US3448803A - Means for operating a well having a plurality of flow conductors therein - Google Patents

Means for operating a well having a plurality of flow conductors therein Download PDF

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US3448803A
US3448803A US3448803DA US3448803A US 3448803 A US3448803 A US 3448803A US 3448803D A US3448803D A US 3448803DA US 3448803 A US3448803 A US 3448803A
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flow
well
conductors
valve
pressure
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Phillip S Sizer
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Otis Engineering Corp
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/14Obtaining from a multiple-zone well
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B23/00Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells
    • E21B23/04Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells operated by fluid means, e.g. actuated by explosion
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells

Description

INVENTOR P. 3,448,803 MEANs FOR OPERATING A WELL HAVING A PLURALITY June 1o, 1969 OVFv FLOW CONDUCTORS THEREIN l Sheet Filed Feb. 2, 1967 9 5 PHILLIP s. slzER gg Fl ig ig 'as B Fl'gl www@ Sheet v P. s. SIZER OF FLOW CONDUCTORS THEREIN MEANS FOR OPERATING A WELL HAVING A PLURALITY Filed Feb. 2, 1967 y June 10, 1969 ame ma v FIG-IO v 3,448,803 MEANS FOR OPERATINGv A WELL HAVING A PLURALITY I P. S. SIZER June 1o, 1969 OF FLOW CONDUCTORS THEREIN -Sheet 3 of`4 Filed Feb. 2, 1967 .une l,

Fla-9 INVENTOR PHILLIP S. SIZER ATTORNEYS P. S. SIZER MEAS FOR OPERATING VA WELL HAVING A PLURALITY June l0, 1969 OF FLOW CONDUCTORS THEREIN Filed Feb. 2, 1967 Sheet NvENTo PHILUP s. slzER `ATToRNEjrs United States Patent O 3,448,803 MEANS FOR OPERATING A WELL HAVING A PLURALITY OF FLOW CONDUCTORS THEREIN Phillip S. Sizer, Dallas, Tex., assignor to Otis Engineering Corporation, Dallas, TeX., a corporation of Delaware Filed Feb. 2, 1967, Ser. No. 613,568 Int. Cl. E21b 33/122, 33/03, 43/00 U.S. Cl. 166-115 28 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A well apparatus having a plurality of ow conductors extneding in a well and having means for releasably securing well tools in the flow conductors at predetermined spaced locations -therein and a cross-over means for establishing uid communication between the ilow conductors to permit circulation of fluids down one flow conductor and up the other to treat internal surfaces of the ow conductor and to move Well tools up and down one or the other of the ow conductors to position and remove well tools from the flow conductors or operate well tools connected in the ow conductors below the location of communication of the two How streams. A cross-over device connectable between a pair of flow conductors for establishing tiuid ow communication between the flow conductors yby varying the pressure in one of the pair of flow conductors or in a third ow conductor. A method of operating a well installation having a plurality of parallel flow conductors extending into a well by establishing communication between a pair of the ow conductors below the surface to permit circulation of fluids from the surface down one of the flow conductors and then to the surface up the other of the iiow conductors to operate, install or remove well tools in such flow conductors and to establish desired circulation between earth formations and the surface.

This invention relates to a well apparatus for controlling tluid flow between the surface and producing earth formation penetrated by the well, to a flow control device of the well apparatus, and to a method for operating a well having a plurality of parallel flow conductors extending therein.

An object of this invention is to provide a new and improved appartus for producing well uids from earth formations penetrated by a well having a plurality of separate flow conductors extending through the well and having means in the well below the surface of the well for establishing communication lbetween a pair of the flow conductors to permit circulation of uids down one conductor and up the other to provide'for treatment of the ow conductors with fluids, to provide for reciprocable movement of Well tools in the flow conductors `and to provide for operation of well tools connected in Ithe ow conductors by well tools movable through the ow conductors.

Another object is to provide a well apparatus wherein the operation of the means for establishing communication between the ow conductors or cross-over device is responsive to the fluid pressure in one of the ilow conductors which is controllable at the surface of the well.

Still another object is to provide a well apparatus wherein the iiow conductors below the cross-over device are provided with means in which well tools, such as standing valves, safety valves, plugs and the like, are removably installable and wherein the well tools may be installed in and removed from the ilow conductors by operator tools connectable to a transport train movable reciprocably in the flow conductors by the fluids circulated therein when the cross-over device is open.

3,448,803 Patented June 10, 1969 ice A further object is to provide a well apparatus wherein one or more of the flow conductors are provided with valve means for controlling communication between the flow conductors and the well at locations below the crossover device which are movable between their open and closed positions by operator tools connectable to the transport train movable in the ilow conductor by fluids circulated through a pair of ilow conductors when the crossover device connected between the pair is open.

A still further object is to provide a well apparatus wherein the valve means of the cross-over device is biased to closed position by the pressure in the well exteriorly of the flow conductors and is movable against the force of such exterior pressure by the uid pressure in one of the ow conductors when it is raised to a predetermined value.

A still further object is to provide a well apparatus of the type described whose cross-over device may be tested while in the well by control and test means located at the surface and without the necesity of moving tools into the Well.

An important object of the invention is to provide a new and improved cross-over device connectable between a pair of ow conductors for establishing communication therebetween.

Another object is to provide a cross-over device having a cross passage which communicates at its opposite ends with the flow passages of the flow conductors to which the cross-over device is connected and having valve means for closing the cross passage which is biased towards closed position.

Still another object is to provide a cross-over device wherein the valve means is biased toward its closed position by pressure from exteriorly of the cross-over device and is movable to its open position by the force of the pressure in a ow conductor connected thereto when it is increased to a value sufficiently high that its force overcomes the force biasing the valve means to its closed position.

Still another object is toprovide a cross-over device wherein the pressures in the ow passages of Ithe ilow conductors do not exert a force on the valve means tending to move it to its open position when it is in its closed position and wherein the cross-over device has conduit means connecting it to a third flow conductor, the valve means being moved to its open position |by the uid pressure in such third flow conductor when it is raised to a predetermined value. l

well installation having a plurality of parallel ow conductors extending in a well by establishing communication between a pair of the flow conductors below the surface by varying the pressure in one of the ow conductors tov open a cross-over means to permit circulation of fluids from the surface down one of the tlow conductors and upward flow of fluids to the surface through the other of the flow conductors.

A still further object is to provide a method of operating a well installation which includes the step of operating well tools connected in such tlow conductors by tools movable through the flow conductors by the circulation of fluids down one ow conductor above the tools positioned therein and up another flow conductor.

Another object is to provide a method of operating a well installation which includes the step of installing or removing well tools in such Well flow conductors below the location of communication between a pair of the flow conductors by transport tool means, to which the well tools are releasably connectable, movable reciprocably in a ow conductor by uid tlowing in such flow conductor.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a method of operating a well installation having a cross over device for establishing communication between a pair of flow conductors of the well installation which includes the step of testing the cross-over device to ascertain whether in its closed condition it effectively prevents communication therethrough between the two flow conductors by increasing the fluid pressure in one of the flow conductors while the flow conductors below the crossover device are closed and observing at the surface whether the pressure in the other iiow conductor increases or fluid flow takes place therefrom if liow from the other fiow conductor is regulated by a pressure regulator valve.

An important object of the invention is to provide a well apparatus and a cross-over device for selectively establishing communication between the two flow conductors of the well apparatus below the surface of the valve wherein the cross-over device may be tested to determine whether it prevents communication between the two flow conductors when in its closed position by means operable at the surface of the well.

Still another object is to provide a cross-over device of the type described which is of such structure that the uid test pressure in at least one of the flow conductors between which it is connectable when the valve means of the cross-over device is in closed position, either does not exert a force tending to move the valve means to open position, or, if such test pressure does exert a force tending to move the valve means to open position such force is of substantially smaller value than the force tending to hold the valve in its closed position whereby the crossover device may be tested to determine whether fluid flow between the two ow conductors to which it is connected through the cross-over device -is effectively prevented when the valve means is in closed position by introducing test fluid pressure into such one ow conductor at the surface while the two flow conductors are closed below the cross-over device and observing at the surface if the pressure in the other fluid conductor increases, as by means of a pressure gauge, or, if a pressure regulator controls flow from the other ow conductor, determining if uid flow is taking place from such other ow conductor.

Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent from the reading of the following description of a device constructed in accordance with the invention, and reference to the accompanying drawings thereof, wherein:

lFIGURE 1 is a schematic, vertical partly sectional view, with some parts broken away, of a well installation embodying the invention by means of which the method of the invention may be practiced showing the crossover means of the well apparatus in closed position and well fluids being produced separately from two spaced producing ear-th formations through separate liow conductors;

FIGURE 2 is a view similar to FIGURE 1 showing the cross-over means in closed position and a pump down transport train of tools carrying a pulling tool being moved downwardly in one of the flow conductors by fiuid circulated downwardly in the one ow conductor and upwardly in the other;

FIGURE 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3 of FIGURE 1;

iFIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4-4 of FIGURE 3;

FIGURE 5 is a view similar to FIGURE 1 of a modified form of the well apparatus illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 2;

FIGURE 6 is a schematic, fragmentary sectional view of a well installation having a modified form of the crossover device;

FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a well installation having another form of the crossover device;

FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary partly sectional view of a well apparatus having still another form of the crossover device;

FIGURE 9 is a sectional view taken on line 9 9 of FIGURE 8;

FIGURE l0 is a schematic, vertical partly sectional View, with some parts broken away, of a well apparatus having cross-over devices of the ltype illustrated in FIG- URE 8;

FIGURE l1 is a schematic vertical sectional view taken on line 11-11 of FIGURE l0;

FIGURE 12 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of another well installation having another modified form of the cross-over device; and

FIGURE 13 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of another well installation having still another modified form of the cross-over device.

Referring now particularly to FIGURES 1 through 4 of the drawings, the well apparatus 20 embodying the invention includes the usual well casing C which extends through the well and is provided with sets of perforations 21 and 22 at the locations of the spaced producing earth formations A and B penetrated by the well bore through which the fluids from the formations A and B may ow into the casing and be conducted to the surface through the flow conductors 23 and 24, respectively. The well apparatus includes a lower packer 25 located in the casing between the two sets of perforations which closes the casing and seals between the casing and the second flow conductor 24 which conducts the fluids from the lower producing earth formation B. The rst fioW conductor 23 which conducts the well fluids produced by the earth formation A opens to the casing above the lower packer 25 and below a dual packer 26 which closes the well casing above the upper set of perforations 21 and seals between the Well casing and both conductors. The packers or barriers may be of any suitable commercially available type which may be set either mechanically or hydraulically as is well known to those skilled in the art. The casing above the upper packer 26 is usually filled at least partially with a liquid such as Water 0r mud so that the pressure in the well casing above the packer 26 is normally higher than the pressures in the two ow conductors.

The well installation includes a casing head 30 secured to the top end of the casing which closes the top end of the casing. The casing head has suitable apertures through which the upper ends of the two flow conductors extend and sealing means which seal between the casing head and the flow conductors so that iiuids may flow into and out of the casing at the surface only through a flow conduit 32 in which are connected flow control devices, such as a pressure regulator valve 33 and a shut-off valve 34. The flow conduit may be connected to a source of fluid under pressure, such as a pump or a reservoir and the like so that the pressure in the casing above the upper packer may be increased, if desired, by introducing fluid under pressure into the casing through the conduit until the casing pressure reaches a predetermined value. The pressure within the casing may be decreased to any predetermined value by opening the shut-off valve and setting the pressure regulator valve at a desired pressure so that the fluid under pressure in the upper end of the portion may flow from the casing until the casing pressure drops to the predetermined value.

The first flow conductor has a surface control assembly 40 connected to its upper end by means of which Well tools may be moved into the flow conductor or be removed therefrom and by means of which uids under pressure may be caused to flow from the flow conductor or be introduced into the flow conductor. The surface control assembly may include a bottom valve 41 of large orifice, an elongate tube or lubricator 42 and a top valve 43 for closing the upper end of the tube. A flow conduit 44 having suitable flow control devices connected therein,

such as a pressure regulator -valve 45 and a shut-off valve 46, opens to the tube below the top valve. It will be apparent that -when the top valve 43 is closed and the bottom valve 41 is open, liuids may ow from the ow conductor and through the flow conduit if the shut-olf valve 46 is open, the regulator valve 45 being set to permit iiow of fluids from the flow conductor only as long' as the pressure in the iirst flow conductor is above a predetermined value. Conversely, liuids under pressure may be introduced into the llow conductor to maintain the pressure therein Iat a predetermined value by connecting the conduit to a suitable source of fluid under pressure such as a pump and setting the pressure regulator valve 45 to permit flow into the iirst flow conductor only when the pressure therein falls 4below a predetermined value. If it is desired to move a well tool or well tool assembly into the rst flow conductor while maintaining a predetermined pressure within the first ilow conductor, the valves 41 and 46 are closed, the valve 43 is opened and such well tool is inserted into the tube through the valve 43. The valve 43 is then closed and the valve 41 is opened to permit downward movement of the well tool or assembly downwardly into the first flow conductor. If such tools are to -be moved downwardly by fluid pressure introduced into the llow conductor above such well tools, fluid under regulated pressure is then introduced into the tube 42 above such tool through the ow conduit 44. If such tools are to be moved downwardly by a wireline, a suitable stuifing box is secured above the valve 43 to seal about the wireline while the tool is being moved in the flow conductor and the lubricator by means of such line. A pressure gauge P may be connected to the flow conduit and the valve 45.

The second flow conductor has a similar surface control assembly 50 connected thereto which includes a lower valve 51, an elongate tube or lubricator 52, a top valve 53, and a liow conduit 54 in which are connected flow control devices, such as a pressure regulator valve 55 and a shut-off valve 56.

The first iiow conductor 23 may be a usual string of tubing having one or more landing nipples, such as the landing nipples 61 and 62 connected therein to constitute sections thereof, the landing nipples are secured to adjacent sections of the string of tubing by the usual coupling collars 63. The landing nipples may be of the type described in the patent to I. V. Fredd, No. 2,798,559 issued July 9, 1957, each having key grooves 65 and a locking groove '66 in which are receivable the Iselector keys 67 and locking members or dogs 68 of the latch means L of well tools which are locatable in selected landing nipples and releasably latched thereby by the latch means. The latch means L is also of 'the type described` in the patent to I. V. Fredd, No. 2,798,559, issued July 9, 1957. The key grooves of each nipple are of different dimensions or are differently spaced than the key grooves of the other nipples connected in the ilow conductor and the latch means L of the dierent well tools are provided with the selector keys of different configurations so that each well tool may be located and locked in a predetermined landing nipple of the irst flow conductor by means of the latch means as is fully described in the patent to J. V. Fredd.

The well tools may be of any suitable desired type. In the -well installation 20, the well tool 71 located in the bottom landing nipple 61 is a standing valve having a valve member or ball 73 biased toward a lower closed position in the body 72 by a spring 'I4 wherein it prevents downward flow of fluids through the longitudinal passage 75 of the body. The standing valve has seal means 76 which seal between the valve body and the landing nipple. It will be apparent that if the pressure in the casing between the packer is sufliciently greater than the pressure within the flow conductor above the standing valve, the ball is moved upwardly and well iluids may ow upwardly through the standing valve. If the pressure in the first flow conductor above the standing valve is of such value that its force and the force ofthe spring exerted on the ball are greater than the force exerted on the ball by the pressure in the casing between the packers, the ball will be moved to closed position and thus prevents any downward iiow of fluids through the flow conductor into the casing between the packers. The well tool 82 positioned in the top landing nipple 62 is a safety valve, such as the Otis Type F Tubing Safety Valve illustrated and described on p. 3836V of the 1966-67 edition of the Composite Catalogue of Oil Field Equipment and Services, which has a valve member 83 that moves to a closed position to stop upward ilow of liuids through the longitudinal passage 84 of the body 85 when the pressure differential across the valve exceeds a predetermined value, as for example, in the event of failure or damage to the surface well equipment which would otherwise result n unrestricted fluid flow through the rst flow conductor.

The second liow conductor similarly has one or more landing nipples, such as the landing nipples 91 and 92 in which are positioned a standing valve 93 and a safety valve 94 which are identical to the standing valve 71 and the safety valve 82, respectively.

The valves are movable through the flow conductors .and installable in predetermined landing nipples by a running tool of the type whose structure and mode of operation as described in the patent to I. V. Fredd, No. 2,798,559, and may be released from the nipples and removed from the ilow conductors by a suitable pulling tool 96, such as the Otis Type R Pulling Tool illustrated and described on p. 3839 of the |Composite Catalogue of Oil Field Equipment and Services, 1966-67 edition.

The portion of the well installation 20 described thus Ifar including the single packer 25, the dual packer 26, the valves, the ow conductors and the landing nipples connected therein, and the surface equipment of the well are well known to those skilled in the art and, accordingly, will not be described in greater detail herein.

In order to permit installation and removal of the ow control devices in the landing nipple by means of a pump down train of tools which may include piston units or locomotives 101 and 102, other suitable tools such as jars, not shown, and a tool such as the pulling tool 96 at the bottom end of the train, it is necessary to provide a cross-over means or device for selectively providing circulation of fluids between the two flow conductors above the top landing nipples of the flow conductors in order that the fluids in a flow conductor below a train of tools moving downwardly be permitted to flow to the surface through the other iiow conductor and to permit uid pumped into one flow conductor to flow into the other iiow conductor below the locomotives of the train when the train is moved upwardly through such other liow conductor. During normal operation of the well apparatus, such cross-over means must prevent fluid ilow between the two flow conductors to prevent commingling of the well fluids produced from the two different earth formations.

The cross-over device 110 includes a body 111 connected in any suitable manner to the two ow conductors and having a transverse passage 112 which opens at its 0pposite ends to the interiors or longitudinal passages of the first and second flow conductors above the uppermost landing nipples thereof. The passage is closable by a valve member or gate 114 of substantially planar configuration whose outer portions are slidably received in a recess 115 of the body which intersects the passage 112 of the body. The gate has an upward extension or piston rod 116 which extends upwardly through a passage 118 of the body into a piston chamber 119 thereof, and has at its upper end a piston 120. A seal means or ring 121 of the piston seals between the piston and the surfaces of the body delining the piston chamber.

'Ihe upward movement of the gate is limited by the engagement of its top end surface 122 with the surface 123 defining the top end of the body recess 115. The gate has a passage 125 which, when the gate is in its lower closed position in the body, is located below the O-rings 127 and 128 disposed in circular recesses in the sides 129 and 130 of the body defining the sides of the recess 115 and which extend about the passage 112. The O-rings sealingly engage the side surfaces of the gate above its passage 125 to seal between the gate and the body when the gate is in its closed position. When the gate is in its upper open position illustrated in FIGURE 2, its passage 125 is aligned with and in communication with the body passage 112.

The lower portion of the gate below its passage 125 is of slightly reduced width in order to permit fluids trapped in the body recess below the gate to flow upwardly past the O-rings as the valve member moves downwardly toward its closed position. The gate and its piston rod 116 are also provided with a bypass 132 which opens to the body passage and to the piston cylinder below the piston through which any fluids trapped in the body recess 115 after the side surfaces of the gate above its passage move into sealing engagement with the lower portions of the O-rings may escape to the piston chamber and from there to the fiow conductor through a passage 135 of the body which opens to the piston chamber and to the body passage.

The gate is biased downwardly toward its closed position by the fluid pressure within the well casing above the upper packer 26 which is communicated to the piston chamber above the piston through a tube 138 secured to the body in any suitable manner and whose top end is open. The tube and the piston chamber above the piston are preferably filled with a filler liquid, such as oil or grease, and a seal means, such as a ball 139 of rubber or other resilient substance is disposed in the tube and to separate the filler liquid from the casing tiuid and to prevent sand, silt and the like from entering into the piston chamber. Such foreign substance could otherwise fall into the piston chamber and could prevent movement of the gate to its fully open position and also cause wear of the internal seal surfaces of the body and of the piston ring. The piston is moved upwardly when the upward force of the pressure from the first flow conductor exerted on the piston communicated to the piston chamber y119` below the piston through the passage 135 exceeds the downward force exerted on the piston by the casing pressure.

In normal operation, the pressure in the casing at the location of the cross-over device is greater than the pressure in the flow conductors and the gate or valve member 114 is in its lower closed position illustrated in FIGURE l. Well fluids from the top producing formation A flow into the well casing through the perforations 21 between the two packers, upwardly through the first flow conductor and the valves installed therein and through the surface control device or assembly 40 and its flow conduit 44, to a storage reservoir or flow line to which the well fiuids from the top producing formation are to be delivered. The pressure regulator valve 45 may be set to maintain a predetermined pressure in the first flow conductor or be fully open, if desired. Simultaneously, well fluids from the lower producing formation B fiow into the casing below the lower packer` through the perforations 22, ow upwardly through the second flow conductor and its Valves to the surface through the flow conduit 54 of its surface control device or assembly 5G to a storage reservoir or fiow line. The pressure regulator Valve 55 may, of course, be set to maintain the pressure in the first fiow conductor at a predetermined value or to be fully open. The safety valves 82 and 94 will function in the usual manner to close the passages of the flow conductors adjacent their lower ends in the event of any damage to any of the surface equipment or to the flow conductors above the safety valves creating a large pressure differential thereacross which would cause a rapid rate or velocity of flow of the well fiuids through the flow conductors.

Should it thereafter be desired to perform operations on the well which require circulation of fluid through one or the other of the two flow conductors, as, for example, if it is desired to treat the internal surfaces of the fiow conductors with such fiuids as corrosion inhibiting solutions or with liquids to dissolve and remove deposits of paraffin or other such substances which may have accumulated on the internal surfaces of one of the fiow conductors, for example, the second flow conductor 24. Such deposits normally accumulate fat higher locations in the flow conductor where the well temperatures are lower than in the lower portions of the well. In this case, the flow conduits 44 and 54 are preferably connected to a. suitable source of a treating liquid by means of a pump and their shut-off and regulator valves are fully opened.

The pressures in the two fiow conductors since they are now both connected to a single source of uid under pressure, will be of equal value at cross-over device and no pressure differential will be created across its valve member or its seal rings twhich could impede or hinder movement of the valve member toward open position or damage the seal rings, In addition, as the pressure in the ow conductors rises as such pump operates the standing valves of the two flow conductors close and prevent downward flow of fluids through the flow conductors into the casing. The producing earth formations are thus protected from the imposition thereon of excessively high pressures and from the treating fluids.

As the pressure in the first flow conductor at the location of the cross-over device rises and exceeds the well casing pressure at this location, the force of the pressure in the first flow conductor communicated to the piston cylinder 119 below the piston causes the piston 120` to move the gate or valve member 114 upwardly. The pressure regulator valve 55 is then set to permit flow through the ow conduit 54 when the pressure in the second flow conductor exceeds a predetermined value and the flow conduit 54 is then disconnected after its shutoff valve 56 is closed off from the treating fiuids and is connected to a disposal line to which the treating liquids after their circulation through the flow conductors must be delivered. Pressure in the first flow conductor is thus maintained at a value sufficiently high that the valve member is held in its open position. The treating liquid will then circulate downwardly through the first fiow conductor, through the passage 112 of the crossover device and then upwardly through the second ow conductor. When circulation of such treating liquid is cornpleted, shut-off valves 46A `and 56 are closed, the flow conduits 44 and 54 are again connected to the storage reservoirs or flow lines and, when the valves 46 and 57 are again opened, after their regulator valves have been set to maintain the pressures in the two flow conductors at equal values to prevent creation of a high pressure differential across the valve member and the seal rings of the crossover` device during closing movement of the valve member, the pressure in the flow conductors decreases, the casing pressure exerted on the piston again moves the valve member downwardly to its closed position, the standing valves of the two flow conductors open to permit production of the well fiuids from the two earth formations to the surface and, if desired, the pressure regulator valves may then be set to maintain different pressures in the two fiow conductors.

It will be apparent that, if desired, the flow conduits 44 and 54 may both be connected to a disposal line for sugh treating liquids after the circulation thereof is cornpleted for a period of time sufciently long to cause all treating liquids in -the flow conductors and the iiow conduits to be flushed out by the well fiuids prior to the connection of the flow conduits to the reservoirs or flow lines.

If it is desired that a well tool, such as the safety valve installed in the landing nipple of one of the flow conductors be removed therefrom, for example, the safety valve '94 of the second flow conductor, by means of a pump down train of tools 100, which may be similar to the Otis Pump-Down Train of Tools illustrated on p. 3780 of the Composite Catalogue of Oil Field IEquipment and Services, 1966-467 ed-ition, and include locomotives 101 and 102, jars, not shown, and the like, as well as the pulling tool 96 which are connected to one another by suitable couplings which permit a limited pivotal movement of each tool of the train at the location of its connections to the other tools of the train. The locomotives 101 and 102 sealingly engage the internal surfaces of the flow conductor to close its passage and are spaced far enough apart to bridge any internal recesses of the flow conductor, such as coupling collar recesses. The Itrain of tools with the pulling tool located at its bottom end is then placed into the tube 52 of the surface control assembly 50 after the valves 51 and 56 have been closed and the top locomotive 101 is positioned below the location of communication of the flow conduit 54 with the tube 52. The valve 53 is then closed and the valves 51 and `56 are opened and iiuid under pressure, which may be regulated by the pressure regulator valve 55, is admitted through the conduit 54 to act on the tool train. The ow conduit 44 is connected to a suitable source of fluid under pressure and the pressure in the first ow conduc-tor is raised to `a valve sufficiently h-igh to cause the Valve member 114 -to move to its upper open position. The standing valve of the iirst flow conductor closes as the pressure in the first flow conductor is increased and the standing valve of the second ow conductor closes as the pressure in the second flow conductor increases. The pressure regulator 45 is then set to permit ow from the first flow conductor when the pressure therein exceeds a predetermined value which, however, is sufficiently high to keep the valve member in its open position. The pressure of the fluid introduced into the second flow conductor through the flow conduit 54 is then raised to a sufiiciently high pressure to move the train of tools downwardly and cause the uids in the second ow conductor below the bottom locomotive to flow downwardly in the second flow conductor, through the passage 112 of the cross-over device and then upwardly through the first flow conductor to its flow conduit'44.

The'bo-ttom locomotive 102 is spaced from the pulling tool 96 suiciently far that when the train of tools has moved downwardly to the position wherein the pulling tool has moved into operative engagement with the upper end por-tion of the safety valve I94, the bottom locomotive is positioned above the passage 112 of the crossover device. Once the pulling tool has moved into operative engagement with the safety valve, the direction of iiow of iiuids through the iiow conductors is reversed, the ow conduit 44 being connected to a source of lluid under pressure and the iow conduit 54 being opened through its valve 56 and pressure regulator valve S5 so that the pressure of the fluid in the passage 112 is maintained at all times above that necessary to maintain the valve member 114 in its upper open position. The iiuid then flows down through the irst flow conductor 23 and through the passage 112 to the second flow conductor below the bottom locomotive. The train of tools is now moved upwardly in the second ow conductor and since the safety Valve 94 is now secured to the pulling tool 96 it is moved upwardly through the flow conductor and into the tube 52 from where it is removed after the valve 51 is closed and the valve `53 opened.

Another well tool may then be installed in the land-ing nipple 92 by connecting at the bottom end of the pump down train, instead of the pulling tool 96, a running tool, such as the Type T Otis Running Tool illustrated and described on p. 3892 of the 1966-67 Catalogue of Oil Field Equipment and Services, to which the well tool to be installed in the landing nipple is secured with its lock means held in retracted position. The train of tools is then inserted into the top end of Ithe tubing and pumped down until such new well tool moves into the landing nipple and is latched therein whereupon the running tool is released from such new tool by a downward force or jars imparted thereto by the train of :tools as the pressure in the second flow conductor is suddenly increased at the surface of operation of the surface controls, such as the pressure regulator valve. The direction of circulation of fluids in the flow conductors is then reversed and the train of tools is removed upwardly through and from the second flow conductor.

It will be apparent that the well tools located in the landing nipples of the first ow conductor may similarly be installed and removed by similar running and pulling tools connected to such a pump down train. It will also be apparent that while each of the ow conductors of the well installation 20 has been illustrated as being provided with only two landing nipples, more than two such landing nipples may be connected in one or both of the flow conductors below the cross-over device, that it is necessary to remove well tools from each landing nipple before the well tool in the next lower landing nipple may be removed. Each landing nipple connected in a flow conductor has selector and locking grooves of different configurations and the Well tool to be installed in a particular landing nipple has selector keys of such configuration that it will pass through every landing nipple located above the landing nipple in which it is to be installed.

It will also be seen that, if desired, even the standing valves may be installed in or removed from the lowermost landing nipples of the flow conductors by the pump down train of tools, the pressure in the flow conductors below the lowermost locomotive 102 of the pump down train will, however, be imposed on the producing earth formations as the standing valves are removed from the landing nipples.

While the surface control assemblies 40 and 50 have been shown connected to the two iiow conductors at the casing head, it will be apparent that in some installations, as for example, in subsea wells, the flow conductors may extend a relatively long distance from the well head to the shore of the body of water and such control assemblies are then connected at such locations remote from the well itself and the ow conductors may have bends or arcuate portions therein. The articulated connections of the various tools of the pump down train, however, permits such pump down train of tools together with the well tool which is being installed or removed from the flow conductor to move through such arcuate portions of the flow conductors. The well tools which are installable in such flow conductors may thereby be formed of two or more flexible connected sections for this purpose.

It will also be apparent that while particular well tools have been illustrated and described for installation in particular landing nipples in connection with the operation of the well installation 20, other well tools, such as chokes, plugs, and the like, may be moved and operated through the flow conductors and of the Well installation 20 and may be provided with other locator and latch means adapted to cooperate with landing nipples other than those illustrated and described in connection with the Well installation 20.

It will also be apparent that while the bottom landing nipples of the flow conductors 24 is shown as extending through the lower packer 25 and the top nipple of the flow conductor 23 is shown as extending through the upper packer 26, if these packers are of a type in which the conductors of the packers cannot have such selector and lock grooves formed therein and thus also function as landing nipples, all landing nipples of the liow conductors are connected in the flow conductors above or below the packers.

.It is important in well installations which have a plurality of flow conductors which produce fluids from different producing formations that no commingling of the well Atiuids produced by different formations occur by ow thereof from one such flow conductor to another, as

through the cross-over device when its valve member is in its closed position, in order that the rates of production from the different formations can be measured and controlled. It is, therefore, necessary that the well apparatus, preferably after the installation of the apparatus, after each opening and closing of the cross passage 112, and at periodic intervals thereafter if required by various governmental bodies which regulate the production of well fluids, such as gas and oil, be capable of testing the crossover device to determine if the bypass passage 12 is effectively closed. The operative condition of the crossover device 110 may be easily and positively tested without introducing any well tools into the well by setting the regulator valve 45 at a value higher than the shut-in pressure in the first flow conductor at the surface of the formation A connecting the flow conduit 54 is to a suitable source of test tluid pressure which is higher than the shutin pressure of the lirst ow conductor. The test uid pressure, which is preferably considerably higher than the pressure of the well fluids normally produced from the formation B through the second flow conductor is communicated to the end of the passage 112 which opens to the second ow conductor 24. This test pressure does not exert either an upward or downwand force on the valve member and is, of course, isolated from the piston chamber so that it does not tend to exert a force tending to move the valve member toward its open position. If the valve member 114 is not in properly closed position or if one or both of the seal rings 127 and 128 have been damaged or have failed, fluids will flow from the second ow conductor through the passage 112 and groove or recess 115 about the valve member, even if it is in its lowermost closed position and into the first ow conductor. Fluids will then ow through the conduit 44 when the pressure in the iirst ow conductor rises to a value above that at which the regulator valve 45 is set to open.

Alternatively, a pressure gauge of any suitable type may be connected in the flow conduit v44 between the shut-off valve 46 and the tube 42 and the test pressure in the second ow conduit is raised above the shut-in pressure of the formation A in the tirst ow conductor at the surface if the cross-over device does not properly close the passage 112, fluid will flow from the second flow conductor, through the cross-over device to the rst ow conductor and cause the pressure therein to rise in the second ow conductor, the standing valves of the rst and second iiow conductors, of course, now being closed, and such rise indicated by the pressure gauge will show that the cross-over device is not functioning properly,

It will thus be apparent that since the fluid pressure in at least one of the flow conductors, in this case, the flow conductor 24, exerts no force tending to move the valve member to its open position, when it is in its closed position the cross-over device can be easily and positively tested by increasing a test pressure in this conductor to a pressure above that of the shut-in pressure of the rst flow conductor and the malfunction of the valve can easily be determined at the surface by a pressure gauge which detects the pressure within the first ow conductor at the surface or by a pressure regulator valve which may be set to open only when the pressure in the rst flow conductor rises to a pressure above such shut-in pressure.

If desired, and if the casing pressure above the top packer at the location of the cross-over device is substantially greater than the shut-in pressures of the producing formations, the test tluid pressure may be introduced into the first flow conductor and a pressure gauge connected to the flow conduit 54 between its shut-off valve 56 and the tube 52 or the pressure regulator valve 55 may be then used to determine if fluid flow is taking place through the cross-over device even though its valve member is in closed position. The test uid pressure is of such value that the upward force exerted thereby in the piston is not great enough to overcome the downward force exerted on the piston by the casing pressure above the top packer 26.

If the pressure of a producing formation, for example, the formation B, in the second ow conductor, is substantially higher than the shut-in pressure of the other formation A in the first flow conductor, the pressure of the formation B may be used as the test pressure by setting the pressure regulator valve 45 to open at a value above the shut-in pressure of the formation A at the surface but below the value of pressure in the second flow conductor determined by the setting of its regulator valve S5 or by means of the pressure gauge P after the shutoff valve 46 is closed.

Referring now to FIGURE 5 of the drawings, the apparatus v20a embodying the invention is similar to the well apparatus 20, and accordingly, the elements of the well apparatus 20a have been provided with the same reference numerals, to which the subscript a has been added, as the corresponding elements of the Well apparatus 20.

The well apparatus 20a differs from the well apparatus 20 in that its cross-over device 110er is connected to the flow conductors 23a and 24a below the top packer 26a which, since the tube 138a ofthe crossover device `110a must extend upwardly past the top packer, is a triple packer which closes the well casing above the cross-over device and seals between the casing, the two flow conductors 23a and 24a and the tube 138:1. The flow conductors have connected to their surface ends, either at the casing head, or if the flow conductors extend to locations remote from the casing head at such remote locations, with control assemblies such as the control assemblies 40` and 50 of the conductors 23l and 24 'by means of which iluids and well tools may be introduced into and removed from the ow conductors.

The well apparatus 20a is preferred over the apparatus 20 in some cases, even though a triple packer 26a instead of a less expensive dual packer 26 must be employed, in well installations where it is desirable or necessary for the top packer, due to its own structure or to the characteristics of the particular wellV installation, to be positioned a substantial distance above the uppermost landing nipples of the flow conductors so that the length of the pump down train of tools necessary to move well tools into or from the lower landing nipples of the flow conductors is great since the bottom locomotive must ,be as -Was explained above in connection with the well apparatus 20, at all times above the passage 112a of the cross-over device. The tubes or manifolds 40, such as the tubes 40 or 50 of the Well apparatus, of such surface control assemblies would thus also have to be of relatively great length which may not be the case or may be undesirable in some lwell installations. It will be apparent that the method of operation of the well apparatus 20a in circulating either treating fluids through the flow conductors or in installing or removing well tools from the landing nipples of its flow conductors is identical to the operation of the well apparatus 20, and, accordingly, will not `be described in further detail.

Referring now to FIGURE 6 of the drawing, the well apparatus 2012 is similar to the well apparatus 20, and, accordingly, its elements have been provided with the same reference numerals, to which the subscript b hasV been added, as the corresponding elements of the installation 20. The Well installation 20h differs from the well installation 20 only in having a cross-over device 110b, connected to its flow conductors 23a and- 23b above their uppermost landing nipples and either above or below the upper packer of the apparatus, not shown, which differs in structure and mode of operation from the cross-over device 110. The value member 11419 may be moved from its closed position to its open position by increasing the pressure in either one of the two flow conductors 231; or -24b to a value suiciently higher than that of the well casing pressure at the cross-over device that its upward force, exerted on the valve member 114b in the case of pressure from the flow conductor 2412 and exerted on 13 the piston 120b in the case of the pressure from the ow conductor 23b, is suicient to overcome the downward force exerted by the casing pressure on the piston.

The cross-over device 110b includes a body 111b having a vertical passage 150 whose internal cylindrical seal surface 151 is engageable by the O-ring or seal 152 of the valve member 114b. The valve member is connected by a rod 116b to the piston 1202 slidable in the piston chamber 119b of the cross-over body which is of greater internal diameter than the passage 150. The crossover body Ihas a passage .154 which opens to the rst tiow conductor 23b and to the passage 1501 intermediate its ends and above the valve member when the valve member is in its closed position illustrated in the dnawing and a passage 155 which opens to the second flow conductor 24b and to the bottom end of the passage 150 below the valve member.

It will I'be apparent that 'when the valve is in the closed position illustrated in FIGURE 6, the fluid pressure from the first ilow conductor 23b exerts an upward force on the downwardly facing surfaces of the piston 120 within the line of sealing engagement of its seal surface 121b with the surfaces of the body defining the piston chamber and a downward force on the upwardly facing surfaces of smaller area of the valve member 11411 within the line of sealing engagement with its seal ring 152 with the surface 151. As a result, the uid pressure from the rst flow conductor exerts a net upward force on the valve member and, if the pressure in the rst flow conductor is increased to a sufficiently high value, it Iwill cause the valve member to be moved upfwardly against the downward force exerted on the piston by the casing pressure to its upper open position wherein its seal ring 152 is above the inner end of the passage 154, thus establishing communication between the two ow conductors through the passages 154, 150 and 155.

=It will be apparent that the valve member may also be moved-to its open position from its closed position by increasing the fluid pressure in the second ow conductor 24b until the force exerted thereby on the downwardly facing surfaces of the valve member is sufficiently great to move the valve member and the piston upwardly against the force exerted on the piston by the casing pressure. Fluid pressure from both flow conductors 23a and 23b always exert upward forces on the piston and the valve member, respectively, when the valve member is in its open position.

- It will thus be apparent that the well apparatus b provides a greater liexibility of operation since the valve member of its cross-over device may be opened by increasing the pressure within either one of its flow conductors instead of only in one flow conductor as in the case of the Well installation 20.

The cross-over device 110b may be tested in the same manner as described in connection with the well apparatus 20'to determine if it is functioning properly by increasing the test fluid pressure in the flow conductors above the normal shut-in pressure of the other flow conductor of the casing pressure at the cross-over device is suiciently great that the downward force exerted thereby on the piston is substantially greater than the combined upward -force exerted on the valve member and the piston by the pressures in the two flow conductors during the test.

Referring now to FIGURE 7 of the drawing, the well installation 20c is also similar to the well apparatus 20 differing therefrom only in having a cross-over device 110e` having a different structure and different mode of operation than the cross-over device 110 of the well installation 20, and, accordingly, its elements have been provided with the same reference numerals, to which the subscript c has been added, as the corresponding elements of the well apparatus 20. The cross-over device 110e` includes a body 111C having a vertical passage 160 which opens to the lower end of the tube 138e` at its upper end and provides a seal surface 161 which is engageable by the seal rings 162 and 163 of the valve member 114e` which is movable between its top open position in the passage illustrated in FIGURE 7 and a bottom closed position wherein its downward movement is arrested by the upwardly facing annular shoulder 164 of the cross-over body. The cross-over body also has a passage 166 which opens to the flow conductor 23C at one end and to the passage 160 intermediate its ends and a passage 176 which opens to the flow conductor 24e and to the lower end of the vertical passage 160.

It will be apparent that when the valve 114C is in its open position, it is biased upwardly Iby the pressure within the two flow conductors which are then in communication through the passages 165, 160 and 160e of the body and biased downwardly by the pressure in the well casing communicated to the top end of the valve member through the tube 138e and the liquid contained therein. When it is desired to prevent communication between the two flow conductors through the cross-over device, the pressures within the ow conductors are decreased by suitable ow control devices of the same type as illustrated in connection with the well apparatus 20 and the casing pressure is then effective to move the valve member downwardly to its closed position wherein its top O-ring 162 seals between the valve member and the seal surface 161 above the passage 166 and its bottom seal ring 163 seals between the valve member and the seal surface 161 below the passage 166.

It will be apparent that when the valve member is in its closed position, it can be moved to its open position only by increasing the pressure in the second flow conductor 24C to such Value that its force exerted on the downwardly facing surfaces of the valve member within the line of sealing engagement of its O-n'ng 163 with the surface 161 is greater than the downward force exerted on the upwardly facing surfaces of the valve member by the casing pressure within the line of sealing engagement of its top seal ring 162 with the surface 161.

It will also be apparent that the cross-over device can be tested by closing one of the ilow conductors at the surface and using a pressure gauge to determine the pressure therein at the surface or a pressure regulator valve and increasing the test fluid pressure in the other ow conductor as long as the casing pressure at the location is sufficiently great to prevent upward movement of the valve member.

Referring now to FIGURES 8 and 9 of the drawings, the well apparatus 20d differs from the well apparatus 20 in having three flow conductors 2317, 24d and 180 which extend through the well casing are provided below the cross-over device 110d with landing nipples, such as those of the well apparatus 20, in which well tools may be installed and removed by a pump down train such as the one described in connection with the apparatus 2 0. The valve member 114d of the cross-over device 110d of the well apparatus 20d, is moved from its upper closed position, illustrated in the drawing, to a lower open position when the pressure within a ow conductor 180 of the apparatus is increased to a value suiciently great that its force communicated through a conduit 181 to the top end of the piston chamber 119d of the cross-over device body 111:1 exerts a downward force on the piston 120 sufficiently great to overcome the upward force exerted on the valve member by a spring 182 and the pressure within the casing exerted on the downwardly facing surfaces of the piston of the bottom flange 183 of the valve member 114d within the line of sealing engagement of its seal ring 184 with the seal surface 185 defining a vertical passage 186 of the cross-over body. The valve member also has a top ange 188 having a seal ring 189 which, when the valve member is in the upper closed position illustrated in FIGURE 8, also engages the seal surface 186. The seal rings 184 and 189 are disposed below and above a passage 190 of the body which opens to the passage 185 and the irst flow conductor. The cross-over device body 111d also has a passage 191 which opens to the second flow conductor 24d and the passage 191 between the top ange member 188 and the piston 120a which is connected to the valve member by the rod 116d. Since the downwardly facing area of the piston within the line of the sealing engagement of its seal ring 121d with the seal surface 185 is equal to the upwardly facing area exposed thereto within the line of sealing engagement of the O-ring 189 with the seal surface 186, the fluid pressure from the second flow conductor does not tend to move the valve member in either direction and similarly the pressure from the first ow conductor does not tend to move the valve member in either direction since the downwardly facing surface of the valve member exposed thereto within the line of sealing engagement of its O-ring 189 is equal to the upwardly facing area thereof exposed thereto within the line of sealing engagement of its O-ring 184. As a result, the operation of the valve member 114e! is independent of the pressure within either the first flow conductor or the second flow conductor.

The valve member is movable downwardly against the resistance of the spring 182 and the force of the casing pressure at the location of the cross-over device com municated to the lower end of the passage 186 through the port 192 of the cross-over body by fluid pressure admitted within a third flow conductor 200 which is communicated to the top end of the piston chamber 119d through a conduit 202 which extends therebetween.

It will be apparent that when the pressure within the third iiow conductor is increased, as by pumping fluid thereinto at the surface while its lower end is closed by a standing Valve installed in a landing nipple thereof, to such degree that its downward force exerted on the piston 120d overcomes the upward force exerted on the valve member by the spring 182 and by the casing pressure at the location of the cross-over device, the valve member is moved downwardly to a position wherein its piston ring 121d seals between the piston and the body above the passage 191 and the ring seal 189 seals with the seal surface below the passage 190.

It is preferred to equalize the pressures in the two flow conductors prior to the opening of the cross-over device, as by connecting them at the surface to a common source of uid pressure in order to preclude damage to the Seal ring or its valve member especially in installations where the pressures in the two flow conductors differ greatly. Fluid communication is established between the first and second ow conductors through the passages 190, 185 and 191 when the valve member is in its open position.

It will thus be apparent, that the cross-over device 110d may be used to control fluid communication between two ow conductors and is operable independently of the fluid pressure in the well casing or in either of the ow conductors 23d and 24d so that the pressure within the flow conductors 23d and 24d at the location of the cross-over device may be lower than the casing pressure when the cross-over device is open.

It will also be apparent that the cross-over device 110d may be tested by introducing test fluid pressure into either one of the two flow conductors, even if such test fluid pressure is greater than the casing pressure at the cross-over device since the upward and downward forces exerted on the valve means and piston by such test ud pressure from either ow conductor are balanced. Flow of uid through the cross-over device during such test will, of course, be detected in the manner previously described.

Referring now particularly to FIGURES and 11 of the drawings, the well installation 20e has three flow conductors 23e, 24e and 210 for producing well fluids from producing earth formations A, B, C and D through perforations 211, 212, 213 and 214, respectively, of the well casings C. The well casing is provided at the surface with the usual head 217 to which is connected a flow conduit 218 having a shut-off valve 219 and a pressure regulator valve 220 connected therein. The well apparatus may include packers 221 and 222 which yclose the casing below and above the perforations 213 of the producing earth formation C and seal between the casing and the first flow conductor 23e, a Well packer 223 which closes the well casing between the producing formations A and B and seals between the well casing and the first and second iiow conductors 23e and 24e, and a packer 224 above the producing earth formation A.

It will be apparent that the bottom end of the first flow conductor opens to the casing below the bottom packer `221, the bottom end of the second ow conductor opens to the casing Ibetween the packers 222 and 223 and the bottom end of the third flow conductor opens to the casing between the packers 223 and 224.

The third ow conductor 210 opens at its lower end to the casing between the packers 223 and 224 to permit production of well uids from the earth formation A to the surface and a cross-over device )c identical in structure to the cross-over device 110d is connected between the second and third flow conductors 24e and 210 and its operation is controlled by the pressure within the first flow conductor 23e communicated thereto by a conduit 230.

The third flow conductor is provided at the surface with the same type of surface control device or assembly as the rst and second iiow conductors having a bottom valve 225, a tube or manifold 226, a top valve 227 and a flow conduit 228 in which are connected a pressure regulator valve 229 and shut-off valve 230. The flow control device 110f may be located above the top triple packer 224 and permits iiow of fluids between the second and third flow conductors above the top landing nipple 230a of the third flow conductor and the valve 231 connected in the second flow conductor between the packers 223 and 224. The second ow conductor also has a plurality of landing nipples 232, 233, 234, and 235 connected therein and constituting sections thereof and similarly the third ow conductor 210 may have a plurality of landing nipples 236 and 237 connected therein below its uppermost landing nipple 230m.

The cross-over device 110g, which also is identical to the ow control device 110d illustrated in FIGURE 8, controls flow between the first and second ow conductors above the valve 231 of the second ow conductor and above the uppermost landing nipple 241 of the first ow conductor. The operation of the iiow control device 110gI is controlled by fluid pressure from the first fiow conductor by which it is transmitted the cross-over device 110g by a conduit 242. The first flow conductor may have an Iadditional landing nipple 243 connected therein above the packer 222 and a valve l244 connected therein between the packers 221 and 222 for controlling flow l from the formation C and through the first flow conductor when the valve is in its open position. The rst iiow conductor also has a plurality of landing nipples 245, 246, 247 and 248 connected therein for controlling 110W of uids from the casing below the bottom packer 221 through the first flow conductor. The valves 231 and 244 may be of the type illustrated and described on p. 3820 of the Composite Catalogue of Oil Field Equipment and Services, 1966-67 edition, and their internal sleeves, such as the sleeve 251 of the valve 244, are movable between their lower closed positions and upper open positions by a shifting tool which may move through the ow conductors lby suitable wire line tools or lby la pump-down train of well tools of the type described in connection with the well apparatus 20. The valves 231 and 245 and the shifting tools for moving their sleeves between their open and closed positions are fully described in the U.S. Letters Patent to Grimmer et al., No. 3,051,243, and will not, therefore, be illustrated or described in greater detail herein.

In use, if it desired, to produce well uids from the formations D, B and A through the flow conductors 23, 24e and 210, respectively, suitable ow control devices 17 are installed in the landing nipples of the three flow conductors while the sleeves of the valves 231 and 244 are in their lower closed positions. For example, standing valves may be releasably installed in the bottom landing nipples 24S, 235 and 237 of the first, second and third conductors, respectively, and safety Valves in the next higher landing nipples 247, 234 and 236, thereof. The well fluids from the formations D, B and A are thus caused to flow under controlled conditions to the flow conduits 44e, 54e and 224e.

Should it thereafter be desired to stop production from the lower zone D and to produce well fluids from the formation C through the first flow conductor, the pressure in the third flow conductor 210 will be increased to cause the crossover device 110g to open to permit circulation of fluids between the first and second flow conductors. If it is desired that the flow conductor below the valve 244 be closed, as, for example, if the pressure of the producing formation D is greater than that of the producing formation C, a plug not shown, provided with a latching device is installed in another of the landing nipples of the first flow conductor, such as the landing nipple 245, by means of a pump down train of tools and a suitable running tool. The pump down train of tools is then removed from the first flow conductor, a shifting tool of the type described in the patent to Grimmer et al., No. 3,051,243, is connected to the lower end of the pump down train of tools and is moved downwardly by such train through the first ow conductor by introducing fiuids into the top end of the first flow conductor and permitting upward fiow through the second flow conductor, until the shifting tool moves into operative engaget ment with the sleeve 252. At this time, the bottom locomotive of such train of tools is positioned above the location of communication of the body of the cross-over device 110g with the rst ow conductor. The train of tools and the shifting tool is then moved upwardly by circulating fluids downwardly through the second flow conductor and through the cross-over device and then upwardly through the first flow conductor. During its upward movement the shifting tool moves the sleeve 252 upwardly to its open position and then disengages therefrom. The train of tools is then removed from the first flow conductor.

If it is desired that the ow of fluids from the formation C through the first fiow conductor, which is now in communication with the casing through its ports 213 be controlled by suitable control devices, such devices may be installed in the landing nipples of the first flow conductor above the valve 244. For example, a standing may be installed in the landing nipple 243 and a safety valve may be installed in the landing nipple 244 by means of such pump down train of tools. The cross-over device 110g is then closed by lowering the pressure in the third ow conductor and production of well fluids from the formation C through the first flow conductor and from the formation B through the second flow conductors can then take place.

Similarly, if it is desired to install or remove well `tools from any one of the landing nipples of the second and third ffow conductors, the pressure in the first flow conductor is increased to cause the ffow control device 110i to move to open position 4and a train of pump down tools may then bemoved upwardly and downwardly in either of the second and third flow conductors to install or remove well tools from its landing nipples.

The valve 244 may be subsequently closed, if desired, by moving its sleeve 252 to its closed position by a shifting tool connected to a pump down train of tools.

It will also be apparent that the movement of -well tools or the circulation of fluids, such as the treating uids, through any flow conductor is not dependent upon particular pressure conditions in the pair of fio'w conductors through which the fiuids are circulated since the opening of the cross-over device between said pair of flow conductors is controlled by the pressure within a third flow conductor so that the pressures in the ow conductors may be lower or higher than that in the well casing if desired.

It will be apparent that any or all of flow conductors may be provided with valves, such as the valves 231 and 244 in various locations therealong and with a plurality of landing nipples to provide for great Ifiexibility of operation of the -well apparatus and treatment of the well. For example, the valve 231 of the second Iflow conductor may be opened to permit injection of treating liquids into the earth formation A by pumping such fluid intoy the second flow conductor while the flow conduit 228 is closed or to circulate fiuids down the second flow conductor and up the third conductor if the flow conduit 228 is open.

It will now be seen, that a ne'w and improved well apparatus hlas been illustrated `and described which includes a plurality of conductors between a pair olf which is connected a means, such las the cross-over devices I)c and 110g, for selectively establishing communication between pairs of the ow conductors at locations below the surface merely by varying the pressure conditions within one of the -llow conductors so that such communication may be established easily at the surface without the requirement of running tools into the well.

If it is desired to test any one of the cross-over devices of the well apparatus 20e, for example, the cross-over device 110), the test fluid pressure is introduced into one of the flow conductors, for example, the flow conductor 210, while the shut-in valves 45e and 55e of the other two flow conductors are closed. The test fiuid pressure in the ow conductor 210 is then increased to a value greater than the shut-in values of the pressures in the other two flow conductors 24e and 23e and, if the pressure gauges show that the pressure is rising above its normal shut-in pressure in the first or second flow conductor, it will be apparent that the cross-over -device is permitting fiow therethrough to one or the other of the conductors 23e and 24e. Alternatively, such flow through a malfunctioncross-over device may be determined by the fiow through the regulator valve of the first or second flow conductor.

Referring now to FIGURE l2 of the drawings, the well installation 20h is similar to the well installation 20 differing therefrom only that the cross-over device 110, in addition to having the passage k, which is at all times in communication with the passage of the first fiow conductor 23h and the piston chamber 119k, also has a passage 275 for providing communication between the piston chamber 119k below the piston and the second fiow conductor 24h. A check valve 176 is biased toward closed position to close the passage by the pressure from the first flow conductor. The provision of the passage 175 permits the opening of the valve cross-over device by the introduction by raising the pressure in the second flow conductor 24h in the event it is not desired to raise the pressure in the first flow conductor for this purpose. The check valve prevents ow of fluids from the first flow conductor 23h in which the pressure normally is much higher than the pressure in the flow conductor 24h so that when the valve member is in its closed position and normal production of fluids is taking place, the check valve prevents flow of fluid from the flow conductor 23h to the flow conductor 24h through the passages 135h and 175 and the piston chamber. Testing of the apparatus 20h when its valve member is in closed position, of course, can be accomplished only =by introducing the fluid pressure into the first flow conductor of higher value than the shut-in pressure of the second fiow conductor but lower than the pressure in the casing.

Referring to FIGURE 13 of the drawings, the well apparatus 201' is similar to the well apparatus 20a, its crossoverdevice 110i being positioned below the upper packer 261'. The well apparatus 201 differs from the well apparatus 20a in that its piston chamber 119i above the piston 120i opens to the casing below the upper packer 261 so that this packer may be a dual packer instead of a triple packer as is required when the piston is biased to its lowermost position by the fluid pressure above the packer. Since the pressure across the piston 120i is equalized when the valve member is in its lowermost position, the pressure between the two packers being equal to the pressure in the first flow conductor which opens to the casing between the two packers, a spring 180 is provided which biases the piston 120i to its lower position. It will be apparent that the well installation 120i may be operated in the same manner as the Well apparatus a.

It will now be seen thatin the different forms of the well apparatus embodying the invention each includes a plurality of flow conductors extending through a well and having longitudinal passages, cross-over means below the surface of the well for providing a cross passage between a pair of the ilow conductors, a valve means for closing the passage and means operatively associated with the valve means and responsive to fluid pressure in one of the flow conductors for moving the valve means to its open position when the pressure in one flow conductor is increased to a sufficiently high value.

It will further be seen that the cross-over device orf the well apparatus described may be positively tested to insure that the cross-over device is properly closed by means controllable at the surface of the well which require no tools to be moved into the well to accomplish such test.

It will further be seen that a new and improved method of operating a well penetrating 'a plurality of spaced fluid producing earth formations has `been illustrated and described which includes positioning in the well a plurality of flow conductors in position to communicate with the producing flow formations, barrier means, such `as packers, between the producing earth formations to close the well about the flow conductors extending through the barrier means so that different flow conductors will produce fluids from different formations, 'and a cross-over means connected to a pair of the ilow conductors for establishing communication between a pair of flolw conductors below the surface of the well and which is operable in response to pressure change in one of the flow conductors of the well; increasing the pressure in such one of the flow conductors to operate the cross-over means and establish communication between the flow conductors above the location of communication of the flow conductors with the producing earth formations, and then circulating fluids from the surface down one of the pair of flow conductors through the cross-over means and upwardly to the surface through the other of flow conductors.

The method may also include treating of the flow conductors with treating fluids, such as corrosion inhibiting or deposit dissolving and removing liquids, or the step of moving a tool transport means, such as the pump down train of tools 100, through one or the other of the pair of flow conductors to cause operation of 1a tool connected in such flow conductor, such as the valves 231 and 244, or to install or remove other well devices, such `as safety and standing valves in landing means of one or the other of such flow conductors; and then reversing the circulation of fluids to move the transport means and any tool carried thereby upwardly in the flow conductor for removal therefrom at the surface.

The method may also include the step of closing the flow conductors between the cross-over means at the locations of their communication with the producing earth formations during such circulation of fluids through the pair of flow conductors and the cross-over means to prevent flow of such fluids into the producing formations or the imposition of excessive pressures on the producing formations.

It will also be apparent that the method also may include the additional step of testing the cross-over device to determine whether when its valve means is in its closed position it permits any flow of fluids between the pair of 20 flow conductors to which it is connected, by closing the flow of fluids from one of the flow conductors or permitting flow therefrom only if the pressure in such conductor exceeds the shut-in pressure therein of the producing formation whose produced fluids are normally conducted to the surface through such conductor, then increasing the pressure in the other flow conductor to a valve above such shut-in valve, and then determining at the surface if the pressure in the rst flow conductor increases which can occur only if the cross-over device permits fluid flow from the other conductor to the first conductor.

The foregoing description of the invention is explanatory only, and changes in the details of the construction illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art, within the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention.

What is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:

1. A well apparatus including: a plurality of flow conductors extending into a well and having longitudinal passages; cross-over means below the surface of the well `providing a cross passage between a pair of said flow conductors; valve means in said cross-over means for closing off flow through said cross passage; first means including fluid pressure responsive means exposed to a source of pressure other than that within said pair of flow conductors operatively associated with said valve means for biasing said valve means to closed position; and second means operatively associated with said valve means and responsive to fluid pressure from one of said well and said pair of flow conductors for moving said valve means to open position to establish communication between the longitudinal passages of said pair of flow conductors through said cross passage.

2. The well apparatus of claim 1, wherein said first means includes resilient means acting on said valve to bias said valve means to closed position.

3. The well apparatus of claim 1, wherein said rst biasing means includes means exposed to the pressure in the well exteriorly of the cross-over device whereby the pressure in the well exteriorly of said pair of crossover device and said flow conductors exerts a force tending to hold said valve means in closed position.

4. The well apparatus of claim 3, and means operable at the surface of the well for varying the fluid pressure in said one of said pair of flow conductors.

5. 'Ihe well apparatus of claim 4, wherein said well penetrates a plurality of spaced producing earth formations and said apparatus includes barrier means in said well closing said well between adjacent producing formations, and about flow conductors extending through said barrier means, said flow conductors having means for establishing communication between their longitudinal passages and the producing formations.

6. The well apparatus of claim 5, wherein at least one of said pair of flow conductors is provided with landing means below said cross passage for releasably securing well tools in said flow conductor below said cross-over passage, whereby well tools may be installed in and removed from said landing means by transport means movable in said one of said pair of flow conductors by fluid circulated through said pair of flow conductors and said cross passage.

7. 'Ihe well apparatus of claim 6, wherein said well apparatus includes valve means in at least one of said pair of flow conductors below said cross passage for preventing downward flow in the passage of said one of said flow conductors and into the well and permitting flow from the well into the passage of the dlow conductor and upwardly therein.

8. The well apparatus of claim 7, and a valve connected in one of said pair of flow conductors means for controlling flow of fluids between the well and said one of said pair of flow conductors, said valve having means operable by a tool movable through said one of said 2'1 flow conductors by fluid circulated through said pair of allow conductors and said cross passage.

9. The well apparatus of claim 3, wherein said second means is exposed to uid pressure from one of said pair of said ow conductors to move said valve to open position.

10. The well apparatus of claim 9 and means operable at the surface of the well for varying the fluid pressure in said one of said pair of flow conductors.

11. The well apparatus of claim 10, wherein said well penetrates a plurality of spaced producing earth formations and said apparatus includes barrier means in said well closing said well between adjacent producing formations, and about flow conductors extending through said barrier means, said iiow conductors having means for establishing communication between their longitudinal passages and the producing formations.

12. The well apparatus of claim 11, wherein at least one of said pair of flow conductors is provided with landing means below said cross passage for releasably securing well tools in said flow conductor below said cross-over passage, whereby well tools may be installed in and removed from said landing means by transport means movable in said one of said pair of flow conductors by fluid circulated through said pair of ilow conductors and said cross passage.

13. The well apparatus of claim 12, wherein said well apparatus includes valve means in at least one of said pair of ow conductors below said cross passage for preventing downward flow in the passage of said one of sai-d flow conductors and into the well and permitting ow from the well into the passage of the ow conductor and upwardly therein.

14. The well apparatus of claim 13, and a valve connected in one of said pair of ilow conductors means for controlling flow of iluids between the well and said one of said pair of flow conductors, said valve having means operable by a tool movable through said one of said flow conductors by fluid circulated through said pair of flow conductors and said cross passage.

15. A cross-over device including: a body connectable to a pair of ilow conductors, said body having a cross passage for providing communication between the passages of the pair of ilow conductors to which said body is connectable; valve means mounted in said body and movable between an open position wherein said cross passage provides communication between passages of said pair of flow conductors to which the body is connectable and a closed position wherein said valve means closes off ow of fluid through said cross passage and biasing means including first pressure responsive means operatively associated with said valve means and exposed to the force of iluid pressure from a source' other.

than the pressure within said pair of ow conductors for biasing said valve means to closed position; said cross passage being closed oil? from communication with said iluid pressure of said biasing means.

16. The cross-over device of claim 15, wherein said biasing means includes resilient means acting on said Valve means tending to move said valve means to closed position.

17. The cross-over device of claim 16, and second pressure responsive means operatively associated with said valve means and exposable to the pressure in one of said pair of row conductors to which the body is connectable when it is connected thereto for moving said valve means to its open position.

18. The cross-over device of claim 17, wherein said body has a piston chamber and first and second passage means opening at spaced locations to said chamber; a piston in said chamber movable therein between said spaced locations, fluid pressure communicated through said first passage to said chamber exerting a force on said piston tending to move said valve means to closed position and fluid pressure communicated through said second passage to said chamber exerting a force on said piston tending to move said valve means to its open position.

19. The cross-over device of claim 18, wherein said cross-over device has a third passage through which pressure from the other of the flow conductors to which said body is connectable is to said chamber to exert a force on said piston tending to move said valve means to its open position, and means operatively associated with said third passage permitting fluid ow to said chamber through said chamber and preventing uid flow from said chamber through said third passage.

20. The cross-over device of claim 18, wherein said first passage means includes an elongate tube open at its end remote from said chamber and movable means in said tube for preventing movement of foreign substances into said chamber.

21. The cross-over device of claim 20, wherein said second passage means includes conduit means connecting said chamber to a third flow conductor whereby the valve means is movable to its open position when the pressure in said third conductor is increased to a predetermined value.

22. The cross-over device of claim 18, wherein said second passage is adapted to communicate with the passage of one of the flow conductors to which said body is connectable.

23. The cross-over device of claim 22, wherein said body has a third passage through which iluid pressure communicated to said chamber exerts a force on said piston tending to move said valve means to open position, said third passage being adapted to communicate with the passage of the other of said pair of flow conductors, and means permitting fluid ilow through said third passage into said chamber and preventing fluid flow from said chamber through said third passage.

24. The cross-over device of claim 18, wherein said second passage means provides communication between said chamber and one of the flow conductors to which said body is connectable.

25. The cross-over device of claim 24, wherein said first passage means includes an elongate tube open at its end remote from said chamber and movable means is disposed in said tube for preventing movement of foreign substances into said chamber.

26. A cross-over device for a well apparatus having a plurality of flow conductors extending through a well for producing well fluids therethrough, said device including: a body connectable to a pair of flow conductors of a well apparatus and having a main passage and a pair of cross passages opening to said main passage at spaced locations relative thereto, said main passage and cross passages providing a cross flow path between said pair of ilow conductors to which said body is connectable; valve means in said main passage movable between open and closed positions, said valve means preventing iluid communication between said pair of cross passages through said main passage when in closed position; first means operatively associated with said valve means and exposed to fluid pressure from a source other than within said pair of illow conductors for biasing said valve means to said closed position; and second means operatively associated with said valve means and exposed exposable to fluid pressure from one of said well and a one of said pair of flow conductors of said apparatus, fluid pressure exerted on said second means for moving said valve means to open position.

27. The cross-over device of claim 26, wherein said second means is exposed to iluid pressure from one of the pair of ilow conductors between which said body cross passages provides said cross flow path.

28. The cross-over device of claim 26, wherein said first means includes means exposed to uid pressure in said well whereby the Well pressure exteriorly of said flow (References on following page) position.

23 `conductors tends to bias said valve means to closed 3,322,192 5/ 1967 3,326,290 6/1967 References Cited 3,363,693 1/ 1968 UNITED STATES PATENTS 13811753 5/1968 9/1958 Hebard 166-52 X 5 11/1961 Fredd et a1. 166-115 DAVID H' BROWN 8/1966 Corley 166-45 X 2/ 1967 Yetrnan 166-45 166-72, 224

24. Woelfel et al 166-224 X Coberley 166-68 Bohlmann 166-224 X Fredd 166-224 X Primary Examiner.

U.S. C1. X.R.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION Patent No. 3,448,803 June l0, 1969 Phillip S. Sizer It is certified that error appears in the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 13, line 58, "of", second occurrence, should read if Column 17, line 50, after "standing" insert valve Column 20, line 8, "valve" should read value Signed and sealed this 14th day of April 1970.

(SEAL) Attest:

Edward M. Fletcher, Jr. WILLIAM E. SCHUYLER, JR.

Attesting Ufficer Commissioner of Patents

US3448803D 1967-02-02 1967-02-02 Means for operating a well having a plurality of flow conductors therein Expired - Lifetime US3448803A (en)

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US3552491A (en) * 1969-02-17 1971-01-05 Roy E Thompson Communicating valve assembly for multiple well formations
US3664427A (en) * 1970-11-23 1972-05-23 Otic Engineering Corp Well flow controlling systems, methods and apparatus
US3680637A (en) * 1970-08-20 1972-08-01 Otis Eng Corp Well tools and methods of operating a well
US3739850A (en) * 1971-06-18 1973-06-19 Otis Eng Corp Cross over assembly
US3750752A (en) * 1971-04-30 1973-08-07 Hydril Co Completion and kill valve
US3804167A (en) * 1972-06-28 1974-04-16 Cities Service Oil Co Automatic shut-in of down hole well production
US3865191A (en) * 1973-05-14 1975-02-11 Hydril Co Well apparatus and method of operating same for performing well operations
US3871450A (en) * 1974-04-17 1975-03-18 Dresser Ind Dual string circulating valve
US4071088A (en) * 1975-01-20 1978-01-31 Hydril Company Retrievable safety valve
US4299281A (en) * 1979-05-21 1981-11-10 Otis Engineering Corporation Compensating bridge plug
US4624310A (en) * 1985-05-20 1986-11-25 Otis Engineering Corporation Well apparatus
US4756372A (en) * 1985-10-18 1988-07-12 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Tool for closing a well tubing
US6488083B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2002-12-03 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Tubing hanger system
US6494257B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2002-12-17 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US6497277B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2002-12-24 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Internal gate valve for flow completion systems
US20080264643A1 (en) * 2007-04-24 2008-10-30 Brian Skeels Lightweight device for remote subsea wireline intervention
WO2011119198A1 (en) * 2010-03-25 2011-09-29 Tunget Bruce A Manifold string for selectively controlling flowing fluid streams of varying velocities in wells from a single main bore
US20110284226A1 (en) * 2010-05-20 2011-11-24 Smith Kenneth L System And Method For Controlling One Or More Fluid Properties Within A Well In A Geological Volume
US20130043031A1 (en) * 2009-06-23 2013-02-21 Bruce A. Tunget Manifold string for selectivity controlling flowing fluid streams of varying velocities in wells from a single main bore
US20140119965A1 (en) * 2011-06-22 2014-05-01 Rivener Musavirovich Gabdullin Downhole pump assembly
USRE45331E1 (en) 2002-12-10 2015-01-13 Frank's International, Llc Top feed of control lines to table-elevated spider
US20150027690A1 (en) * 2013-07-29 2015-01-29 Bp Corporation North America Inc. Systems and methods for producing gas wells with multiple production tubing strings
RU2556560C2 (en) * 2010-03-25 2015-07-10 Брюс Э. ТАНДЖЕТ Pipe string system for selective regulation of fluid flows with variable speeds in wells forking from one common wellbore
AU2011229957B2 (en) * 2010-03-25 2015-08-27 Bruce A. Tunget Manifold string for selectively controlling flowing fluid streams of varying velocities in wells from a single main bore
US9470076B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2016-10-18 Bp Corporation North America Inc. Systems and methods for production of gas wells
US9637984B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2017-05-02 Frank's International, Llc Manipulatable spider components adapted for cooperation with a vertically reciprocating control line guide

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US3552491A (en) * 1969-02-17 1971-01-05 Roy E Thompson Communicating valve assembly for multiple well formations
US3680637A (en) * 1970-08-20 1972-08-01 Otis Eng Corp Well tools and methods of operating a well
US3664427A (en) * 1970-11-23 1972-05-23 Otic Engineering Corp Well flow controlling systems, methods and apparatus
US3750752A (en) * 1971-04-30 1973-08-07 Hydril Co Completion and kill valve
US3739850A (en) * 1971-06-18 1973-06-19 Otis Eng Corp Cross over assembly
US3804167A (en) * 1972-06-28 1974-04-16 Cities Service Oil Co Automatic shut-in of down hole well production
US3865191A (en) * 1973-05-14 1975-02-11 Hydril Co Well apparatus and method of operating same for performing well operations
US3871450A (en) * 1974-04-17 1975-03-18 Dresser Ind Dual string circulating valve
US4071088A (en) * 1975-01-20 1978-01-31 Hydril Company Retrievable safety valve
US4299281A (en) * 1979-05-21 1981-11-10 Otis Engineering Corporation Compensating bridge plug
US4624310A (en) * 1985-05-20 1986-11-25 Otis Engineering Corporation Well apparatus
US4756372A (en) * 1985-10-18 1988-07-12 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Tool for closing a well tubing
US4944350A (en) * 1985-10-18 1990-07-31 Schlumberger Technology Corporation Tool for closing a well tubing
US20070007012A1 (en) * 2000-03-24 2007-01-11 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US6494257B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2002-12-17 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US6497277B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2002-12-24 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Internal gate valve for flow completion systems
US20030178202A1 (en) * 2000-03-24 2003-09-25 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US6626239B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2003-09-30 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Internal gate valve for flow completion systems
US6655455B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2003-12-02 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US6681850B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2004-01-27 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US6488083B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2002-12-03 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Tubing hanger system
US20040188083A1 (en) * 2000-03-24 2004-09-30 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US7069988B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2006-07-04 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US7096937B2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2006-08-29 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
US20040074636A1 (en) * 2000-03-24 2004-04-22 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Flow completion system
USRE45331E1 (en) 2002-12-10 2015-01-13 Frank's International, Llc Top feed of control lines to table-elevated spider
US9637984B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2017-05-02 Frank's International, Llc Manipulatable spider components adapted for cooperation with a vertically reciprocating control line guide
US20080264643A1 (en) * 2007-04-24 2008-10-30 Brian Skeels Lightweight device for remote subsea wireline intervention
US8047295B2 (en) * 2007-04-24 2011-11-01 Fmc Technologies, Inc. Lightweight device for remote subsea wireline intervention
US9719311B2 (en) * 2009-06-23 2017-08-01 Bruce A. Tunget Manifold string for selectivity controlling flowing fluid streams of varying velocities in wells from a single main bore
US20130043031A1 (en) * 2009-06-23 2013-02-21 Bruce A. Tunget Manifold string for selectivity controlling flowing fluid streams of varying velocities in wells from a single main bore
RU2556560C2 (en) * 2010-03-25 2015-07-10 Брюс Э. ТАНДЖЕТ Pipe string system for selective regulation of fluid flows with variable speeds in wells forking from one common wellbore
WO2011119198A1 (en) * 2010-03-25 2011-09-29 Tunget Bruce A Manifold string for selectively controlling flowing fluid streams of varying velocities in wells from a single main bore
AU2011229957B2 (en) * 2010-03-25 2015-08-27 Bruce A. Tunget Manifold string for selectively controlling flowing fluid streams of varying velocities in wells from a single main bore
US8322425B2 (en) * 2010-05-20 2012-12-04 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. System and method for controlling one or more fluid properties within a well in a geological volume
US20110284226A1 (en) * 2010-05-20 2011-11-24 Smith Kenneth L System And Method For Controlling One Or More Fluid Properties Within A Well In A Geological Volume
US20140119965A1 (en) * 2011-06-22 2014-05-01 Rivener Musavirovich Gabdullin Downhole pump assembly
US10487633B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2019-11-26 Bp Corporation North America Inc. Systems and methods for producing gas wells with multiple production tubing strings
US9470076B2 (en) 2013-07-29 2016-10-18 Bp Corporation North America Inc. Systems and methods for production of gas wells
US9790773B2 (en) * 2013-07-29 2017-10-17 Bp Corporation North America Inc. Systems and methods for producing gas wells with multiple production tubing strings
US20150027690A1 (en) * 2013-07-29 2015-01-29 Bp Corporation North America Inc. Systems and methods for producing gas wells with multiple production tubing strings

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