. This form of panel is substantially thicker than the one previously described and is designed to permit easy assembly of both the panels and seal without the necessity of having to pivot one panel to seat it in the other one.

This panel is preferably formed by using a single, wide strip of thin sheet metal 41 and when fully shaped comprises a wide top surface 42 and a wide bottom surface 43 with narrow side partions 44 and 45 as shown. Side portion 44 is provided with a projecting tongue 46, while side portion 45 is provided with a groove 47 that is dimensioned to receive tongue 46 of an adjoining panel. When it is to be used as a roofing panel, tongue 46 and groove 47 are not normal to sides 44 and 45 respectively but are instead inclined so that they form an acute angle with the upper portions of sides 44 and 45 adjacent top 42, as shown. This gives tongue 46 and groove 47 the configuration of a parallelogram. The corner be tween top 42 and side 44 is provided with a nesting projection or rib 48 while the corner between top 42 and side 45 is provided with a U-shaped external rib 49 that is proportioned to snugly receive rib 48 of an adjoining panel when two panels are being connected together. The longitudinal axis of nesting rib 48 is inclined so that it is parallel to tongue 46, while the longitudinal axis of receiving rib 48 is inclined so that it is parallel to the longitudinal axis of groove 47. The sides 51 and 52 of the wide metal strip forming the panel are locked together to form a bead 53 that is shown located at the beginning of the rearward portion of groove 47 and positioned behind it for convenience. In this type of panel tongue 46 is started in groove 47 of an adjoining panel and at the same time nesting rib 48 of the first panel will start seating in receiving rib 49. By moving the panel in the direction of the axis of tongue 46 both the tongue and groove and the sealing elements 48 and 49 will become fully engaged and can be secured to a supporting .member. End 50 of rib 49 of one panel will be positioned just above top 42 of the adjoining panel when nesting rib 48 is fully inserted and will form a satisfactory seal to prevent water from leaking between the panels.

The central areas of top 42 and bottom 43 are preferably made concave. The upper concave portion on which any water would fall would provide a satisfactory drainage channel that would serve to prevent any water from accumulating around the base of the seal formed by the combined ribs 48 and 49. This last described panel is excellent for the construction of roofs, fences or walls. When the panels are used for a fence or wall, the joints do not generally have to be watertight, therefore nesting ribs 48 and 49 could be omitted if desired. Likewise the tongue 46 and the groove 47 could be made normal to sides 44 and 45 respectively instead of angled.

FIG. 5 illustrates a panel substantially constructed in the same manner as the one shown in FIG. 1, with the exception that upper sheet metal skin is provided with additional curved beads 54 and 55 that are positioned one on each side of central head 27. These beads improve the structural properties of the panel and such a panel will stand up under much heavier loads than could be supported by the panel shown in FIG. 1, assuming that the distance between supporting members remained the same.

FIG. 6 shows a form of sandwiched panel that is designed to withstand considerably heavier loads than either of the panels shown in FIGS. 1 or 4. This panel comprises an upper wid strip of thin sheet metal 56 and a lower strip 57 again having their marginal side portions combined to form cooperating locking ribs 12 and 19 in the same manner as the locking ribs shown in FIGS. 1 and 5. This form of locking rib and water seal is shown by way of example only and it is intended that any other suitable locking rib and seal combination can be used in its place if desired.

The lower strip of sheet metal marked 57 is formed into a pair of channels 58 and 59, open at the top that have substantially flat central portions 60 and 61. Sides 62 and 63 of channel 58 extends upwardly and outwardly from the base thus forming an obtuse included angle at each end of central portion 60. Sides 64 and 65 of channel 59 extend in a like manner forming an obtuse included angle at each end of central portion 61. Side 63 of channel 58 and side 64 of channel 59 are connected at their upper ends to arcuate portion 66 formed in the central portion of lower strip 57. Arcuate portion 66 has a pair of longitudinally extending convex ribs 67 and 68 preferably located at the points where straight sides 63 and 64 merge into arcuate portion 66. Central portions 60 and 61 are also further reinforced by longitudinally extending concave ribs 69 and 70, and concave ribs 71 and 72 respectively.

Upper wide sheet metal strip 56, after leaving external rib 12 is straight for a short distance and then is formed into a first concave portion 73. Concave portion 73 merges into an upwardly extending, substantially straight portion 74, that is approximately parallel to side 63 of channel 58 and joins at its upper end a centrally disposed arcuate portion 75 that has a considerably greater curvature than arcuate portion 66. The other end of arcuate portion 75 merges into a second straight portion 76 that is substantially parallel to side 64 of channel 59. Straight portion 76 continues downwardly until it merges with one end of a second concave portion 77. The other end of concave portion 77 joins a straight portion 78 that continues until it meets nesting rib 19.

The space between top 56 and bottom 57, including the space between arcuate portions 66 and 75 is filled with a foamed plastic filler that is securely bonded to all the surfaces of top 56 and bottom 57. This foamed plastic is the same composition as described in FIG. 1 and has also been designated by the numeral 29.

The metal used in all of the panels described in the embodiments shown in FIGS. 1, 4, 5, and 6, is regarded as very thin gage metal. It usually ranges from 0.010" to 0.025 in thickness. Such a panel would offer little if any, resistance to even light structure stresses, but once the hollow panel has been filled with a foamed plastic of the type descibed above, the filler is bonded to the thin metal sheets and produces a sandwiched panel that is structurally many times stronger than panels produced from a single sheet of metal whose thickness is a great many number of times thicker than the metal sheets employed. Since the weight of the metal in the panel amounts to very little and the foamed plastic filler is cellular, and therefore very light, it is possible to form long panels, as long as twenty-five feet in length, that weigh but a fraction of equivalent panels formed from wood, fiber glass or formed from heavy gage metal strips, and yet the panels according to my invention will possess as good or better structural properties than these equivalent panels.

I claim:

1. An improved construction panel, comprising: a sheet metal external shell, said shell having a first wide portion and a second wide portion, said wide portions being in spaced relationship with each other and each having a first side portion and a second side portion, said side portions connecting the respective marginal, longitudinally extending edges of said first and second wide portions together, the width of said side portions being less the width of the wide portions; a first connecting means in the form of a longitudinally extending, external boxlike rib connected to one marginal edge of said first side portion of said panel and adjacent thereto, said boxlike rib comprising: a first outwardly extending flange portion that is normal to said first Wide portion; a second flange portion connected to the first flange portion and normal thereto, said second flange extending horizontally away from said first wide portion; a third flange portion connected to the end of said second flange portion and extending normally thereto in the direction of said first wide portion; a lip connected to the end of said third flange portion and extending toward said first flange portion, parallel to said first wide portion, said lip being positioned in a plane above said first wide portion; a second longitudinally extending connecting means engageable by the first connecting means or an adjoining panel in the form of a nesting internal rib connected to the marginal edge of th second side of said panel corresponding to the marginal edge to which the first connecting means is connected to the first side, said nesting rib comprising: a first flange portion extending outwardly and normal to said first wide portion, said first flange merging into an arcuate portion that curves outwardly and toward the center of said first wide portion; a short second flange portion connected to the end of said arcuate portion, also extending toward the center of said first wide portion and parallel thereto; a third flange portion connected to the end of th second flange portion and extending normally thereto in the direction of said first wide portion, the end of said third flange portion being positioned a distance above said first wide portion and adapted to rest on said lip portion of the external boxlike rib of the adjoining panel when said internal nesting rib is being pivoted into nested engagement with the external 7 boxlike rib of the adjoining panel; and a rigid foamed plastic filler occupying the space between the first and second Wide portions and the connecting first and second side portions, said rigid plastic foamed filler being bonded to the internal surfaces of said sheet metal shell.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Anthony 160-235 Bender 52-588 Snyder 52588 X Axelsson 52588 X Payne et a1 52-588 X FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner S. D. BURKE III, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.

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