US3243144A - Personel propulsion unit - Google Patents

Personel propulsion unit Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US3243144A
US3243144A US383271A US38327164A US3243144A US 3243144 A US3243144 A US 3243144A US 383271 A US383271 A US 383271A US 38327164 A US38327164 A US 38327164A US 3243144 A US3243144 A US 3243144A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
assembly
cross arm
arm assembly
corset
portion
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US383271A
Inventor
John K Hulbert
Wendell F Moore
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Bell Aerospace Corp
Original Assignee
Bell Aerospace Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Bell Aerospace Corp filed Critical Bell Aerospace Corp
Priority to US383271A priority Critical patent/US3243144A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US3243144A publication Critical patent/US3243144A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C39/00Aircraft not otherwise provided for
    • B64C39/02Aircraft not otherwise provided for characterised by special use
    • B64C39/026Aircraft not otherwise provided for characterised by special use for use as personal propulsion unit

Description

March 29, 1966 J HULBERT T L 3,243,144

PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 17, 1964 INVENTOR.

JOHN K. HULBERT WENDELL F. MOORE AT OQNEVS March 29, 1966 J. K. HULBERT ETAL 3,243,144

PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 17, 1964 INVENTOR.

JOHN K. HULBERT WENDELL F. MOORE 6 Ila-0&4, ydvim M096 ATTOPEYS March 1966 J. K. HULBERT ETAL 3,243,144

PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT Filed July 17, 1964 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR JOHN K. HULBERT BY WENDELL F. MOORE @zaxx, M,@aa%y PM,

ATTORNEYS.

March 1966 J. K. HULBERT ETAL 3,

PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed July 17, 1964 INVENTOR.

JOHN K. HULBERT WENDELL F. MOORE FIG. l0

@mu, M W PQW,

A ORNEYS.

March 29, 1966 J. K. HULBERT ETAL 3,243,144

PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT Filed July 1'7, 1964 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG. 9

INVENTOR JOHN K. HULBERT BY WENDELL F. MOORE M, M 7 W? ATTORNEYS.

March 1966 J. K. HULBERT ETAL 3,243,144

PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed July 17, 1964 FIG. I I

FIG. l2

INVENTOR.

JOHN K. HULBERT WENDELL F. MOORE BY @W, M, M+@m, ATTORNEYS.

March 1966 J. K. HULBERT ETAL 3,243,144

PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed July 17, 1964 J. I!!! Illlllllllll TI FIG INVENTOR.

JOHN K. HULBERT WENDELL F. MOORE @2014 M, M-kfiwu,

A TORNEYS.

March 29, 196 J. K. HULBERT ETAL 3,243,144

PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT Filed July 17, 1964 a Sheets-Sheet a I NVEN TOR.

JOHN K. HULBERT BY WENDELL F. MOORE Patented Mar. 29, 1966 3,243,144 PERSONNEL PROPULSION UNIT John K. Hulbert, Grand Island, and Wendell F. Moore,

Youngstown, N.Y., assignors to Bell Aerospace Corporation, Wheatfield, N.Y.

Filed July 17, 1964, Ser. No. 383,271 14 Claims. (Cl. 244-4) This invention relates to means for rendering a person airborne and, in particular, is directed to certain improvements in propulsion units as shown for example in Patent 3,021,095, issued February 13, 1962.

The'aforementioned patent discloses a propulsion unit for individuals which comprises a pivotally articulated airframe consisting essentially of two components, a corset assembly to which the individuals body is secured and which serves as an entity for mounting the heavier components of the assemblage, and a cross arm assembly provided with shoulder-engaging means and being articulately connected (i.e. connected for relative movement) to the stated corset assembly. By virtue of the pivotal connection between these two components, the shoulderengaging component which carries the propulsion means is capable of being controlled in pitch and roll relative to the torso-engaging component so that fore and aft, and lateral motion respectively may be achieved by kinesthetic control movements imparted by the user to to the shoulder-engaging component. As might be expected, only very slight movements of the shoulderengaging component in pitch and/or roll will effect significant movements of the man-machine combination. Thus, in order to impart a large degree of inherent safety to the system, the operator must be permitted of a high degree of nicety in control of the shoulder-engaging cross arm assembly. This is especially true when one considers the fact that improvements in the power generating means, tending to materially increase available flight time, will permit the user to attain altitudes of several thousands of feet. It is, therefore, a primary concern in connection with this invention to provide certain improvements in units of this type which materially and significantly increase the control capability and which, in general, extend the usefulness of the device.

More specifically, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved apparatus of the character described wherein a greater nicety of control in pitch is achieved, permitting fore and aft movements to be freed from extraneous influence and thereby allowing more precise and accurate control thereof.

Essentially, the above objectives are achieved by modifying the combination in such fashion as to suspend the user by his shoulders from the cross arm assembly while at the same time allow some relative movement between the suspending means and the cross arm assembly. This relationship significantly alters the control phenomena in such wise as to effectively disassociate pitch and roll movements of the cross arm assembly. At the same time, this arrangement also minimizes the inducement to pitch change resulting from moments arising from the suspended weight of the users body and transmitted to the cross arm assembly.

Further, controlled movements of the shoulder-engaging cross arrn assembly are allowed of greater accuracy according to the present invention by supporting a minor portion of the users weight from the corset assembly while the major portion of the users weight is suspended from the cross arm assembly. This proportioning of the users weight also significantly and favorably influences the control factor, as aforesaid.

' In addition to the above, it will be appreciated that devices of the nature described would ideally employ a power plant and accessories of minimum weight so that a maximum fuel load could be accommodated. In this way, the range capability of the device may be extended to the utmost. At the same time, the distribution or placement of weight must be optimized so that control and maneuverability does not suffer. The present invention is also primarily directed to improvements in these areas. More particularly, this invention is directed to an assembly including the combination of a corset assembly having a back plate portion, an upper extension, and a hip portion, all cooperating to present a load platform adapted to transmit the weight of the load largely to the hip region of the wearer; in which the power plant is vertically disposed to lie in close adjacency to the back plate and is of such construction as to allow the fuel supply to be disposed in surrounding relation and even in actual contact with the power plant, without hazard. In this way, the major portion of the weight (i.e. the power plant and fuel supply) is effectively concentrated so that the center of gravity of the man-machine combination, and particularly the vertical axis passing therethrough, may be optimally located. Moreover, the fuel supply may thus be located so as to minimize forward shifting of the center of gravity as the fuel is consumed.

Another important object of this invention lies in the use of a vertically disposed turbo-jet power plant having its intake at the lower end and its outlet discharging upwardly, and in combination therewith, a flexible nozzle assembly having a base for collecting the gaseous discharge of the power plant, downwardly directed nozzles rigidly mounted at the tips of a corsetand operatorsuspending cross arm, and flexible conduit means for directing the gaseous discharge to the nozzles; the cross arm being pivotally mounted to the corset, provided with shoulder-engaging operator-suspending means and with control handle mechanism. This arrangement minimizes the weight characteristics of the power plant and nozzle assembly, allowing a substantial amount of fuel to be carried without exceeding the weight limit for the device, and also allows weight distribution permitting of maximum control safety.

Another object of this invention is to provide certain improvements in throttle control mechanism and in yaW control mechanism, to provide an etfective fuel supply warning system, and to provide means for pitch trim control.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear from the description hereinbelow and the accompanying drawing wherein:

FIG. 1 is a rear perspective view of the improved unit according to this invention;

FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. 1 but with certain components omitted for the sake of clarity;

FIG. 3 is a front perspective of the unit as shown in FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a horizontal section taken along section line 4-4 in FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a side elevation illustrating certain features of the invention;

FIG. 6 is a rear perspective view of a modified form of the invention but utilizing the principles described in conjunction with FIG. 1;

FIG. 7 is a front perspective view of the assembly shown in FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a rear elevational view of the frame and cross arm assembly construction of the modified form of the invention shown in FIGS. 6 and 7;

FIG. 9 is a side elevational view of the complete assembly shown in FIGS. 6 and 7;

FIG. 10 is an elevational view of the cross arm assembly and showing the control mechanism for jet deflector devices associated therewith;

FIG. 11 is an enlarged sectional view showing one manner of mounting the cross arm assembly for effecting pitch trim control of the mechanism;

FIG. 12 is an enlarged sectional View through one of the control handles illustrating a manner in which the mechanism of FIG. 11 may be actuated;

FIG. 13 is an enlarged view partly in section showing details of the jet deflectors and yaw control deflectors associated with one of the nozzles;

FIG. 14 shows a modified form of a control handle assembly and associated mechanism for controlling the yaw deflectors;

FIG. 15 is a top plan view showing a portion of the assembly illustrated in FIG. 14;

FIG. 16 is a sectional view taken substantially along the plane of section line 1616 in FIG. 14;

FIG. 17 is a top plan view of a still further modified form of the assembly;

FIG. 18 is a view, largely diagrammatic, illustrating the fuel supply warning device;

FIG. 19 is an enlarged sectional View illustrating one form of helmet mounted warning device;

FIG. 20 is a view similar to FIG. 19 but illustrating a modified form of helmet mounted warning device; and

FIG. 21 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the principles of the turbojet engine utilized in conjunction with the mechanism according to the present invention.

Certain principles of the man-machine combination are shown in FIG. 1 and, as may be seen, the propulsion unit may be similar in many respects to the unit disclosed in the aforementioned Patent 3,021,095. Thus, the unit includes a torso-engaging portion upon which the weightier components of the unit are mounted as, for example, the two fuel tanks 12 and 14 and the fuel pressurizing tank 16 sandwiched therebetween. These tanks are rigidly fastened to the torso-engaging portion 10 by suitable means such as the straps 18 and 20.

The torso-engaging portion 10 includes an upper ex tension 22 disposed behind the users neck, as shown, and a rigid frame member 24 which is rigid with the torso engaging portion 10 terminates at its upper end in the region of the extension 22. This frame member, as will be seen presently, provides a pivotally articulate mounting for the cross arm assembly 26. The cross arm assembly may comprise a pair of rigid tubes 28 and 30, each fitted with a fixed, downwardly directed nozzle 32 at its extremity, the inner ends of these tubes being rigidly joined together at the catalyst bed assembly 34. As is disclosed in Patent 3,021,095, the fuel which may be hydrogen peroxide is fed to the catalyst bed 34 by forceful displacement from the tanks 12 and 14 under the action of a pressurized fluid, preferably nitrogen, in the tank 16. A throttle valve block 38 serves as a manifold receiving the fuel from the tanks 12 and 14 and serves ultimately to meter the fuel, through a flexible conduit or line 40, to the catalyst bed 34. The valve block 38 contains a suitable valving device for metering the fuel flow to the catalyst bed and such device is under control of the user as through a crank arm 42 connected to a push-pull element 44 manipulated by the user.

The fuel is decomposed in the catalyst bed assembly 34 and the products of decomposition are exhausted to the pipes 28 and 30 for ultimate discharge through the nozzles 32 for providing the propulsive reaction.

As has been mentioned, the cross arm assembly is pivotally articulated to the torso-engaging portion 10 and, more particularly, to a suitable frame member 24 rigid therewith. For this purpose, the pipes 28 and 30 may be joined together by a cross brace member 46 through the center of which the stud or stem 48 of a ball joint element is passed. This stud or stem is fixed to the cross brace member as by the nut 50 and the ball member (not shown) is universally pivoted in a suitable journal or seat therefor carried by the frame member 24. It will be appreciated that the universal movement permitted of the cross arm assembly 26 with respect to the torso-engaging portion 10 need not be great since even slight movement will impart a considerable degree of displacement to the man-machine combination.

Extending forwardly from the cross arm assembly 26 are a pair of frame members 52 and 54, see particularly FIG. 2. At their forward extremities, these members 52 and 54 are each provided with hand grip members such as that indicated by the reference character 56 in FIG. 1 and at their rearward extremities, these members are rigidly aflixed to the cross arm assembly as at 58 and 60. The hand grip assemblies 56 function for two purposes, first, to provide a convenient place for the operators hands to rest and these hand grips, secondly, permit the operator to control the cross arm assembly in pitch, to control throttling of the fuel, and to impart yaw control to the man-machine combination. Thus, the push-pull element 44 may be operated from one control handle 56 by rotation thereof, in motorcycle fashion, to vary the throttle setting of U116 fuel valve 38 and the other hand grip member 56 may be provided with a similar mechanism (i.e. Bowden cable) for effecting yaw control by means of differentially actuating the deflectors 62 at the tips of the nozzles 32. In association with these deflectors 62, it will be appreciated that when actuated, one will be moved to deflect the jet stream forwiardly and the other to direct the jet stream rearwardly so as to provide a yaw couple acting on the man-machine combination.

The manner in which the user is suspended from the cross arm assembly 26 forms an extremely important aspect of the present invention and this is accomplished by the shoulder loop-s 64 and 66, see particularly FIG. 3, which are adapted to engage around underneath the users armpits and up over the shoulder in the fashion shown in FIG. 1 so that the operator or user is literally suspended from the cross arm assembly 26 when the manmachine combination is airborne. Each of these loops is in the form of a flexible strap having an adjustable and quickly releasable buckle portion such as that indicated generally by the reference character 68 in FIG. 2 and these straps may be additionally provided with cushion tubes such as those indicated by reference characters 70 and 72. The purpose of the cushioning devices is of course to provide comfort for the user but it is to be understood that the flexible strap may be alternatively constructed in such fashion as to integrally incorporate such cushion portions. The strap may be a one or twopiece construction, as desired, but in any event, it is fixed to the cross arm assembly 26 by a suitable connector 74 (see FIG. 3) and is also anchored to the cross arm assembly 26 through the intermediary of the frame members 52 and 54 by suitable strap members 76 and 78, see particularly FIG. 2. By providing for flexibility in the loops 64 and 66, relative movement between these loops and the cross arm assembly 26 in the critical areas 80 and 82, see FIG. 5, is provided. These critical portions or areas 80 and 82 permit movement of the cross arm assembly 26 so as to control the man-machine combination in forward and rearward movement simply by exerting downward or upward force on the frame members 52 and 54 through the hand grips 56 without requiring the users shoulders to become involved in such motion. To appreciate this, it will be realized that the movement of the cross arm assembly 26 in pitch so as to control the aforesaid fore and aft movements of the man-machine combination are not required to be great, so that a relatively small amount of flexibility at the aforesaid points 80 and 82, while the user is suspended from the cross arm assembly 26, will permit the requisite motion in pitch of the cross arm assembly 26 to occur without requiring the user to cause his shoulders to follow such pitch control movement of the cross arm assembly 26. Additionally, the flexibility at the points 80 and 82 provides for lateral movement of the loops 64 and 66 relative to each other so as not only to accommodate for users having varying chest widths but also to prevent differential shoulder shrugging movements for effecting roll control of the cross arm assembly 26 from also automatically imparting pitch control movements to the cross arm assembly 26. These several features stemming from the flexibility at the points 80 and 82 have been found to be extremely important in effecting the nicety of control required in order to render the man-machine combination a safe, versatile and highly maneuverable combination.

A further feature of the invention which goes to the question of nicety of control, maneuverability and safety is the utilization of the groin straps 84 and 86, see example FIG. 1. Each of these straps is secured at one end 88 to the lower end of the torso-engaging portion as by a suitable fastener M) and such strap extends therefrom to cross with the other strap in the manner which can be seen best in FIG. 3 for connection at its opposite end with a quick release buckle and adjustable fastener 92 secured, as at 94 to the torso-engaging assembly 10 somewhat forwardly of the fastener 90' for the other strap element.

The significance of the groin straps 84 and 86 is probably best illustrated by discussion of the operation of the device. The corset assembly 10 is a substantially rigid mechanism and serves two main purposes in accord with the present invention. First of all, the corset assembly provides a mounting platform upon which the weightier components of the assemblage are directly mounted so that the weight load thereof is transferred substantially directly to the hip region of the user, as will hereinafter more particularly appear. Secondly, the corset assembly 10 is adapted to snugly engage the users body, and is in at least partly encircling relationship to the users torso so as to substantially un-mobilize or rigidify the users torso, and particularly the region of the last few lower vertebrae of the back when the user or individual is rendered airborne. This latter elfect is enhanced by the provision of the groin straps 84 and 86 and also these groin straps render the device more comfortable and less fatiguing inasmuch as their presence relieves the users shoulders of some of his own body weight when the individual is airborne. To appreciate the rigidifying or immobilizing effect of the corset assembly, it will be realized that although when not airborne, the corset assembly places the load directly upon the users hips, the user is largely suspended by means of his shoulders, from the cross arm assembly, when the individual is airborne. When thus suspended, the human body will elongate (as much as several inches) so that, in elfect, the users body is narrowed in the waist region and the hip region of the users body will actually droop downwardly from the corset assembly 10. This elongation and droop destroys to some extent the rigidifying or immobilizing effect of the corset assembly 10 and, as a result, the lower extremity of the users torso, particularly the last few lower vertebrae of the back, are free for movement relative to the corset assembly which, in actual flight, are propense to the setting up of body oscillations in the fore and aft as well as in lateral directions so that the problem of control may be degraded thereby. Actual experience has shown that whereas the user will find little difficulty in precluding the initiation of oscillations of his legs relative to his body, that the same is not true with regard to a situation in which, as aforesaid, the users lower extremity of his torso is not immobilized, as for example when the last few vertebrae at the lower region of the back are free to move. Thus, it is very important not only for comfort but also for safety purposes that the users body be substantially rigidified or immobilized throughout the back, waiste and hip regions thereof.

The provision of the groin straps 84 and 86, therefore prevent the hips from drooping downwardly from the corset assembly 10 and thus militate against the initiation of largely uncontrollable lower body oscillations as aforesaid. In short, the groin straps 84 and 86 prevent the users body from rattling within the confines of the corset assembly 10 when the individual is airborne, and which may occur even though the corset assembly is very snug upon the user throughout all regions of his torso when not airborne.

The immobilization effect of the corset assembly is realized by generally contouring the corset assembly in conformity with the contours of the users body. Thus, the corset assembly may be considered as being formed from a waist portion which is somewhat narrowed with respect to the outwardly flaring hip region portion 102 which depends from the waist portion. The corset assembly also includes the back plate portion 104 rising upwardly from the narrowed waist portion 100 and to the upper extremity of which is connected the aforementioned neck or upper extension 22.

The corset assembly 10 is also provided with ventral extension portions 106 and 108, see particularly FIG. 3, which may be, as shown, disposed to completely encircle the users body and overlap at the ends as illustrated. The strap members 110 and 112 and the associated buckle mechanism 114 serve to maintain the snug fit of the corset assembly around the users body. As has been stated, the contours of the corset assembly 10 are generally configurated in accord with the contours of the human body and to provide cushion means and also to provide means for accommodating for variations in shapes between different individuals, the corset assembly 10 is lined with cushioning material as indicated by the reference character 116. The corset assembly may be constructed principally from fiberglass reinforced epoxy material or the like and is substantially rigid in a vertical plane whereas, in a horizontal plane, it is capable of being opened up so as to permit the corset assembly to be engaged upon and removed from a users body.

The modified propulsion device shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 operates generally on the principles described above in conjunction with FIGS. 1-5 inclusive although the corset assembly, as can be best seen in FIG. 7, which is illustrated in conjunction with this modified form of assembly, illustrates that the ventral extensions and 122 of the corset assembly need not completely encircle the users waist. The main difference in the modification as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 lies in the gas generating mechanism. In the particular instance shown in these figures, the burning of a hydrocarbon fuel is utilized as the source of propellant gas which is routed to the fixed nozzles 124 and 126 which are, in turn, rigidly mounted on a cross arm assembly 128 universally pivoted to the upper extension portion 130 of the corset assembly in a fashion similar to the construction described in conjunction with FIGS. 1-5.

Turning now to FIG. 21, a representative type of power plant which may be used in association with this invention is shown therein. The showing herein in FIG. 21 is identical with FIG. 15 of Patent 2,396,911 which will be seen to consist of a low pressure compressor rotor 132 having blade rows 134, 136 and 138 fixed thereto cooperable with the fixed or stator blades such as those indicated by the reference characters 140 and 142, in the well known conventional manner. The low pressure compressor rotor 132 is connected, by means of a shaft 143 to the rotor 144 of a low pressure turbine having blades such as those indicated by the reference character 146. A quill shaft 147 disposed in concentric surrounding relationship to the shaft 143 interconnects the high pressure compressor rotor 148 to the high pressure turbine rotor 150. It will be noted that the housing for the power plant includes an inner wall structure indicated generally by the reference character 152 within which some of the air operated upon the low pressure compressor assembly is routed through channel 153 to the high pressure compressor 148 whereas bypass air is ducted through the channel or passageway 155 formed between the inner wall structure 152 and the outer wall 154 of the power plant assembly. It will be noted that the construction of the low pressure compressor and of the ducting systems is such that the bypass air arrives at the discharge of the power plant at or substantially at the same pressure as the combustion gases emanating therefrom so that mixing occurs between these two gases to provide a high mass rate of flow to the nozzles 124 and 126. The high pressure compressor 148 dicharges in the fashion indicated by the arrows in FIG. 21 to the combustor 156. The low and high pressure compressorturbine systems are rotated in relatively opposite directions so as to minimize gyroscopic effects and, as is seen in FIG. 6, the turbojet mechanism is mounted vertically with its inlet horn 160 disposed adjacent the bottom extremity of the corset assembly and with this outlet discharging upwardly. The outlet is covered by a base portion 162 of the nozzle assembly indicated generally by the reference character 164, the base portion 162 being mounted on the outer wall 154 of the power plant to collect the combustion gases and the bypass air mixture emanating therefrom. The nozzle assembly is flexible to permit freedom .of motion between the cross arm assembly 128 and the rest of the mechanism and, for this purpose, flexible corrugated conduits 166 and 168 may be utilized to connect the base portion 162 to the nozzles 124 and 126.

As can be seen in FIGS. 8 and 9, the back plate portion 170 of the corset assembly 172 mounts, through suitable brackets 174 and 176, a vertically extending frame piece 178 of suitably rigid construction. The upper bracket 174 is secured directly to the upper extremity of the frame piece 178 while the brackets 176, being two in number, are secured to a cross piece member 180 which is in turn rigidly secured to the lower end of the vertical frame member 178. An upper cross piece member 182 is also rigidly mounted to the frame member 178, substantially as is shown. The hip portion 184 of the corset assembly 172 carries the groin straps 186 and 188 as previously described in conjunction with FIG. 1. The upper extremity of the frame member 178 carries a ball joint or other suitable articulating means universally mounting the cross arm assembly 128 relatively to the corset assembly 172. The cross arm assembly 128 is preferably of T-shaped cross sectional configuration as is seen best in FIG. 13 including an upstanding web portion 190 and a top plate portion 192. The nozzles 124 and 126 are provided with bracket ear portions 194 and 196 which are riveted or otherwise suitably fixedly fastened to the extremities of the cross arm assembly 128, the brackets 194 and 196 being rigid with the nozzle assemblies. Each of the nozzles is provided with a deflector such as those indicated by reference characters 198 and 200 pivotally mounted to their respective nozzles as indicated by reference characters 202 and 204, the deflectors being movable between the full and dotted line positions as shown for modulating the propulsive effect as for example before take-off. A bell crank 206 is associated with each of the deflectors 198 and 200 and is connected thereto through a link member 208, the bell crank 206 in each case being pivotally mounted to the web 190 of the cross arm assembly as by pivot pin members 210, as shown. The opposite ends of the bell cranks 206 are connected to the drag links 212 and 214 extending to a parallelogram linkage assembly indicated generally by the reference character 216. This parallelogram link assembly is fixedly pivoted as at 218 to the cross arm assembly 128 and a Bowden cable device 220 has its cable operator anchored or secured otherwise to the lower extremity of the linkage assembly 216 for opening and closing the same for causing simultaneous movement of the two deflectors 198 and 200. The Bowden cable 220 extends into a control arm member 222 fixedly secured, as by means of a bracket 224 to the cross arm assembly 128. The control arm assembly extends first laterally and then forwardly in the forwardly reaching portion 226 which terminates, preferably, in a pair of depending handle mouth portions 228 and 230. On the opposite side of the cross arm assembly 128 is mounted a pair of bell cranks 232 and 234 for operating deflector rings 236 and 238 mounted on the nozzle tips. These deflector rings are mounted as by pin elements 240 for deflecting the jet stream in fore and aft directions and the linkage controlling the bell cranks 232 and 234 is effective for operating these deflectors 236 and 238 in relatively opposite directions to thereby attain yaw control for the man-machine combination. For this purpose, the bell cranks 232 and 234 are provided with a control rod 250 connected, as at 252, to a Bowden wire device 254 which is also extended into the portion 222 of the control handle assembly. Two more Bowden wire connectors 256 and 258 extend into the control handle assembly, the operation of all of the Bowden Wire assemblies being described hereinafter in more detail, the Bowden wire 256 being provided for achieving pitch trim of the assembly, as hereinafter described, and the Bowden wire 258 being provided for throttle control of the turbojet assembly.

The aforementioned frame members and 182 mount strap devices 260 and 262 which support a fuel tank 264 which is disposed in substantially surrounding relationship to the engine shown in FIG. 21. The engine itself is provided with brackets (not shown) which may mount directly to the frame member 178. It is preferred that the fuel tank 264 be transparent so that the level of fuel can be visually checked and it will be understood that the aforementioned bypass air arrangement for the turbojet engine makes it possible for the fuel tank to be disposed in such close proximity to the power generating device as is shown.

The cross arm assembly 128 is also provided with a pair of brackets 270 and 272 mounting the depending flexible shoulder straps 274 and 276 whereby kinesthetic control of the cross arm assembly 128 in roll is achieved.

With reference to FIG. 11, both the universal mounting of the cross arm assembly 128 relative to the corset assembly 172 and the manner of pitch trim adjustment will be seen therein. As shown, the frame member 178 is provided with bracket members 280 and 282 at its upper extremity which slidably carry therebetween a rod 284 upon which a ball member 286 is mounted, The Bowden wire assembly 256 is attached to the rod 284 and is effective to move the same back and forth in a fore and aft direction to carry with it the cross arm assembly 128. To effect movement of the Bowden wire actuator 256, or more precisely the core wire 288 thereof, one of the control handles of the device may be constructed as is shown in FIG. 12.

As is shown in FIG. 12, the control handle grip 290 rotatably mounts a nut member 292 having a knurled hand knob portion 294 integral therewith, the nut member being engaged with the worm or screw device 296 in turn attached to the Bowden wire core member 288. Thus, by manipulating the knob 294 by thumb action or otherwise, the pivot point and consequently the point of lifting between the cross arm assembly 128 and the rest of the man-machine combination may be shifted in a fore and aft direction permitting hands off hovering or like maneuvering as may be required for example if the operator is to perform duties requiring the use of both hands.

FIGS. 14-16 illustrate a modified form of the control handle assembly 300. In this particular modification, the base portion 302 of the control handle assembly is pivotally mounted in a retaining boss 304 on the cross arm assembly 128, the boss 304 preventing removal of the control handle assembly but permitting of relative rotation therebetween. The control handle base 302 is provided with a lever extension 306 for operating the cables 9 308 and 310 in turn connected to bell cranks for operation of the deflectors 312 and 314 which are identical to the previously mentioned deflectors 236 and 238. Thus, in the modification of FIGS. 14-16, yaw control is effected by swinging the control arm assembly 300 relative to the corset assembly.

FIG. 18 illustrates the manner in which warning upon the attainment of low fuel capacity may be provided for. In this figure, the fuel tank 264 is shown as provided with a float 330 having a valve stem portion 332 provided with a valve head 334 operating within the transfer block 336. The conduit or line 338 leading into the upper chamber 340 of the transfer block 336 is connected to a pressurized gas line such as a suitable outlet connection at the power plant and when the fuel has reached a dangerously low level, the valve 334 will unseat and permit the pressurized air to enter the lower chamber 342 of the transfer block 336 and to thus pass through the line 344 to the helmet mounted warning device indicated generally by the reference character 346. The warning device may be, as is shown in FIG. 19, simply a vibrating reed 350 mounted within a suitable housing 352, the housing having a suitable outlet as at 354 and the reed provided with a clapper 356 so that vibration as imparted thereto by the gas incoming through the line 344 will repeatedly strike the housing 352 to apprise the operator that the fuel is low. A modified form of warning device is shown in FIG. 20 which -may include a housing 360 having an outlet 362 and having a chamber 364 housing the ball 366. When the be caused to rattle within the housing and since the device is mounted against the users helmet, the operator will be immediately apprised that only a predetermined amount of fuel remains in the fuel supply system.

It will be appreciated that the various controls, warning devices and mechanism for adjusting fore and aft placement of the pivot joint for the nozzle assembly may be used in conjunction with the form of the invention shown in FIG. 1, or with other forms of the invention, as desired. It is to be understood that certain changes and modifications as illustrated and described may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the following claims.

We cliam:

1. A propulsion unit for rendering an individual airborne comprising, in combination,

a torso-engaging portion fixedly mounting the weightier components of the unit,

an upper portion including propulsion nozzles for supplying motivating thrust,

means pivotally connecting said upper portion to said torso-engaging portion whereby the aforesaid motivating thrust is operable to lift said torso-engaging portion and control the direction of motion thereof,

a pair of hangers suspended from said upper portion,

each hanger presenting a loop for engaging under the users armpits to suspend the user from said upper portion, said hangers being universally movable with respect to said upper portion.

2. A propulsion unit as defined in claim 1 wherein said hangers are in the form of flexible straps.

3. A propulsion unit as defined in claim 1 wherein said torso-engaging portion is provided with groin straps for supporting a minor portion of the users weight.

4. A propulsion unit for an individual comprising, in combination,

a torso-engaging corset adapted to be secured about a user,

a gas generating device mounted on said corset,

fuel supply means mounted on said corset and connected to said gas generating device,

a rigid cross arm assembly,

universal joint means mounting said cross arm assembly substantially centrally thereof to an upper por- 10 tion of said corset and in normally horizontal transverse relation thereto,

nozzle means carried by said cross arm assembly and adapted for movement therewith relative to said corset to effect directional control,

shoulder-engaging means movably suspended from said cross arm assembly and adapted to loop around under a users armpits for suspending the user from said cross arm assembly,

and control means rigidly connected to said cross arm assembly and extending forwardly thereof to permit pitch control of the cross arm assembly relative to the corset and shoulder-engaging means.

5. A propulsion unit for rendering an individual airborne comprising, in combination,

a corset assembly having a back plate portion generally conforming to the contours of a users back, an outwardly flaring hip portion for resting upon a users hips in at least partially encircling relation thereto, and an upper extension adapted to project behind a users neck,

a cross arm assembly pivotally attached to said upper extension,

a turbo-jet engine mounted vertically on said back plate portion and having an inlet adjacent said hip portion and an outlet adjacent said upper extension,

a flexible nozzle assembly having a base portion mounted at the outlet of said engine for collecting hot gases discharged thereby, a pair of nozzles mounted on the opposite ends of said cross arm assembly and discharging downwardly therefrom, and flexible tube means extending between said base portion and said nozzles for directing the gaseous discharge from said engine to said nozzles.

6. A propulsion unit for individuals comprising, in

combination,

a substantially rigid corset assembly including a back plate portion, an outwardly flaring hip portion, ventral extensions adapted to at least partially encircle a users abdomen, an upper extension rising upwardly from the back plate portion and adapted to lie behind the users neck, and fastener means for snugly engaging said ventral extensions with a users waist so that the corset assembly snugly engages the users hips, waist and back,

a cross arm assembly universally pivoted at its central region to said upper extension and projecting laterally on opposite sides thereof, said cross arm assembly including a pair of shoulder engaging loops depending therefrom in spaced relation to and on opposite sides of the pivotal connection between the cross arm assembly and said upper extension and adapted to extend around a users shoulders to pass beneath his armpits,

gas generating means including fuel supply means mounted on said back plate portion,

a pair of downwardly directed nozzles mounted on the opposite ends of said cross arm assembly and connected to said gas generating means,

control handle means fixed to said cross arm assembly and extending forwardly therefrom into position accessible to a user,

and groin strap means depending from said hip portion for partially supporting a users weight and thereby maintaining the aforesaid snug engagement of the cor-set assembly with the users hips and waist.

7. A propulsion assembly for rendering an individual airborne comprising, in combination,

a substantially n'gid corset assembly including a waist portion adapted to be secured in at least partially encircling relation to a users waist and having a back plate portion extending upwardly therefrom and an outwardly flaring hip portion extending downwardly therefrom, fastener means for securing said waist portion in snug relation to a user and groin strap means depending from said hip portion whereby the users waist, hips and back are substantially immobilized by and with respect to the corset assembly,

a turbo-jet engine secured to said back plate portion and having a downwardly directed air inlet and an upwardly directed discharge outlet,

a cross arm assembly universally pivoted to the corset assembly adjacent the upper extremity of said back plate portion,

a pair of shoulder-engaging loops depending from and universally connected to said cross arm assembly,

a nozzle assembly including a pair of downwardly directed nozzles mounted on the opposite ends of said cross arm assembly, a base portion mounted on the upper end of said engine for collecting gases from the discharge outlet thereof, and flexible conduit means connecting said nozzles to said base portion,

and control handle means fixed to said cross arm assembly and projecting forwardly thereof for dispositions accessible to a user.

8. A propulsion device for rendering an individual airborne comprising, in combination,

a substantially rigid corset assembly adapted to at least partially encircle a user,

a cross arm assembly universally pivoted to an upper portion of said corset assembly,

a turbo-jet engine mounted vertically on said corset assembly with its inlet disposed downwardly and its outlet disposed upwardly,

a flexible nozzle assembly mounted at the outlet of said engine for collecting discharge gases therefrom and including nozzles at the extremities of said cross arm assembly,

said engine including a compressor adjacent said inlet and a combustor adjacent said outlet, an inner wall forming a duct between said compressor and said combustor, and an outer wall forming a duct for bypass air between said compressor and said outlet,

and fuel supply means mounted on said corset assembly in surrounding relation to said outer wall.

9. A propulsion device for rendering an individual airborne comprising, in combination,

a substantially rigid corset assembly adapted to at least partially encircle and effectively rigidize a users torso,

fastening means including groin straps for maintaining said corset assembly in place with a users torso in rigidized condition as aforesaid,

a cross arm assembly universally pivoted on an upper portion of said corset assembly,

flexible shoulder-engaging loops depending from said cross arm assembly for imparting roll control movements to said cross arm assembly,

a control handle fixed to said cross arm assembly and projecting forwardly thereof for imparting pitch control movements to said cross arm assembly,

downwardly directed nozzle means mounted at the extremities of said cross arm assembly,

and means on said corset assembly for supplying gaseous discharge through said nozzle means.

10. The device as defined in claim 9 wherein the last means comprises a turbo-jet engine mounted on said corset assembly having inner and outer walls defining an ambient air bypass duct, and a fuel supply mounted on said corset assembly in surrounding relation to said outer wall.

11. A propulsion device for rendering an individual airborne comprising, in combination,

a substantially rigid corset assembly adapted to at least partially encircle and effectively rigidize a users torso,

fastening means including groin straps for maintaining said corset assembly in place with a users torso in rigidized condition as aforesaid,

a cross arm assembly,

a pivot universally mounting said cross arm assembly on an upper portion of said corset assembly,

shoulder-engaging loops movably mounted on and depending from said cross arm assembly,

a control handle fixed to said cross arm assembly and projecting forwardly thereof for imparting pitch control movements to said cross arm assembly,

downwardly directed nozzle means mounted at the extremities of said cross arm assembly,

and means on said corset assembly for supplying gaseous discharge through said nozzle means.

12. The device as defined in claim 11 including means for shifting said pivot toward and away from said corset assembly.

13. The device as defined in claim 12 wherein the last means includes an actuator mounted on said control handle.

14. The device as defined in claim 11 including a fuel supply mounted on said corset assembly, and warning means actuated in response to diminishment of said fuel supply to a predetermined volume.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,021,095 2/1962 Moore 244-4 3,023,980 3/1962 Martin et al. 244-4 FOREIGN PATENTS 689,429 6/1964 Canada.

MILTON BUCHLER, Primary Examiner.

A. E. CORRIGAN, Assistant Examiner.

Claims (1)

1. A PROPULSION UNIT FOR RENDERING AN INDIVIDUAL AIRBORNE COMPRISING, IN COMBINATION, A TORSO-ENGAGING PORTION FIXEDLY MOUNTING THE WEIGHTER COMPONENTS OF THE UNIT, AN UPPER PORTION INCLUDING PROPULSION NOZZLES FOR SUPPLYING MOTIVATING THRUST, MEANS PIVOTALLY CONNECTING SAID UPPER PORTION TO SAID TORSO-ENGAGING PORTION WHEREBY THE AFORESAID MOTIVATING THRUST IS OPERABLE TO LIFT SAID TORSO-ENGAGING PORTION AND CONTROL THE DIRECTION OF MOTION THEREOF A PAIR OF HANGERS SUSPENDED FROM SAID UPPER PORTION, EACH HANGER PRESENTING A LOOP FOR ENGAGING UNDER THE USER''S ARMPITS TO SUSPEND THE USER FROM SAID UPPER PORTION, SAID HANGERS BEING UNIVERSALLY MOVABLE WITH RESPECT TO SAID UPPER PORTION.
US383271A 1964-07-17 1964-07-17 Personel propulsion unit Expired - Lifetime US3243144A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US383271A US3243144A (en) 1964-07-17 1964-07-17 Personel propulsion unit

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US383271A US3243144A (en) 1964-07-17 1964-07-17 Personel propulsion unit

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US3243144A true US3243144A (en) 1966-03-29

Family

ID=23512402

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US383271A Expired - Lifetime US3243144A (en) 1964-07-17 1964-07-17 Personel propulsion unit

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US3243144A (en)

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3381917A (en) * 1966-11-08 1968-05-07 Bell Aerospace Corp Personnel flying device
US3570785A (en) * 1969-03-24 1971-03-16 Nasa Personal propulsion unit
US4040577A (en) * 1977-01-17 1977-08-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Lockwood airfoil used in conjunction with man transport device
US5779188A (en) * 1993-09-21 1998-07-14 Frick; Alexander Flight device
US6488232B2 (en) * 1998-12-16 2002-12-03 Trek Aerospace, Inc. Single passenger aircraft
WO2004016504A1 (en) * 2002-08-15 2004-02-26 Kingting Lau Single pilot aircraft
US20060054735A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2006-03-16 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
US20080142644A1 (en) * 2006-12-15 2008-06-19 O'roark Corey Flight apparatus having movable motors
US20090020654A1 (en) * 2007-06-08 2009-01-22 Nelson Tyler Harness with mounted engine frame
US20090224095A1 (en) * 2008-03-04 2009-09-10 Honeywell International, Inc. Ducted vertical take-off and landing (vtol) personnel carrier
WO2011131733A2 (en) 2010-04-22 2011-10-27 Desaulniers Jean-Marc Joseph Vertical take-off and landing multimodal, multienvironment, gyropendular craft with compensatory propulsion and fluidic gradient collimation
US8336805B1 (en) 2011-09-19 2012-12-25 Person Water Craft Product Device and system for propelling a passenger
WO2013041787A1 (en) 2011-09-19 2013-03-28 Personal Water Craft Product Personal watercraft capable of delivering a pressurised fluid and an associated system
WO2013060693A2 (en) 2011-10-27 2013-05-02 Desaulniers Jean-Marc Joseph Active geometric exoskeleton with pseudo-rhombohedral annular fairing for gyropendular craft
RU2490162C1 (en) * 2012-03-06 2013-08-20 Азат Наилевич Нагимов Water jet propulsor
US20140103165A1 (en) * 2012-10-09 2014-04-17 Personal Water Craft Product Maneuvering and Stability Control System for Jet-Pack
US8851943B2 (en) 2011-09-19 2014-10-07 Zapata Holding Motorized water vehicle adapted for supplying a pressurized fluid and associated delivery system
WO2015132478A1 (en) 2014-03-05 2015-09-11 Zapata Holding Device and system for propelling a passenger
WO2017174942A1 (en) 2016-04-08 2017-10-12 Zipair Device for propelling a passenger
US9849980B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-12-26 Jlip, Llc Personal propulsion devices with improved balance
RU2677802C2 (en) * 2016-10-31 2019-01-21 Леонид Александрович Михайлишин Rocket pack
EP3495262A1 (en) 2017-12-07 2019-06-12 Charron, Chrystelle Improved flight systems and methods of use thereof

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3021095A (en) * 1960-06-10 1962-02-13 Bell Aerospace Corp Propulsion unit
US3023980A (en) * 1958-10-13 1962-03-06 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc Turbo-fan lift device
CA689429A (en) * 1964-06-23 F. Moore Wendell Individual flight device

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA689429A (en) * 1964-06-23 F. Moore Wendell Individual flight device
US3023980A (en) * 1958-10-13 1962-03-06 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc Turbo-fan lift device
US3021095A (en) * 1960-06-10 1962-02-13 Bell Aerospace Corp Propulsion unit

Cited By (42)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3381917A (en) * 1966-11-08 1968-05-07 Bell Aerospace Corp Personnel flying device
US3570785A (en) * 1969-03-24 1971-03-16 Nasa Personal propulsion unit
US4040577A (en) * 1977-01-17 1977-08-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Lockwood airfoil used in conjunction with man transport device
US5779188A (en) * 1993-09-21 1998-07-14 Frick; Alexander Flight device
US6488232B2 (en) * 1998-12-16 2002-12-03 Trek Aerospace, Inc. Single passenger aircraft
GB2405447B (en) * 2002-08-15 2006-05-31 Kingting Lau Air motor
GB2405447A (en) * 2002-08-15 2005-03-02 Kingting Lau Single pilot aircraft
WO2004016504A1 (en) * 2002-08-15 2004-02-26 Kingting Lau Single pilot aircraft
US7735772B2 (en) 2004-03-26 2010-06-15 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
WO2005091713A3 (en) * 2004-03-26 2006-04-13 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
EP1732806A2 (en) * 2004-03-26 2006-12-20 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
US7258301B2 (en) 2004-03-26 2007-08-21 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
US20060054735A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2006-03-16 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
US20080156942A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2008-07-03 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
US7900867B2 (en) 2004-03-26 2011-03-08 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
US20100200702A1 (en) * 2004-03-26 2010-08-12 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
AU2005226960B2 (en) * 2004-03-26 2010-01-21 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
EP1732806A4 (en) * 2004-03-26 2011-12-14 Raymond Li Personal propulsion device
US20080142644A1 (en) * 2006-12-15 2008-06-19 O'roark Corey Flight apparatus having movable motors
US20090020654A1 (en) * 2007-06-08 2009-01-22 Nelson Tyler Harness with mounted engine frame
US20090224095A1 (en) * 2008-03-04 2009-09-10 Honeywell International, Inc. Ducted vertical take-off and landing (vtol) personnel carrier
WO2011131733A2 (en) 2010-04-22 2011-10-27 Desaulniers Jean-Marc Joseph Vertical take-off and landing multimodal, multienvironment, gyropendular craft with compensatory propulsion and fluidic gradient collimation
US8336805B1 (en) 2011-09-19 2012-12-25 Person Water Craft Product Device and system for propelling a passenger
WO2013041787A1 (en) 2011-09-19 2013-03-28 Personal Water Craft Product Personal watercraft capable of delivering a pressurised fluid and an associated system
WO2013041786A1 (en) 2011-09-19 2013-03-28 Personal Water Craft Product Passenger propulsion device and system
US8979017B2 (en) * 2011-09-19 2015-03-17 Zapata Holding Device and system for propelling a passenger
EP3095696A1 (en) 2011-09-19 2016-11-23 Zapata Holding Device and system for propelling a passenger
US8608104B2 (en) * 2011-09-19 2013-12-17 Personal Water Craft Product Device and system for propelling a passenger
US9168991B2 (en) 2011-09-19 2015-10-27 Zapata Holding Motorized water vehicle adapted for supplying a pressurized fluid and associated system
US20140158832A1 (en) * 2011-09-19 2014-06-12 Personal Eater Craft Product Device and System for Propelling a Passenger
US8851943B2 (en) 2011-09-19 2014-10-07 Zapata Holding Motorized water vehicle adapted for supplying a pressurized fluid and associated delivery system
WO2013060693A2 (en) 2011-10-27 2013-05-02 Desaulniers Jean-Marc Joseph Active geometric exoskeleton with pseudo-rhombohedral annular fairing for gyropendular craft
RU2490162C1 (en) * 2012-03-06 2013-08-20 Азат Наилевич Нагимов Water jet propulsor
US20140103165A1 (en) * 2012-10-09 2014-04-17 Personal Water Craft Product Maneuvering and Stability Control System for Jet-Pack
US9849980B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-12-26 Jlip, Llc Personal propulsion devices with improved balance
WO2015132478A1 (en) 2014-03-05 2015-09-11 Zapata Holding Device and system for propelling a passenger
US10118677B2 (en) 2014-03-05 2018-11-06 Ziph2O Device and system for propelling a passenger
WO2017174942A1 (en) 2016-04-08 2017-10-12 Zipair Device for propelling a passenger
WO2017174944A1 (en) 2016-04-08 2017-10-12 Zipair Device for propelling a passenger
RU2677802C2 (en) * 2016-10-31 2019-01-21 Леонид Александрович Михайлишин Rocket pack
WO2019110830A1 (en) 2017-12-07 2019-06-13 Zipair Improved flight systems
EP3495262A1 (en) 2017-12-07 2019-06-12 Charron, Chrystelle Improved flight systems and methods of use thereof

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3355075A (en) Pack frame
US3276723A (en) Vtol flight unit
US3599635A (en) Hanging quick donning mask suspension
US4179805A (en) Portable power operated tool
US3234940A (en) Retention for quick donning mask
US3346216A (en) Airship
US4298149A (en) Body harness for cinematographer
US4236723A (en) Hip cart
US3034131A (en) Mobile space suit
GB1199221A (en) Means for Discharging Bulk Materials from Aircraft
CA1104457A (en) Breathing apparatus
US20030042063A1 (en) Ergonomic tractor seat armrest and hand control
JP2577260B2 (en) Seat insert
US4817943A (en) Total shoulder exercise and muscle development machine
US5170964A (en) Propelling nozzle for the thrust vector control for aircraft equipped with jet engines
US4488691A (en) Torso restraint system
US3957262A (en) Head supporting and immobilizing device
US4601443A (en) Free flyable structure
US2368698A (en) Helicopter aircraft
US4478378A (en) Aircraft with jet propulsion
US20060196991A1 (en) Propulsion device
US4914976A (en) Five and six degree of freedom hand controllers
US3910269A (en) Integrated helmet and mask structure
US5086762A (en) Typing brace
WO2002047978A9 (en) Aircraft and control system