US3338308A - Well packer and anchor therefor - Google Patents

Well packer and anchor therefor Download PDF

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US3338308A
US3338308A US388479A US38847964A US3338308A US 3338308 A US3338308 A US 3338308A US 388479 A US388479 A US 388479A US 38847964 A US38847964 A US 38847964A US 3338308 A US3338308 A US 3338308A
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means
mandrel
body
packing
sleeve
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US388479A
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Thomas L Elliston
Carter R Young
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Otis Engineering Corp
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Otis Engineering Corp
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/12Packers; Plugs
    • E21B33/129Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing
    • E21B33/1295Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing actuated by fluid pressure
    • E21B33/12955Packers; Plugs with mechanical slips for hooking into the casing actuated by fluid pressure using drag blocks frictionally engaging the inner wall of the well

Description

Aug. 29, i967 T. L. ELLISTON ETAL.

WELL PACKER AND ANCHOR THEREFOR Filed Aug. lO, 1964 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTORS THOMAS L. ELLISTON CARTER R. YOUNG f, Maf

ATTORNEYS Aug. 29, 967

WELL PACKER AND ANCHOR THEREFOR Filed Aug. l0, 1964 fly- 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS THOMAS L. ELLlsToN CARTER R. YOUNG /Cf/ ATTORNEYS T. L. ELLISTON ETAL 3,338,308

WELL PACKER AND ANCHOR THEREFOR Aug. 29, 1967 3 Sheets-$heet :5

Filed Aug. lO, 1964 INVENTORS ISTON NG WM ATTORNEYS United States Patent Filed Aug. 10, 1964, Ser. No. 388,479 17 Claims. (Cl. 166-120) This invention relates to well tools, and more particularly to well packers.

One object of the invention is to provide a well packer connectible in a flow conductor, such as a string of well tubing, to form a section thereof, and having packing means for sealing the annulus between two telescoped ow conductors, such as the string of tubing and the well casing of a well in which the string of tubing is disposed, and having means for ybypassing iluids around said packing means while said packer is being lowered into or lifted out of the well casing.

A particular object of the invention is to provide a well packer having expandible locking means for locking the well packer against movement in the well casing in either longitudinal direction, whereby the well packer may withstand either upwardly or downwardly acting forces of fluid pressures exerted thereon by the uid pressure above or below the packer without being displaced in the well casing after the packing means has been expanded into sealing engagement with the well casing.

A further object of the invention is to provide in a well packer of the character described an anchoring means for anchoring the packer against downward displacement in the well and a hold-down means for limiting upward displacement of the packing means in the well after the expansible packer means has been moved outwardly to expanding position, and wherein the hold-down means is actuated by the pressure of the Huid from below the packer.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a well packer having means therein exposed to the pressures of iluids above and below the expanded packing means to counter balance the forces exerted on the mandrel of the packer when the packer has been set in the well whereby the anchoring means is not released or displaced from its expanded anchoring position by excessive pressures above or below the packing means.

Still another object of the invention is to provide in a packer of the character just described a hold-down -means which is actuated by fluid pressure from below the packing means transmitted to the hold-down means through a bypass flow passage in the well packer extending from below the packing means past the packing means to the hold-down means thereabove and wherein Imeans is provided for positively assuring the application of the fluid pressure to the hold-down means.

Still another object of the invention is to provide in a packer having upper and lower anchoring means and a sealing element therebetween, a bypass internally past the sealing element which is normally open during downward movement of the packer into the well to prevent the packing assembly from being inadvertently expanded to sealing engagement and wherein the bypass is located below the upper locking assembly and permits lluids to pass the sealing element without acting on the upper locking assembly; and still another object of the invention is to provide in a packer of the character just described having the bypass means provided therein, bypass closure elements and means for holding the bypass closure elements in an open position to assure that fluids may readily pass the packing assembly during movement of the packer in the well.

A'further object of the invention is'to provide in a 3,338,303@ Patented Aug. 29, 1967 packer of the character described means for compensating or balancing the pressure applied to the mandrel of the packer from above and below the packing assembly to prevent movement of the mandrel of the packer on which the anchoring means of the packer is mounted, and wherein the -bypass provides means for directing fluid pressure into the annulus between the packer and the well casing -below the hold-down structure and for equalizing the pressures across the hold-down structure `to prevent application of a downward force on the packer holddown mechanism and thus prevent premature actuation of the hold-down mechanism.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a Well packer having hold-down means exposed to the fluid pressure from below the packing means through a bypass ilow passage in the packer to cause a downward force to be exerted on the hold-down means to assure retention of the anchoring means in locking position, and wherein the bypass means provides for the balancing of pressures of the fluids acting on the hold-down means during movement of the packer in the well; and, wherein, when the packer is to be released from locking position and sealing position in the well, the opening of the bypass below the hold-down means does not immediately release any excess upward fluid pressure acting across the packing assembly and thus does not permit the packer to be blown up the hole when the bypass is opened, since any such upward pressure diiferential below the packing assembly must lrst be reduced or relieved by passing through the bypass passage around the packing assembly before the upper anchoring and hold-down means are released.

A further object is to provide in a packer of the character described improved lower anchoring means including gripping slips and expander means on the packer spaced longitudinally with respect to each other and movable into expanded or retracted positions, and wherein the -gripping slips of the anchoring means are positively biased inwardly toward retracting position at all times and are mechanically expanded to expanded gripping position by movement of the expander means toward the gripping slips, and the slips, slip carrier and friction assembly is shortened in overall length.

A further important object of the invention is to provide an improved anchoring or gripping means for packers which is simple to manufacture, economical to operate and positive in action.

It will thus be seen that the invention is directed to an improved retrievable and resettable well packer and anchor, in which gripping slips are disposed below a packing assembly and a pressure responsive hold down means is provided above the packing to positively assure that the packing is held in expanded position and against longitudinal displacement in a well casing, and wherein a bypass passage is provided through the packer past the packing communicating with the exterior of the packer at a point between the hold down means and the packing whereby fluids in the Well may bypass the packing and will pass exteriorly of the hold down means or upper lock means; also, that the packer includes improved pressure responsive means for acting to positively hold the packing in expanded position, and to equalize excessive pressures from above or below.

Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent from the reading of the following description of devices constructed in accordance with the invention, and reference to the accompanying drawings thereof, wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a view, partly -in elevation and partly in section, of the upper portion of a packer constructed in accordance with the invention and showing the anchoring and sealing means thereof in retracted positions;

FIGURE 2 is a continuation of FIGURE 1, and is a view, partly in elevation Kand partly in section, of the lower portion of the packer of FIGURE l;

FIGURE 3 is a view similar to FIGURE l, partly in elevation and partly in section, of the upper portion of the well Ipacker showing the operative elements thereof in the positions assumed thereby when the packer is in operative position in the well casing for closing ofi: ow of fluids externally of the tubing string in which the packer is connected;

FIGURE 4 is la continuation of FIGURE 3, partly in elevation and partly in section, of the lower portion of the packer of FIGURE 3;

FIGURE 5 is a horizontal cross-sectional view taken along the line 5-5 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 6 is a horizontal cross-sectional view taken on the line 6-6 of FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary view of the J-slot connecting means of the slip carrier and mandrel; and,

FIGURE 8 is a view, partly in elevation and partly in section, of the upper lportion of a modied form of the packer showing the parts thereof in expande-d operative position.

In the drawings, the numeral 10 designates generally a well packer having an elongate tubular inner mandrel 11, an elongate tubular body assembly 12, a slip carrier and slip -or gripping assembly 13, a packing assembly 14 on the body, and an upper locking and hold-down assembly 15.

The upper end of the mandrel 11 is provided with external threads 16 to which a coupling 17 may be connected by means of which the usual tubing string (not shown) is connected to the mandrel and by means of which the mandrel is lowered into and manipulated in the well bore. At the lower end of the mandrel 11 is a connector sub 18 having internal threads in its upper portion by which -it is connected to the external threads 19 at the lower end of the mandrel and having external threads 28 on its lower end for receiving the usual coupling 21 by means of which the lower portion of the tubing string (not shown) may be connected to the packer and suspended therefrom.

The packer is lowered into the well casing C by means of the tubing string to the desired location, whereupon the lower gripping or slip assembly 13 is actuated to lock the lower portion of the body assembly 12 against downward movement, so that further downward movement of the upper portion of the assembly relative to the packing assembly 14 deforms the packing Iassembly into sealing engagement with the well casing, and the upper locking and hold-down assembly is then actuated to positively hold the packer and packing assembly carried thereby in the well casing in sealing engagement between the mandrel 11 to which the tubing string is connected and the casing C to prevent flow through the annular space between the tubing and the casing.

The elongate body member 12 is slidably mounted on the mandrel 11 and includes a packing mandrel or sleeve 25 which is threaded into the lower end of a tubular connecting sub 26 having external screw threads 27 on its upper end to which the lower end of a compensator and hold-down sleeve 28 is threaded. The compensator and hold-down sleeve 28 extends upwardly around the mandrel and the upper portion of the bore 29 of the sleeve is reduced in diameter at its extreme upper end as shown :at 30, and such upper reduced Iportion is slidable on the exterior of the mandrel 11 and has an internal annular recess therein in which a sealing element or O-ring 31 is disposed for sealing between the sleeve 28 and the exterior of the mandrel. The upper end of this reduced bore 30 of the sleeve is counterbored a short distance as shown at 32 to form an upwardly facing stop shoulder 33 which -is adapted to engage the lower beveled shoulder 34 of a snap ring 35 which is mounted in an external annular recess 36 formed in the periphery of the mandrel 11 above the body to limit upward movement of the body with respect to the mandrel for a purpose which will hereinafter be more fully explained.

A plurality of normally retracted and inherently retractible resilient rubber or rubberlike packing rings 36 are disposed on the exterior of the packing mandrel or sleeve 25 of the body 12 below the connector sub 26, and these packing rings engage the ydownwardly facing shoulder 37 at the lower end of the connector sub and are confined between the downwardly facing shoulder 37 and an upwardly facing shoulder 38 formed by the upper end surface of an annular retaining ring 39 which is welded or otherwise secured as at 40 4to the upper end of a slip expander wedge or cone member 41. The bore 42 of the expander or wedge member 41 is enlarged to receive an external annular supporting shoulder 43 formed at the lower end of the 'packing mandrel and which engages the inwardly projecting annular ange portion 39a of the ring 39 to support the expander member at the lower end of the packing mandrel 25 of the body 12 as shown in FIGURE 2. The packing rings 36 are thus confined on the packing mandrel 25 between the shoulder 38 at the upper end of the expander wedge and the downwardly facing shoulder 37 at the lower end of the connector sub 26A An O-ring 45 is disposed in an internal annular recess formed in the lower portion of the bore of the connector sub 26 above the packing rings 36 and seals therebetween to prevent uid leakage between the mandrel 11 and the sub.

The expander wedge or cone member 41 has a downwardly and inwardly inclined or tapered or frusto-conical expander surface 47 at its lower end which is adapted to engage Ibetween a plurality of circumferentially spaced gripping slips 50 carried at the upper end of a slip carrying sleeve 51 which is slidably mounted on the lower portion of the mandrel 11 below the body 12 and 4confined on the mandrel between the body 12 and the connector sub 18 at the lower end of the mandrel. The slip carrier is formed with a plurality of circumferentially spaced longitudinally extending grooves 52 which are open at their upper ends 52a to receive the T-shaped handle portions 53 of the slips 50. The laterally extending lower cross portions or arms 54 of the handles 53 of the slips are received in an internal annular recess 55 formed in the bore of the slip carrier spaced below the upper end 56 of the carrier a suicient distance to permit the handles to be received in the grooves and recess with the lateral portions 54 of the handles disposed in the annular recess and the elongate upright portion 58 of the handles disposed in the upper open portion 52a of the groove, as clearly shown in FIGURES 2, 4 and 6. The length of the handles 53 is such that the gripping heads 60 of the slips 50, which are enlarged over the size of the handles, may freely move laterally with respect to the upper shoulder 56 of the slip carrier without binding or catching as the slips are moved between expanded and retracted positions. The slips have serrated external faces 61 and have outwardly and upwardly inclined expander surfaces 62 at their upper inner ends which are adapted to be engaged by the tapered expander surface 47 of the expander member 41, whereby the slips are moved from the retracted positions shown in FIGURE 2 to the expanded positions shown in FIGURE 4, upon such longitudinal movement of the expander member relative to the slips.

A plurality of longitudinally extending friction members `or springs 65 are secured by bolts or screws 66 to the slip carrier 51 within the lower portions of the slots 52, as clearly shown in FIGURE 2, and the springs extend upwardly and bow outwardly of the slip carrier to engage the wall of the casing C with their mid-portions, as shown in FIGURE 4, then bow inwardly and upwardly to slidably engage their upper free ends 68 in longitudinally extending recesses 69 formed in the lower portion of the outer gripping faces 61 of the slips, whereby the bow springs positively bias the gripping heads 60 of the slips 50 inwardly toward the retracted positions shown in FIGURE 2 at all times as a result of the engagement of the bowed mid-portions 67 of the springs with the casing wall and the engagement of the upper ends 68 of the springs in the grooves. The late-ral arm portions 54 at the lower ends of the slip handles 53 are con-fined between the exterior of the mandrel 11 and the curved side surface 57 of the annular recess 55 in the slip carrier on opposite sides of the groove 52 and engage the curved surface 57 to prevent outward displacement of the lower ends of the handles from within the recess 55, and thus swingably hold the slips connected with the slip carrier.

The lower portion of the slip carrier is reduced in extern-al diameter to provide a J-slot connecting sleeve 70 which is integral with and extends downwardly from the upper portion of the slip carrier and is provided with a pair of diametrically opposed J -slot connecting means 71 which are adapted to engage a pair of pins 72 welded or otherwise suitably secured at diametrically opposed positions to the exterior surface of the mandrel as shown at 73, whereby the engagement of the pins inthe lower downwardly extending portion 78 of the laterally counterclockwise offset l-atching portion of the I-slots holds the carrier and the slips carried thereby against upward movement on the mandrel.

The opposed J-slot connecting means 71 are, as clearly shown in FIGURE 7, each formed with a widely divergent lower open mouth portion 74, a vertical upward portion 75, an upwardly and laterally counter-clockwise extending upper surface 76, a downwardly extending counter-clockwise laterally oifset shoulder surface 77, a lower catch portion or retaining portion 78 and an upwardly extending retaining surface 79. As will be seen, the upper portion 76 of the J-slot extends upwardly and toward the right in FIGURE 7, whereby the pin 72 on the mandrel will readily enter the wide mouth portion 74 at the lower end of the slot and will be guided by the upwardly convergent surfaces of the mouth portion through the vertical portion 75 of the slot, then into engagement with the upwardly and counter-clockwise inclined upper portion 76 of the I -slots vtoward the upper end of the offset vertical shoulder surface 77. Thereafter, vertical downward movement of the mandrel with respect to the I -slot will move the pin 72 toward the lower hook portion or retaining portion 78 at the lower end of the vertical surface 77, where the pin will be retained by virtue of such engagement against movement in either lateral direction out of engagement with the vertical surface 77 and the upwardly facing clockwise inclined surface 79 at the lower end of the offset portion of the slots. Thus, when the pins 72 are engaged in the retaining portions 78 of thev I -slots 71, downward movement of the mandrel 11 carries the slip carrier downwardly therewith, drawing the springs 65 through the casing with the bowed central portions 67 of the springs dragging along the bore wall of the casing and the upper ends 68 of the springs holding the gripping slip heads 60 inwardly in their retracted positions show-n in FIGURE 2. Since the slips and slip carrier are not in any manner directly connected with the body 12 of the packer assembly, the slip carrier and slips may be disposed at any distance below the body on the mandrel, the mandrel being of the desired length to so position the slips below the body and the expander wedge member 41 carried thereby to permit such longitudinal movement of the mandrel with respect to the slips as may be desired to elfect various manipulating operations of the mandrel and the body causing longitudinal movement thereof with respect to the slip carrierv and slips without prematurely engaging the slips and forcing the same into gripping engagement with the wall of the casing.

The lower portion of the bore 42 of the slip expander member 41 is reduced as shown at 42a to centralize the lower end of the expander member on the mandrel, but is spaced slightly from the external wall of the mandrel 11 to provide an annular flow passage 48 therebetween for a purpose which will be hereinafter more fully explained. Also, the reduced portion of the bore of the expander member provides a thicker wall adjacent the expander surface 47 of the expander member as will be clearly seen in FIGURES 2 and 4, and provides a stronger support for the slips 50 when the same are in expanded locking positions.

The packing assembly 14 includes a plurality of rings or annular sleeves 36 of rubber or rubberlike materials, shown to be three in the drawings. The intermediate sealing ring 86 is shown as having its opposite ends convergent outwardly, and the lower end of the upper ring 87 is inclined downwardly and outwardly, while the upper end of the lower ring is inclined upwardly and outwardly to conform to the opposite end surfaces of the inte-rmediate ring 86, whereby the upper and lower rings are wedged outwardly with respect to the central ring when the shoulder 37 of the connector sub is moved toward the shoulder 38 of the expander member for distorting the packing assembly therebetween. The packing rings are norm-ally in the relaxed retracted position shown in FIG- URE 1, and will return to such position upon release of the longitudinal distorting force applied thereto.

The bore 89 of the packing mandrel or sleeve 25 is larger than the exterior diameter of the mandrel 11, whereby an annular ow passage or bypass passage 90 is provided between the packing mandrel and the elongate central mandrel 11. Thus, uid entering through the lower end of the bore of the expander member 41 may pass upwardly through the ow passage 48 and the bore 42 of the by-pass passage 90, .and upwardly through the bypass passage past the packing rings and into the bore of the connector sub thereabove. A lateral opening 91 is formed in the ring 39 at the upper end of the expander member 41, and this opening provides a means for engaging the lower portion of the wall of the packing mandrel or sleeve 25 for threading the mandrel or sleeve into the internal threads 92 in the lower portion of the bore of the connector sub.

The upper end of the annular by-pass passage 90 communicates with the bore 95 of the connector sub 26 thereabove and the upper portion of the bore of the connector sub is enlarged in diameter at shoulder 94 to provide an enlarged internal annular seal surface 96 therein having a beveled upper shoulder 97 at its upper end, for a purpose which will hereinafter be more fully described. The upper end of the enlarged portion of the bore of the sub v26 communicates with the lower end of the bore 29 of the compensator and hold-down sleeve 28, and a plurality of lateral by-pass openings or ports 98 are formed in the lower portion of the wall of the sleeve 28 whereby fluid passing upwardly through the by-pass passage 90 past the packing assembly 14, through the bore of the connector sub 26 and into the sleeve 28 may pass outwardly from the bore of the hold-down sleeve through the ports 98 into the annulus between the sleeve and the casing wall above the packing assembly 14 to prevent premature fluid pressure setting of the packing rings 36 of the packing assembly. I

In order to close the lateral by-pass port openings 98, Ithe mandrel 11 is provided. with a sealing sleeve valve member 100 which has a bore 101 slightly larger in diameter than the exterior diameter of the mandrel 11 whereby an internal annular iluid passageway 102 is provided between the sleeve and the mandrel. The sleeve is held against longitudinal movement on the mandrel by engagement of the lower end thereof with a lower split retaining ring 1105 which is disposed in a suitable external annular recess 106 formed in the outer surface of the mandrel and engaged with a shoulder 107 in an enlarged annular recess 108 at the lower end of the bore 101 of the sleeve, and by engagement of the upper end of the sleeve with an upper retaining ring 110 whichis a split ring litt-ing in an external annular groove or recess A111 for-med in the periphery of the mandrel 11. Each retaining ring has outwardly convergent upper and lower beveled surfaces, the lower surface of the uper ring being engaged by the beveled upper end 114 ofthe sleeve 100 and the upper surface of the lower ring engaging the shoulder 107 at the lower end of the sleeve. The sleeve is therefore held against substantially longitudinal movement on the mandrel and will move with the mandrel when the shoulders 4at the opposite ends thereof engage the beveled shoulders ofthe retaining rings 105 and 110.

The lower end of the sleeve 100 is formed with an external annular ange 120 having an upwardly facing shoulder 121 which is adapted to be engaged by and to support a lower packing or sealing ring assembly 130 surrounding the sleeve 100 above the shoulder and confined between the shoulder and a spiral spl-it retaining ring 131 disposed in an internal and :annular groove 132 formed in the sleeve 100. Above the ring 131 is a second sealing ring assembly 140 which is confined between the ring 131 and the lower shoulder or surface 145 at the lower end of an elongate collar member 150 which is threaded onto the threadsv 151 along the upper end portion of the sleeve 100. The bore of the collar is reduced to provde an internal annular stop shoulder 152 intermediate the ends of the collar which is Iadapted to engage the upper end 114 of the sleeve to limit the threaded telescoping movement of the collar on the sleeve and to space the shoulder 145 properly from the shoulder 121 on the sleeve to permit mounting therebetween the sealing ring assemblies 130 and 140.

Each of the seal ring assemblies 130 .and 140 consists of resilient or rubber like central sealing ring having divergent retaining flanges 135 and 136 on its upper and lower surfaces, respectively, and an upper retaining ring 137 and a lower retaining ring 138 having corresponding beveled inner surfaces fitting over the flanges or retaining anges of the sealing ring :and holding the flanges and the inner surfaces of the ring in engagement with the outer surface of the sleeve 100 between the upwardly ,facing shoulder 120, the spiral split retaining ring 131 and the downwardly facing shoulder 145 of the collar 150 mounted on the exterior surface of the valve sleeve between the shoulders 121 `and 145. An internal annular recess 153 formed in the bore of the collar 150 has a sealing member or O-ring 154 disposed therein for Isealing between the collar and the sleeve. The seal ring assemblies 130 and 140 each in- Icludes a rubber or rubberlike resilient ring 134 disposed between upper and lower metallic retaining rings 135 and 136, -respectively (FIGURE 1).

The exterior surface 150a of the collar 150 is substantially equal in diameter to the seal surface 96 of the connector sub and the upper end of the collar extends upwardly beyond the upper retaining ring 110 land provides an upwardly facing shoulder 154 which is adapted to be engaged by a downwardly facing shoulder 155 formed in the bore of the locking and hold-down sleeve 28, whereby downward movement of the hold-down sleeve and the body assembly 12 is limited by engagement of the shoulder 15S with the shoulder 154, while upward movement of the body assembly 12 on the mandrel 11 is limited by engagement of the shoulder 33 at the upper end of the hold-down sleeve with the shoulder 34 of the retaining ring 35 on the mandrel. It will thus be seen that the body assembly 12 of the packer is thus limited against longitudinal downward movement on the mandrel toward the slip carrier and slips disposed therebelow on the mandrel, and that the slip carrier and slips rnay be secured to the mandrel at any suitable position below the expander member 41 of the body assembly to permit such longitudinal manipulating movement of the mandrel with respect to the slips as is desir-able to accomplish any desired operation in the well without setting the slips prematurely.

Above the shoulder 155, the sleeve 28 is provided with a plurality of sets of radially extending cylindrical openings 170, 171 and 172 which sets are shown to be longitudinally offset with respect to each other to permit the incorporation of a greater number of the openings at circumferentially spaced positions around the periphery of the upper portion of the sleeve. Within each of the openings 170, 171 and 172 is disposed a cylindrical hold-down button or piston gripping member which is slidable radially in said opening between a retracted inner position shown in FIGURE 1 and an expanded gripping position shown in FIGURE 3. An annular sealing member or O-ring 181 is positioned in an annular groove or recess 182 formed in the inner end portion of each of the piston buttons or gripping members, whereby uid pressure within the bore 29 of the sleeve 28 will force the buttons 180 outwardly of the openings 170, 171 and 172 into gripping engagement with lthe wall of thecasing. The outer surfaces or faces of the but-tons are provided with serrated gripping teeth 184 which may all be either in the form of saw teeth or of a.` diamond pointed shape. Diametrically opposed recesses 186 and 187 are formed in the outer face of each of the buttons or gripping members and these recesses receive the free ends of a plurality of leaf springs 188 and 189 which are secured at their opposite ends to the sleeve 28 by bolts or retaining screws 190 and 191, respectively. The fixed ends of the springs are disposed in longudinally extending grooves or slots or recesses which are formed in the exterior surface of the exterior surface of the sleeve and extend diametrically across the openings 170, 171 and 172, whereby when the springs are secured to the sleeve 28 in the grooves or recesses 195 the engagement of the springs in the recesses 186 and 187 of the buttons prevents rotative movement of the buttons in the openings or cylinders 170, 171 and 172 and retains the gripping teeth 184 in proper gripping position with respect to the wall surface ofthe casing.

The springs 188 and 189 bias the buttons inwardly and normally retain the same in retracted position when no pressure differential is applied to the inner surfaces of the buttons from within the bore 29 of the sleeve. However, pressure within the sleeve 28 acting on the inner surface of the pistons will force the pistons outwardly :against the inward biasing force exerted Ithereon by the springs and cause the pistons to engage the casing wall to hold the sleeve against upward displacement.

As is clearly shown in FIGURE 1, the upper end of the lower portion 200 of the bore of the compensator and hold-down sleeve 28 is reduced below the downwardly facing shoulder 155 to provide a second downwardlyfacing shoulder 201 spaced below the shoulder 155, and the shoulder 201 is adapted to be engaged by the upper end 202 of a compensator sleeve or piston 203 which is slidable in the enlarged lower portion 200 of the bore of the sleeve 28 and on the exterior surface 15011 of the collar 150. The lower end 204 of the compensator piston 203 engages the upwardly facing shoulder formed by the upper surface ofan external annular flange 206 formed on' the lower end of the collar 150, whereby downward longitudinal movement of the compensator piston on the collar is limited by engagement of the shoulder 204 with the flange 206 and upward movement of the piston is limited by the engagement of the upper end 202 of the piston 203 with the downwardly facing shoulder 201 at the upper end of the enlarged portion 200 of the bore of the compensator and hold-down sleeve. An internal annular groove 211 is formed in the lower end of the bore of the compensator piston and an O-ring or seal ring210 disposed in the .groove seals between the piston and the collar and prevents uid passage therebetween. An eX- ternal annular recess 212 is formed in the upper end of the piston and a seal ring or O-ring 213 is disposed in such recess and seals between the piston and the enlarged bore 200 of the sleeve to prevent fluid passage therebetween. The distance between the upwardly facing shoulder 33 in the bore of the upper end of the sleeve and the shoulder 34 on the retaining ring 35 is such that the body assembly 12 of the packer may move upwardly relative to the mandrel, and relative to the valve sleeve 100 and the collar 150, until the shoulder 33 engages the retaining ring 35 wit-hout disengaging the internal sealing ring 210 in the bore of the compensator piston from sealing engagement with the exterior surface 150g of the collar. Also, the external seal ring 213 will always engage the enlarged bore 200 of the sleeve above the lateral parts 98 therein, so that a sealed closure is effected at all times between the valve sleeve 100 on the mandrel 11 and the enlarged bore 200 of the compensator and hold-down sleeve.

It will be seen that, when the mandrel 11 is moved downwardly and moves the valve sleeve 100 downwardly therewith, the packing ring assemblies 130 and 140 are moved downwardly with the sleeve by virtue of their being confined between the lower end of the collar 150 and the flange 120 on the sleeve until the sealing rings 134 and 135 enter the enlarged bore of the connector sub and engage in sealing relationship the annular sealing surface 96 forming the bore wall of such enlarged upper bore of the sub. Downward movement of the valve sleeve 100 and of the mandrel with respect to the body 12 is limited, not only by the engagement of the shoulder 33 at the upper end of the sleeve 28 with the retaining ring 35, but also by engagement of the downwardly facing shoulder 215 at the lower end of the valve sleeve with the upwardly facing shoulder 94 at the lower end of the enlarged upper portion of the bore of the connector sub. Thus, when the mandrel has been moved downwardly and the sealing rings 130 and 140 carried thereby are moved into the enlarged bore of the connector sub and into sealing engagement with t-he annular sealing surface 96 of the sub, it will be seen that fluid pressure from below the packer passing upwardly through the by-pass passage 90 will be directed upwardly through the annular passage 102 between the valvesleeve100 and the mandrel 11 into the bore 29 of the compensator and hold-down sleeve 28 above the collar 150 and the compensator piston 203. Since the O-ring 54 seals between the collar and the valve sleeve 100, and since the O-ring 210 seals between the inner surface of the bore wall of the compensator piston the exterior surface of the collar and the O-ring 213 seals between the exterior surface of the compensator piston and the bore wall 200 of the compensator and hold-down sleeve, it will be seen that iluid pressure so passing from the by-pass passage 90 upwardly past the valve sleeve into the bore of the sleeve 28 above the compensator piston will be trapped within the sleeve 28 and cannot pass outwardly through the lateral ports 98. The distance between the shoulder 215 at the lower end of the valve sleeve 100 and the sealing ring 213 at the upper end of the compensator piston is greater than the distance between the shoulder 94 and the upper ends of the ports 98 in the sleeve 28, so that the lateral ports are positively closed when the mandrel is in the lower position just described. Also, uid passing upwardly into the bore of the sleeve 28 above the compensator piston will enter the reduced bore 29 at the upper end of the sleeve 28 and act on the inner surfaces of the piston hold-down buttons 1180 to urge the same outwardly, since the seal ring 31 closed off any ilow between the upper end of the sleeve 28 and the exterior surface of the mandrel 11 to prevent iiuid escaping upwardly out of the sleeve. The pressure then moves the piston hold-down buttons outwardly into engagement with the casing wall as shown in FIGURE 3.

With the packer assembly inthe position shown in FIG- URES 3 and 4, with the by-pass ports 98 closed and the packing assembly 14 in its expanded position, and with the gripping slips 50 in gripping position and the holddown buttons 180 moved outwardly into gripping engagement with the casing, it will be seen that an increase in pressure from below the packing assembly 14 acting upwardly through the by-pass passage 90 will act on the upper area of the collar and on the lower area of the l0 valve sleeve and sealing rings 130 and 140 and thus offset or balance such opposing pressures. Also, should the bore of the mandrel be closed, or the bore of the tubing above or below the mandrel be closed, so that the pressure below the packing assembly 14 is applied across thefull cross-sectional area of the tubing string, or of the mandrel 11 defined by the inner periphery of the upper sealing ring 31, the pressure so acting upwardly and tending to move t-he mandrel and the tubing string upwardly will be offset or compensated by the effect of the pressure acting through the by-pass passage 90 on the upper end of the compensator piston 203, the pressure acting downwardly on the piston to move the piston downwardly until the shoulder 204 at the lower end of the piston engages the upwardly facing shoulder of the flange 206 on t-he collar to apply a downward force to the mandrel equal to the pressure times the crosssectional annular area of the piston defined by the outer periphery of the upper sealing ring 213 and the inner periphery of the lower internal sealing ring 210. Since the diameters of the piston and the sealing rings are so chosen that the cross-sectional area defined therebetween is substantially equal to the full cross-sectional area of the tubing string or the mandrel 11 within the internal periphery of the sealing ring 31, it will be seen that the pressure from below acts on the compensator piston 203 to apply a downward force to the piston, and through the piston, to the mandrel, equaling the upward force applied to full cross-sectional area of the mandrel by virtue of the bore thereof being closed. Thus, an excess of pressure below the packing will not move the body assembly 12 and the packing and expander sleeve 41 carried thereby upwardly away from the slips, because the mandrel is held down by the compensator piston and the body assembly is held down by the retaining ring 35. Thus, such increased pressure will not release the lower slips from holding engagement and will not exert an excessive force on the hold-down buttons which might tend to force the hold-down buttons upwardly in the caslng.

Also, an excess pressure from above the packing assembly acting inwardly through the ports 98 will act onl the internal sealing ring 210 at the lower end of the cornpensator piston 203 and the external seal ring 213 at the upper end of said piston and will move the same upl wardly until the shoulder 202 engages the downwardly facing shoulder 201 at the upper end of the enlarged bore 200 of the sleeve 28 and such pressure will act downwardly on the areas sealed off by the seal rings 130 and 140, Since the diameter of the seal surface 96 of the connector sub 26 is equal to the external diameter 150a of the collar it will thus be seen that the effect of the excess pressure present above the packing assembly 14 acting on the mandrel 11 lwill be compensated or balanced out and the mandrel will'not be moved from the anchored position by such pressure.

In use, the packer assembly 10 is made up on a tubing string and is loweredrnto the well in the condition shown in FIGURES l and 2. When the desired location in the well bore has been reached, the packer-is set by rotating the tubing string in a clockwise direction to move the locking pins 72 in the I-slots 71 toward the vertical portions 75 of the J-slots by first lifting the tubing slightly and rotating the same to cause the mandrel to rotate therewith and move the pins 72 to alignment with the vertical portions and open mouth of the J-slots, whereupon downward movement of the tubing and mandrel with respect to the slip carrier and slips is permitted. Such downward movement of the mandrel 11 brings the retaining ring 35 into engagement with the shoulder 33 at the upper end of the compensator and hold-down sleeve 28 and moves the body assembly 12 downwardly with the mandrel to move the expander cone 41 downwardly with the mandrel. The friction ysprings 65 hold the slip carrier and slips against longitudinal movement in the casing, and as the mandrel is moved downwardly the expander member or cone 41 is moved downwardly until the expander surface 47 is engaged ibetween the slips 50 and slides down the inclined inner upper wedge surfaces 62 of the slips to force the slips outwardly radially of the slip carrier and the mandrel into gripping engagement with the casing wall. Further downward movement of the tubing and the mandrel will cause the packing `sleeve or mandrel 2S to be moved downwardly with respect to the cone toward the position shown in FIGURE 4, and the packing rings 36 of the packing assembly will be compressed between the downwardly facing shoulder 37 of the connector sub 26 and the upwardly facing shoulder 38 at the upper end of the expander member 41. Continued downward movement of the mandrel and the upper portion of the body will cause the packing rings to be expanded to the fully expanded position in sealing engagement with the well casing. Such downward movement of the mandrel with respect to the body assembly 12 also moves the closure valve sleeve 100 downwardly with the mandrel until the sealing rings 130 and 140 have been disposed within enlarged bore at the upper end of the connector sub 26 and in sealing engagement with the cylindrical sealing surface 96 formed thereby. The by-pass ports 98 are thus closed and fluid pressure below the packer assembly is trapped therebelow and directed upwardly through the by-pass passage 90 into the bore 29 of the compensator and hold-down sleeve 28, where such pressure acts on the hold-down buttons 180 to force the same outwardly into gripping engagement with the wall of the well casing as shown in FIGURE 3. Normally, vsome weight of the tubing string is applied to the upper end of the body 12 to maintain the packing sleeve in expanded packing position. However, should an increased pressure differential be created by an increase in pressure below the packing assembly acting upwardly on the mandrel 11, such pressure will pass upwardly on the mandrel 11, such pressure will pass upwardly through the by-pass passages and act on the hold-down buttons -180 to force the hold-down buttons into tight gripping engagement with the casing to assist the weight of the tubing in maintaining the packing in expanded position and preventing upward displacement of the body assembly 12. The pressure differential from below also acts on the upper surface 202 of the compensator piston 203 and applies a downward force to the mandrel resisting upward movement of the mandrel as has been described. Since the cross-sectional area of the annular compensator is substantially equal to the full cross-sectional area of the mandrel 11 within the upper seal ring 31, even though the bore of the mandrel or the tubing therebelow should be closed or plugged, so that the full fluid pressure in the well bore below the packer be applied to the full cross-sectional area of the mandrel, the compensator piston will apply an equal balancing downward and compensating force to the mandrel to prevent upward movement of the mandrel by such pressure.

Also, should the pressure above the packing assembly 14 be in excess of that below, creating a downward pressure differential, it is readily apparent that such pressure differential entering through the ports 98 will act upwardly on the lower surface 204 of the compensator piston and downwardly on the upper surfaces of the connector sub 26 outwardly of the `seal surface 96 and will thus be compensated or balanced, and that the mandrel will not move since such areas of the mandrel as are exposed to the pressure differential are equal.

When it is desired to remove the packer from within the well bore, the tubing string is lifted to move the mandrel 11 upwardly. Such upward movement of the mandrel moves the by-passvalve sleeve 100 upwardly therewith and moves the packing rings 130 and 140 upwardly out of the enlarged upper bore of the connector lsub 26 and out of sealing engagement with the sealing surface 96 in said sub to permit fluid pressure from below the packer to ow upwardly through the by-pass interiorly of the packing assembly and outwardly through the ports 98 into the annulus above the packer to equalize pressures on opposite sides above and below the packing assembly. Should there be a Isubstantial excess pressure below the packing assembly, it is readily apparent that the packer body assembly 12 will not be forced upwardly, since the pressure differential will nevertheless be acting upwardly through the bore 29 of the compensator and hold-down sleeve 28 to maintain the hold-down buttons 180 in expanded gripping position until the pressure differential within the bore of the body and across the packing assembly thereon has been equalized. This results from the fact that the area of the ports 98 is substantially equal to or may be slightly less than the cross-sectional area of the annular by-pass passage 90. When the pressure is equalized, the hold-down buttons may be moved to retracted position by the leaf springs 188 and 189 to permit the body assembly to be lifted when the beveled shoulder at the upper end of the retaining ring engages the downwardly facing shoulder 30a at the lower end of the reduced bore 30 of the sleeve 28, below the seal ring 31, whereupon further upward movement of the tubing and the mandrel will lift the body assembly with the mandrel and will result in lifting the expander member or cone 41 from between the slips 50 carried by the slip carrier 51. Since the slips are biased inwardly toward retracted position by the bow springs 56, upon withdrawal of the expander cone from engagement between the slips, the slips will move to retracted position. Continued upward movement of the tubing then moves the mandrel upwardly with respect to the slip carrier and slips until the latching pins 72 are again engaged with the J-slots 71 in the reduced lower J-slots sleeve portion 70 of the slip carrier. Of course, should the latching pins for any reason be sheared off or destroyed, the lower end of the reduced portion of the slip carrier will engage the upper end of the collar connecting sub 18 on the lower end of the mandrel and will be lifted thereby, whereby the entire packer may be lifted from within the well casing.

It will be noted that, since the by-pass valve sleeve 100 and the seal rings and 140 carried thereby are disposed above the ports 98 when the packer is moved upwardly, the flow of fluids through the by-pass will not cut or damage the sealing rings, whereby the packer may be reset in the well without removing the same from the bore of the well, if desired, the sealing elements on the valve sleeve remaining in condition for sealing to close the by-pass passage 90 and to close off the ports 98. Obviously, the packer may be reset at another elevation in the well bore by following the procedure for setting previously described, after the packer has been released from its lpreviously set position.

A modified form of the packer is shown in FIGURE 8, wherein means are provided for resiliently biasing the body assembly 12 of the packer upwardly with respect to the mandrel 11 to assure that the valve sleeve 100 will move downwardly with respect to the ports 98 to close the ports, and thus to close the by-pass passage 90. As is clearly shown, the bore of the compensator and holddown sleeve 28 above the downwardly facing shoulder -201 which limits upward movement of the compensator piston is elongated to provide sufficient longitudinal room to receive a helical coiled spring 250 which is disposed in the bore of the sleeve above the shoulder 201 and below an internal annular downwardly facing shoulder 255a corresponding substantiallyv to the shoulder 255 but spaced above the upper end of the valve sleeve 100 a sufficient distance to accommodate the spring 250 therebetween when in collapsed condition. As will be clearly seen, the spring 250 will act downwardly on the upper end of the collar and the valve sleeve 100 connected therewith, and upwardly against the downwardly facing shoulder :1 to bias the body assembly 12 upwardly relative to the mandrel and the by-pass valve sleeve 100 toward the closed position. The external diameter of the spring 250 is less than the internal diameter of the compensator piston 203 so that the piston may move longitudinally with respect to the spring and the collar 150 to engage the downwardly facing shoulder 201 in the manner already described. Since the spring acts downwardly on the collar 150 which is threaded on the upper end of the Valve sleeve 100 which is held substantially stationary on the mandrel 11 between the retaining rings r105 and 110, it will be seen that the spring will bias the body upwardly with respect -to lthe mandrel and assure that the by-pass passage will be closed by the entry of the sealing rings 130 and 140 on the lower end of the valve sleeve 1-00 into sealing engagement with the se-aling surface l96 in the bore of the connector sub. All other parts of the packer shown in FIGURE 8 are identical to and bear the same numbers as the corresponding parts of the packer irst described. p The foregoing description of the invention is explanatory only, land ychanges in the details of the constructions illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art, within the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit of the invention. l

What is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:

1. A well packer including: an elongate tubular mandrel; an outer tubular body means disposed about said vmandrel for limited longitudinal movement relative thereto; expandable seal means carried by said outer tubular -body means, said outer tubular body means and said mandrel having cooperable means for expanding said seal means into sealing engagement with a well casing and locking said outer tubular body means-against downward movement in the well casing; means between said outer tubular body means and said mandrel providing a bypass flow passage extending past said seal means interiorly thereof and communicating with the exterior of said well packer on opposite ends of said seal means; hold-down means carried by said outer tubular body means above `said seal means, said outer tubular body means having conductor means for conducting iiuid pressure from said `bypass flow passage to said hold-down means for moving said hold-down means outwardly to expanded well casing engaging position; said bypass passage communicating with the exterior of the well packer at one end between the seal means and said hold down means whereby iiuid pressures may pass through said bypass passage past said seal means; means for closing said bypass passage to direct iiuid pressure from said bypass passage through said conductor means to said hold-down-means; said outer tubular body means and said mandrel having means forming an 'annular longitudinally extending cylinder above the bypass passage; a piston slidably mounted in said cylinder in said outer tubular body means and having laterally opposed end surfaces exposed to fluid pressures within and without said outer tubular body means; means sealing between said mandrel, said piston and said outer tubular body means; means conducting iluid pressure from said .bypass flow passage to the cylinder above said piston; said .cylinder below said piston having communication with the exterior of the packer; and means on said mandrel engageable bysaid piston for applying a downward force vto said mandrel.

fv 2. In a packer adapted to be anchored in a well casing :disposed in a well bore; a tubular body having a plurality o f cylindrical bores therein opening laterally to the exterior of said body; gripping members in said bores expandable outwardly against the well casing in response to liiuid pressure within said body and bores; a tubular mandrel within said body; means sealing between said body A'and said mandrel above said bores; said body and mandrel providing a fluid ilow course therebetween communicating the lower end of said body with said bores and closed at its upper end above said bores; a packing means carried externally of said body below said,y bores; port means in 14 said body between said bores and said packing means pr'oviding a bypass outlet from said iiow course through said body; means operatively connected with said mandreland said body for closing said lateral flow ports; and gripping means on said mandrel below said body, and expandable into gripping engagement with said casing.

3. In a backer of the character set forth in claim 2, means in said liow course in said body having communication with said flow course between said body and said mandrel responsive to hydraulic pressure within said flow course for exerting a downward force on said mandrel to hold said Imandrel in position expanding said gripping means Ibelow said packing means to gripping position.

4. On a pac-ker adapted to be lowered in a Well casing disposed in a well bore and anchored therein; an elongate tubular mandrel; a tubular body carried on said mandrel exteriorly thereof and movable therewith having limited longitudinal movement with respect thereto; a packing structure on said body including a sleeve of normally retracted pliant elastic packing means on said body adapted to engage the well casing; means on said body for expanding said packing means against the well casing; said mandrel having anchoring means thereon below said packing, means expandable into gripping engagement with the well casing; means between said mandrel and said body providing an elongate longitudinally extending fluid bypass extending through said packing means; lateral port means in said body at the upper end of the bypass; means on said mandrel and movable therewith with respect to said body for selectively opening and closing said lateral .port means at the upper end of said bypass passage; hold-down means on said body above said bypass and movable laterally in response to fluid pressure for gripping the casing to hold the body against upward movement in said casing; and a ow conduit extending from said bypass passage to said hold-down means for conducting fluid pressure from said bypass passage to said hold-down means for expanding said hold-down means to gripping engagement with said casing.

5. In a packer of the character set forth in claim 4, means on said body providing an elongate cylindrical annular cylinder having communication at one end with said lateral port means at the upper end of said bypass and at its opposite end with said conduit from said bypass to said hold-down means; stop means on said mandrel; and a piston in said cylinder engaging said stop means on said mandrel and subject to the pressure of fluid from said conduit and in said cylinder to exert a downward force on said mandrel.

6. A well packer including: a mandrel having a longitudinal flow passage and connectable at opposite ends in a iiow conductor to constitute a section thereof; a tubular body disposed about said mandrel and providing with said mandrel an annular space closed at its upper end, said annular space comprising a lower iiow passage open at its lower end to the exterior of said body and an upper flow passage, said body having port means intermediate its ends communicating with said annular space at the lower end of said upper flow passage and at the upper end of said lower iiow passage; anchor means carried by said body above said port means and movable outwardly by the force of the pressure in said upper flow passage when the pressure therein exceeds a predetermined value; coengageable means -on said body and said mandrel limiting longitudinal movement of said mandrel relative to said body; closure means operatively associated with said body and said mandrel preventing communication between the exterior of said -b-ody and said flow passage through said port means when said mandrel is in a lowermost position relative to said body; expansible packing means mounted on said body below said port means; and expander means movably mounted relative to said mandrel and said body and operatively associated with said packing means for expanding said packing means outwardly upon downward movement of said mandrel and said bodyrelative to said expander means, said closure means comprising pressure responsive means exposed to the pressure from the exterior of said body through said port means above said packing means when said mandrel is in said lowermost position and to the pressure from below said packing means through said lower flow passage and said upper ow passage for exerting a downward force on said mandrel which varies in accordance with the difference of pressure exerting a downward force on said mandrel when the pressure below said packing means exceeds the pressure above said packing means exteriorly of the body.

7. A well packer including: a mandrel having a longitudinal flow passage; a tubular body disposed about said mandrel and with said mandrel providing an annular space closed at its upper end, said annular space comprising a lower flow passage open at its lower end to the exterior of said body and an upper flow passage, said body having port means intermediate its ends opening from the exterior thereof to said annular space and communicating with the upper end of said lower ow passage and with the lower end of said upper flow passage; expansible packing means on said body below said port means and expansible to sealing position on said body; said body having lateral bores therein above said port means communicating at their inner ends with said upper flow passage; holddown means disposed for outward movement in said bores and movable outwardly by the pressure in said upper flow passage; coengageable means on said body and said mandrel limiting longitudinal movement of said mandrel relative to said body between an uppermost and a lowermost position relative thereto, said body and said mandrel hav- `ing coengageable seal means preventing communication between said lower flow passage and said port means, said coengageable seal means including pressure responsive means operatively associated with s'aid mandrel and said body and having a downwardly facing area exposed to the pressure from exteriorly of the body above said packing means therough said .port means and an upwardly facing area exposed to the pressure from below said packing `means through said lower ilow passage and said upper flow passage of said annular space when said mandrel is -in said lowermost position, said pressure responsive means exerting a downward force on said mandrel when the pressure below said packing means exceeds the pressure above said packing means.

8. A well packer including: a mandrel having a longitudinal flow pass-age; a tubular body disposed about said mandrel and providing with said mandrel an annular space closed at its upper end, said annular space comprising a lower flow passage open to the exterior of said body at its lower end and an upper ow passage, said body having port means intermediate its ends communicating with the upper end of said lower flow passage and with the lower end of said upper ow passage; lock means carried by said body above said port means exposed to the pressure in said upper flow passage and movable outwardly by the pressure in said passage; coengageable means on said body and said mandrel limiting longitudinal movement of said mandrel relative to said body between an uppermost position and a lowermost position; closure means disposed in said annular space engageable with said body and said mandrel for preventing communication of pressure from the exterior of said body through said port means to said upper and lower passages when said mandrel is in said lowermost position; said last mentioned means comprising a piston longitudinally movable in said annular space, said mandrel having means engageable by said piston when said piston is moved downwardly relative to said mandrel whereby said piston exerts a downward force on said mandrel, said piston having a downwardly facing area exposed to the pressure communicated to said annular space through said port means and an upwardly `facing area exposed to the pressure in said annular space; expansible packing means mounted on said body below said port means; said lower flow passage of ysaid annular space providing an internal bypass passage past said packing means when said port means is open; and exp-ander means movably mounted on said mandrel and operatively associated with said packing means for expanding said packing means outwardly upon downward movement of said mandrel and said body relative to said expander means. l

9. A well tool including: a mandrel; anchoring means for securing said mandrel in a well ow conductor, said anchoring means including a slip carrier releasably secured on said mandrel against longitudinal movement relative thereto; gripping slips carried by said slip carrier; expander means on said mandrel spaced above said gripping slips, said gripping Islips being adap-ted to be engaged by said expander member and expanded into gripping engagement with a well flow conductor in which the well tool is located upon downward movement of the mandrel relative to said slip carrier, and resilient friction means secured at one end to said slip carrier and bowed outwardly from such connection with said slip carrier toward their mid-portions into position to engage the ow conductor and bowed inwardly `from said outer midportion to an inner position at their upper ends to slidably engage said gripping slips to bias said gripping slips toward retracted position relative to said mandrel, the frictional engagement of said friction means with the flow conductor tending to hold said slip carrier against movement in the ow conductor; a body movably mounted on said mandrel and having external expansible packing means mounted thereon; means between said body and mandrel providing a bypass ow passage from below said packing means to a point above said packing means; lateral port means in said -body above said packing means communicating with the upper end of said bypass passage; outwardly expansible fluid pressure operative hold down means on said body above said lateral port means and expansible into position holding said body against upward movement; a flow conduit communicating at its lower end with the upper end of said bypass passage and at its upper end with said hold down means; and means for closing said lateral port means at the upper end of said bypass passage, whereby fluid pressure from below said packing means may pass through said bypass passage and said conduit to said hold down means to act on said hold down means; said bypass passage and said lateral port means when open comprising means for bypassing fluid pressure from below said packing through said passage and out said port means above said packing and below said hold down means.

10. A well tool including: a mandrel; a body slidable on said mandrel and having an external expansible packing means thereon; means providing a bypass passage between said body and said mandrel past said packing means; lateral port means in said body at the upper end of said bypass passage communicating said bypass with the exterior of said body member; pressure responsive laterally movable hold down means on said body above said lateral port means; conduit means in said body communicating the upper end of said bypass passage with said laterally movable hold down means whereby uid pressure from below said packing means may act on said hold down means to move said hold down means outwardly to holding position; closure means movable between an open position and a position closing said lateral port means at the upper end of said bypass passage; means resiliently biasing said closure means toward closed position; and anchoring lower means on said mandrel below said body for rigidly securing said mandrel in a well flow conductor, said anchoring means including: a slip carrier releasably secured on said mandrel against longitudinal movement relative thereto; gripping slips carried by said slip carrier; expander means on said mandrel spaced above said gripping slips; said gripping slips being adapted to be engaged by said expander member and ex- U panded into gripping engagement with a well ow conductor in which the well tool is located upon longitudinal movement of the mandrel relative to said slip carrier; yieldable friction means connected to said slip carrier and yieldably engageablewith the flow conductor, the frictional engagement of said friction means with `the ow conductor tending to hold said slip carrier against movement in the flow conductor; and means biasing said slips toward retracted position relative to said mandrel.

11. A well tool including: a mandrel; a body slidable n said mandrel and having expansible external packing means thereon; means providing a bypass passage between said mandrel and said body past said packing means; a lateral port in said body above said packing means communicating the upper end of said bypass passage with the exterior of said body; laterally movable pressure responsive hold down means carried by said body above said lateral port; uid conduit means in said body communicating the upper end of said bypass passage with said hold down means whereby fluid pressure from said bypass passage may act on said hold down means to move the same outwardly to holding position; and valve means on said body movable between an open position and a position closing said lateral port means whereby fluid pressure from below said packing means may act on said hold down means to move said hold down means to expanded holding position.

12. A well to-ol including: a mandrel; and anchoring means for rigidly securing said mandrel in a well ow conductor, said anchoring means including: an annular slip carrier releasably secured on said mandrel against movement relative thereto; a plurality of circumferentially spaced gripping slips carried by said slip carrier, said gripping slips having lower end portions slidably and swingable connected to said slip carrier for limited outward movement relative to said slip `carrier and having upper end portions extending upwardly of said slip carrier and provided with external gripping faces having longitudinal slots therein; expander means on said mandrel spaced above said gripping slips; the upper end portions of said gripping slips being 4adapted to be engaged by said expander member and expanded into positions on which the gripping faces on said slips are disposed in gripping engagement with a well flow conductor in which the well tool is located upon longitudinal movement of the mandrel relative to said slip carrier moving said expander means relatively toward said gripping slips; yieldable means carried by said slip carrier for yieldably engaging the ow conductor whereby the frictional engagement of said yieldable means with the ow conductor tends to hold said slip carrier against longitudinal movement in the flow conductor, said means comprising bow springs rigidly secured at their lower ends to said slip carrier and bowing outwardly and upwardly therefrom toward their mid-portions to a position to engage the flow conductor and the bowing inwardly and upwardly from said mid-portions to a position in which their upper ends slidably engage in the slots in the gripping faces of the upper end portions of said gripping slips to bias said gripping faces of said upper end portions of said gripping slips inwardly toward retracted position.

13. A well tool including: a mandrel; a body slidable on said mandrel and having expansible external packing means thereon; means providing a bypass passage between said mandrel and said body past said packing means; a lateral port in said body above said packing means communicating the upper end of said bypass with the exterior of said body; laterally movable pressure responsive hold down means carried by said body above said lateral port; uid conduit means in said body communicating the upper end of said bypass passage with said hold down means whereby fluid pressure from said -bypass passage acting on said hold down means will move the same outwardly to holding position; and valve means on said body at the upper end of said bypass passage movable between an open position and a position closing said lateral port whereby fluid pressure from below said packing means is closed off from bypassing said packing means and may act on said hold down means to move said hold down means to expanded holding position; and anchoring means on said mandrel below said body for securing said mandrel in a well ilow conductor, said anchoring means including a slip carrier releasably secured on said mandrel against downward movement relative thereto; gripping slips carried by said slip carrier; expander means on said mandrel spaced above said gripping slips, said gripping slips being adapted to be engaged by said expander member and expanded into gripping engagement with a well flow conductor in which the well tool is located upon downward movement of the mandrel relative to said slip carrier, and resilient friction means secured at one end to said slip carrier and bowed outwardly from such connection with said slip carried into position to engage the flow conductor and bowed inwardly at their upper ends to engage said gripping slips to bias said gripping slips toward retracted position relative to said mandrel, the frictional engagement of said friction means with the flow conductor tending to hold said slip carrier against movement in the flow conductor.

14. In a well tool: a mandrel; a body slidable on said mandrel and having expansible external packing means thereon; means providing a bypass passage between said mandrel and said body past said packing means; a lateral port in said body above said packing means communicating with the upper end of said bypass passage; laterally movable pressure responsive hold down means carried by said body above said lateral port; fluid conduit means in said body communicating the upper end of said bypass passage with said hold down means whereby fluid pressure from said bypass passage acting on said hold down means will move the same outwardly to holding position; and valve means on said body at the upper end of said bypass passage movable between an open position and a position closing said lateral port means whereby fluid pressure from below said packing means to expanded holding position; means resiliently biasing said valve means toward port closing position; and anchoring means on said mandrel below said body for rigidly securing said body in a well ow conductor, said anchoring means including: an annular slip carrier slidably disposed on said mandrel, said mandrel and said slip carrier having coengageable means releasably holding said slip carrier against longitudinal movement relative to said mandrel, said coengageable means being releasable upon predetermined rotational and longitudinal movement of said mandrel relative to said slip carrier to permit longitudinal movement of said mandrel relative to said slip carrier; gripping slips carried by said slip carrier; expander means on the lower end of said body and spaced above said gripping slips; said gripping slips being adapted for engagement by said expander member to be expanded into gripping engagement with a well ow conduct-or in which the well tool is located upon longitudinal movement of the body relative to said slip carrier to move said expander member into expanding engagement with said slips; friction means carried by said slip carrier and engageable with the well flow conductor tending to hold said slip carrier against movement in the flow conductor; and means biasing said slips against movement toward retracted position.

15. A well tool including: an elongated mandrel; a body movably mounted on said mandrel and having external expansible packing means thereon; means between said body and mandrel providing a bypass flow passage from below said packing means to a point above said packing means; lateral port means in said body above said packing means communicating the upper end of said bypass passage with the exterior of said body; outwardly expansible uid pressure operative hold down means on said body above said lateral port means and expansible into position holding said body against upward movement; a flow conduit communicating at its lower end With the upper end of said bypass passage and at its upper end with said hold down means; and means for closing said lateral port means at the upper end of said bypass passage, whereby fluid pressure from below said packing means may pass through said bypass passage and said conduit to said hold down means to act on said hold down means; and l-ower gripping means on the mandrel below said body member and movable into gripping position to limit downward movement of said body.

16. An anchoring device for a well tool including: an elongate tubular mandrel; elongate cylindrical tubular slip carrier member slidable on the mandrel and having a plurality of radially spaced longitudinal extending external grooves therein extending partially radially through said tubular member intermediate the ends thereof and extending completely through said tubular member adjacent one end thereof; an internal annular recess in said tubular member intersected by said longitudinally extending grooves at the lower end of said open portion of said grooves; elongate resilient bow springs secured at one end in said grooves and bowed -outwardly therefrom toward their mid-portions to a position spaced from said grooves adapted to engage `a well casing, said springs bowing inwardly from said mid-portion to the opposite free end thereof at a point adjacent the open end portions of the grooves in said carrier sleeve; gripping slips having gripping head portions and handle portions extending longitudinally from said gripping head portions ,and having lateral arm portions at the end of said handles opposite said gripping heads, said handles being of a size to slidably and swingably iit within said open end portions of said grooves in said slip carrier an-d said arm portions being of a size to be disposed in said annular recess to engage the carrier sleeve on opposite sides of the grooves within said annular recess to limit disengagement of said handles from said grooves; said free ends of said bow springs slidably engaging the gripping head portions of said slips to bias said slips inwardly of said carrier sleeve toward the mandrel.

17. A device of the character set forth in claim 16 wherein: the slip carrier sleeve is provided with an integral latching sleeve having a latching member formed therein, and the mandrel has a coengageable latching member axed thereto at a point spaced fro-m the expander on the mandrel and engageable with the latching means on said latching sleeve to releasably hold said latching sleeve and slip carrier lat said point on said mandrel spaced from said expander.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,689,956 10/1928 Meeker 166-138 1,722,102 7/ 1929 Mack Y 166-138 2,009,198 7/1935 OConnor 166-129 2,216,336 10/194() Barnes et al. 166-130 2,765,853 10/1956 Brown 166-138 X 3,608,523 11/1961 Clark et al. 166-129 3,211,227 10/1965 Mott 166-120 3,223,169 12/1965 Roark f 166-120 3,233,675 2/1966 Tamplen et al. 166-134 X CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.

JACOB L. NACKENOFF, DAVID H. BROWN,

Examiners.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3 ,338 ,308 August 29 1967 Thomas L. Elliston et al.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the Said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column l2, line 35, for "J-slots" read J-slot column l4, line 7, for "backer" read packer line 14, for "On" read In column 16, line 30, strike out "mounted"; line 67, for "anchoring lower" read lower anchoring column 17, line 54, for "the", second occurrence, read then line 66, after "bypass" insert passage column 18, line 64, for "elongated" read elongate Signed and sealed this 15th day of October 1968.

(SEAL) Attest:

Edward M. Fletcher, Jr. EDWARD J. BRENNER Atte-sting Officer Commissioner of Patents

Claims (1)

11. A WELL TOOL INCLUDING: A MANDREL; A BODY SLIDABLE ON SAID MANDREL AND HAVING EXPANSIBLE EXTERNAL PACKING MEANS THEREON; MEANS PROVIDING A BYPASS PASSAGE BETWEEN SAID MANDREL AND SAID BODY PAST SAID PACKING MEANS; A LATERAL PORT IN SAID BODY ABOVE SAID PACKING MEANS COMMUNICATING THE UPPER END OF SAID BYPASS PASSAGE WITH THE EXTERIOR OF SAID BODY; LATERALLY MOVABLE PRESSURE RESPONSIVE HOLD DOWN MEANS CARRIED BY SAID BODY ABOVE SAID LATERAL PORT; FLUID CONDUIT MEANS IN SAID BODY COMMUNICATING THE UPPER END OF SAID BYPASS PASSAGE WITH SAID HOLD DOWN MEANS WHEREBY FLUID PRESSURE FROM SAID BYPASS PASSAGE MAY ACT ON SAID HOLD DOWN MEANS TO MOVE THE SAME OUTWARDLY TO HOLDING POSITION; AND VALVE MEANS ON SAID BODY MOVABLE BETWEEN AN OPEN POSITION AND A POSITION CLOSING SAID LATERAL PORT MEANS WHEREBY FLUID PRESSURE FROM BELOW SAID PACKING MEANS MAY ACT ON SAID HOLD DOWN MEANS TO MOVE SAID HOLD DOWN MEANS TO EXPANDED HOLDING POSITION.
US388479A 1964-08-10 1964-08-10 Well packer and anchor therefor Expired - Lifetime US3338308A (en)

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Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3385365A (en) * 1966-05-17 1968-05-28 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packing apparatus
US3387658A (en) * 1966-08-03 1968-06-11 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packer apparatus
US3399729A (en) * 1966-12-30 1968-09-03 Schlumberger Technology Corp Retrievable well packer
US3412799A (en) * 1966-08-03 1968-11-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp Hydraulic hold-down release
US3412800A (en) * 1966-08-03 1968-11-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packer apparatus with hydraulic hold-down
US3412801A (en) * 1966-11-08 1968-11-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp Retrievable well packer apparatus
US3422900A (en) * 1966-12-30 1969-01-21 Halliburton Co Pressure assisted retrievable bridge plug
US3426846A (en) * 1967-08-10 1969-02-11 Schlumberger Technology Corp Retrievable well packer
US3437136A (en) * 1967-12-28 1969-04-08 David E Young Retrievable well packer apparatus
US3460615A (en) * 1967-10-09 1969-08-12 Regan Forge & Eng Co Circulating casing hanger and running tool apparatus
US3508610A (en) * 1968-09-27 1970-04-28 Schlumberger Technology Corp Retrievable well packer apparatus
US3552489A (en) * 1968-12-04 1971-01-05 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packer apparatus
US3584684A (en) * 1969-06-02 1971-06-15 Halliburton Co Retrievable packer apparatus for use in a well bore and method of prolonging its operating life
US3645334A (en) * 1970-04-07 1972-02-29 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packer apparatus
US3664417A (en) * 1970-09-04 1972-05-23 Martin B Conrad Tubing anchor and catcher
US3779314A (en) * 1972-05-15 1973-12-18 Dresser Ind Well tool and releasing device therefor
US3856080A (en) * 1971-11-01 1974-12-24 B Watson Packer device having a j-latch and seal means
US3860068A (en) * 1973-11-01 1975-01-14 Dresser Ind Well packer zone activated valve
US3887007A (en) * 1973-11-01 1975-06-03 Dresser Ind Well packer zone activated valve
US4058162A (en) * 1976-04-22 1977-11-15 Cameron Iron Works, Inc. Well tool adapted to be locked within and sealed with respect to the bore of the well conduit
US4408662A (en) * 1981-07-27 1983-10-11 Sooner Oil Tools, Inc. Retrievable packer for oil well casing
US4496000A (en) * 1983-02-11 1985-01-29 Texas Independent Tools And Unlimited Service, Inc. Method of and apparatus for setting a mechanical liner hanger by right-hand rotation
US4567944A (en) * 1984-02-09 1986-02-04 Halliburton Company Retrievable straddle packer
US4619319A (en) * 1985-02-01 1986-10-28 Halliburton Company Packer and actuation portion of tubing conveyed completion system
US5070941A (en) * 1990-08-30 1991-12-10 Otis Engineering Corporation Downhole force generator
US5330001A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-07-19 Baker Hughes Incorporated Lead in guide assembly
US5782298A (en) * 1996-06-07 1998-07-21 Alexander Oil Tools, Inc. Retrievable safety packer
EP2410121A3 (en) * 2010-07-19 2017-11-08 Weatherford Technology Holdings, LLC Retrievable slip mechanism for downhole tool

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US2009198A (en) * 1934-07-23 1935-07-23 Dermot L T O'connor Well packer
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Cited By (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3385365A (en) * 1966-05-17 1968-05-28 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packing apparatus
US3387658A (en) * 1966-08-03 1968-06-11 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packer apparatus
US3412799A (en) * 1966-08-03 1968-11-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp Hydraulic hold-down release
US3412800A (en) * 1966-08-03 1968-11-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packer apparatus with hydraulic hold-down
US3412801A (en) * 1966-11-08 1968-11-26 Schlumberger Technology Corp Retrievable well packer apparatus
US3399729A (en) * 1966-12-30 1968-09-03 Schlumberger Technology Corp Retrievable well packer
US3422900A (en) * 1966-12-30 1969-01-21 Halliburton Co Pressure assisted retrievable bridge plug
US3426846A (en) * 1967-08-10 1969-02-11 Schlumberger Technology Corp Retrievable well packer
US3460615A (en) * 1967-10-09 1969-08-12 Regan Forge & Eng Co Circulating casing hanger and running tool apparatus
US3437136A (en) * 1967-12-28 1969-04-08 David E Young Retrievable well packer apparatus
US3508610A (en) * 1968-09-27 1970-04-28 Schlumberger Technology Corp Retrievable well packer apparatus
US3552489A (en) * 1968-12-04 1971-01-05 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packer apparatus
US3584684A (en) * 1969-06-02 1971-06-15 Halliburton Co Retrievable packer apparatus for use in a well bore and method of prolonging its operating life
US3645334A (en) * 1970-04-07 1972-02-29 Schlumberger Technology Corp Well packer apparatus
US3664417A (en) * 1970-09-04 1972-05-23 Martin B Conrad Tubing anchor and catcher
US3856080A (en) * 1971-11-01 1974-12-24 B Watson Packer device having a j-latch and seal means
US3779314A (en) * 1972-05-15 1973-12-18 Dresser Ind Well tool and releasing device therefor
US3860068A (en) * 1973-11-01 1975-01-14 Dresser Ind Well packer zone activated valve
US3887007A (en) * 1973-11-01 1975-06-03 Dresser Ind Well packer zone activated valve
US4058162A (en) * 1976-04-22 1977-11-15 Cameron Iron Works, Inc. Well tool adapted to be locked within and sealed with respect to the bore of the well conduit
US4408662A (en) * 1981-07-27 1983-10-11 Sooner Oil Tools, Inc. Retrievable packer for oil well casing
US4496000A (en) * 1983-02-11 1985-01-29 Texas Independent Tools And Unlimited Service, Inc. Method of and apparatus for setting a mechanical liner hanger by right-hand rotation
US4567944A (en) * 1984-02-09 1986-02-04 Halliburton Company Retrievable straddle packer
US4619319A (en) * 1985-02-01 1986-10-28 Halliburton Company Packer and actuation portion of tubing conveyed completion system
US5070941A (en) * 1990-08-30 1991-12-10 Otis Engineering Corporation Downhole force generator
US5330001A (en) * 1992-09-23 1994-07-19 Baker Hughes Incorporated Lead in guide assembly
US5782298A (en) * 1996-06-07 1998-07-21 Alexander Oil Tools, Inc. Retrievable safety packer
EP2410121A3 (en) * 2010-07-19 2017-11-08 Weatherford Technology Holdings, LLC Retrievable slip mechanism for downhole tool

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