US315905A - caldeea - Google Patents

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US315905A US315905DA US315905A US 315905 A US315905 A US 315905A US 315905D A US315905D A US 315905DA US 315905 A US315905 A US 315905A
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    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/26Pedals or pedal mechanisms; Manually operated sound modification means
    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/16Actions
    • G10C3/161Actions specially adapted for upright pianos
    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/16Actions
    • G10C3/18Hammers
    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/16Actions
    • G10C3/22Actions specially adapted for grand pianos
    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/16Actions
    • G10C3/24Repetition [tremolo] mechanisms


(No ModeL) 3 Sheets-Sheet l.
No. 315,90E2g] Patentw.
Q I l WZ'Znasses. fnv/enden V66i/O( luga' Caldera,
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 2.
MM y@ @.W
(No Mode1,) v 3 Sheets-Sheet 3. L, CALDERA.
fiar/'622307.' Zuyl' M705 Aworking of. the said motor.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 315,905, dated April ld, 1835.
Application filed November 6, 1883.
(No model.) Patented in Italy, Registro Generale Vol. 1T, Xo.15,7, Registro Attcstati Vol. 30,
To all whom t 1v1/ay; concern:
' Be it known that I, LUIGI GALDERA, of Turin, in the Kingdom of Italy, mechanical engineer, have invented new and useful Improvements in Piano-Fortes, (for which I have obtained a patent in Italy, Registro Generale V01- 17, No. Rgistro 701.
30, No. 382,) of which the followingis a speci- Iication, reference being had to the accompanying drawings.
Thisv invention relates to piano-fortes, and has for its object to provide means for causing any of the strings of the same to continue to vibrate after they have been struck by the ordinary hammers, whereby any note or combination of notes may be sustained for any desired period.
The said invention, which is applicable to upright as well as to table or grand pianofortes, consists in the construction and arrangement of parts, which will be hereinafter fully described, and then set forth in the claims.
In the mechanism constructed according to this invention the defects of mechanism of a similar class as heretofore constructed, and which have prevented the same from being of any practical use, have been obviated.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure l is a sectional view of the action of an ordinary piano-forte to which is applied mechanism for sustaining the vibration of the strings. Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation of the motor, which is suspended under the key-boardof thepianofort-e by means of pieces of felt, in order to prevent the production of any noise in the Fig. 3 is a top view or plan of the said motor. Fig. 4 is a section of the same on the line C D, Fig. 3; and Fig. 5 is a section on the line A B, Fig. 3. Fig. 6 is a sectional view of the action of a grand piano-forte, and showing the applica tion of this invention thereto. Fig. 7 illustrates the construction of the shaft carrying the blades ofthe small haxmners. Fig. 8 is a full-size view of the small felt hammers, the larger of the two being for the lowest note of the piano-forte and the smaller for the highest. Fig. 9 is a sectional plan of Fig. 4 with parts omitted. Fig. l() is a side elevation of Fig. 9. Figli is asection on the upper part of Fig. l, showing more clearly the position of certain parts.
The mechanism as applied to an upright piano-forte is composed of the following partsthat is to say, a shaft, A, Fig. I, consisting of two wooden bars held together by moans of screws F F, Figs. 7 and S, and rendered more rigid by two iron blades, c a, Fig. S. The shaft A is arranged parallel to the plane of the strings. Between the two wooden bars of the said shaft are fixed the ends of the vibrating steel blades D D, to the extremities of which are fitted the small felt hammers E, which strike the metallic strings below the percussion-line ofthe large hammers I). These small hammers may be applied to certain notes of the piano-forte only, or they may be extended for the whole length of the key-board.
To each extremity of the shaft A is fixed a small' steel pivot, X, Fig. 7. These pivots support the said shaft, andare carried in bearings lined with clot-h and formed in two supports attached to the case of the instrument. The said shaft is connected by means of the levers H and I and the wire L, Fig. l, with a motor, M, Fig. 2. rIhe said motor is suspended `under the key board, and imparts movement to the said wire in consequence of` the rotation of a crank,V,Figs.2 and 5, which is actuated by the performer by means of a pedal. The oscillating movement transmitted to the shaft A, through the wire Il, is also transmitted to the vibrating blades D D,which, being flexible, bend without being capable of transmitting the said movement to the small hammers E E, attached to their extremities, in consequence of the said hammers being held back by silk bands Q, or the like, Fig. S, which are attached to the bars of the large hammers by means of small rings It, ofgutta-percha or other suitable material, as shown in Fig. l. Vhcn aperformer by depressing a key causes a large hammer, I), to move forward in order to strike a string, as shown in dotted lines on the drawings, the band Q is slackened, thereby releasing the corresponding small hammer E. If, now,by means of the motor, motion be imparted to the shaft A, carrying the hammers E,the hammer E, in connection with the key which is depressed, will be caused to strike rapid and isochronous blows upon the IOO corresponding string, which is thus kept constantly vibrating so long as the performer keeps the said key depressed.
The application of this invention to a table or grand piano-forte is illustrated in Fig. 6. The shaft A is constructed and operates in a similar manner to that hereinbefore described.
B indicates the vibrating steel blades, and C the heads of the small felt hammers.
D indicates small silk bands or the like,one extremity of each of which is attached to the head ofa small hammer, C, the lower end of the said band being fixed to the support r by means of a small screw, o. These bands serve to hold the small hammers C away from the strings when the plates e, attached to the large hammers F, are resting against the bar b. The plates c are iixed to the hammers F by the screws p. When a hammer is caused to strike one ofthe strings,it assumes the position shown in dotted lines in Fig. 6, whereby the band D is allowed to straighten itself, as shown by the dotted line, thereby permitting the small hammer C to strike the string and sustain its note when the shaft A is oscillated. The object of the bands D is exactly the same as that ofthe silk bands Q, Fig. l.
E indicates an iron lever iixed upon the shaft A, and F a rod carrying upon its extremities two pieces, g g, having the shape of forks. One of the pieces g is jointed to the lever E, attached to the shaft A, the other piece beingjointcd to a lever, G, oscillating upon a pivot, and connected by means of a rod or wire to the motor M, which is similar to that used for the upright pianoforte. The rod F serves to transmit to the shaft A the oscillating movement which is imparted to the lever G by the motor M. The rod F performs a similar function to that of the rod L, Fig. l.
rlhe motor M, which is suspended under the sounding-board of t-he instrument, is entirely concealed between the bars of the casing, and is set in motion by means of a pedal arranged near the ordinary pedals.
H indicates a damper similar to that used in ordinary piano-fortes, and I one of the strings.
L indicates the hammer-butt, in which is fixed a shank, N, 'of the large hammer F, and which is jointed in the flange O, attached by means of a screw to the wooden bar P. rlhis butt has a peculiar shape somewhat different from those in ordinary use, and serves to cause the repetition of notes, being provided for this purpose with a small brass piece, Q', engaging loosely in a rectangular aperture, R, formed in the longer arm of the jack-lever S.
To a small wooden piece, d, secured upon the said butt is attached one end of a thin leather band, e, its other end being connected with another small wooden piece, f, fixed by means of a screw, h, to the upper extremity of a smallelastic steel blade, z, the lower extremity of which is held between two wooden bars, U.
The steel blade constitutes an important feature of this invention, and serves to counterbalance the weight of a large hammer, and consequently to maintain the same in araised position near the strings, in order to allow sufficient time for the long arm of the jacklever S to pass below the rounded edge of the butt L, and to push against the string in order to repeat the note even when the key has come to the end of its stroke.
In order to cause the large hammers to fall upon the resting-bar, and at the same time to stop the small hammers used for sustaining the sounds, the weight of the jack-lever S, as well as a part of the weight of the key7 is utilized, the upper part of the jack-lever S, near the aperture R, bearing against the brass piece Q, fixed in the block L.
T indicates a small wooden case serving as a cover for the damper and the small hammers used for sustaining the sounds, and to reduce the noise produced by the latter striking the string, and also to assist in sustaining the sounds.
A mechanism is used in connection with the ordinary mechanism of either upright orgrand piano-fortes for the purpose of moving the dampers away from the strings and allowing the vibration of single notes or complete chords to take place in such a manner that the performer may not be obliged to keep the keys depressed, and is consequently at liberty to use both hands for the execution of musical pieces while the notes or chords from which the damper has been removed are still vibrating. The main part of the above arrangement consists of an iron cylinder, S, Figs. l and 1l, which is placed along the whole length of the dampers in a groove formed in the wooden bar K, which carries the said damper G. rllie said cylinder is provided at its two extremities with pivots, which are placed ecce'ntrically.
Then the performer, by means of a kneepiece placed beneath the key-hoard and connected with the cylinder S by lever-rods or other devices, causes the cylinder to rotate upon its axis, the said cylinder assumes the position indicated by the broken line c, because its center is then shifted from the position shown by the full line a, as will be readily apparent from Fig. l1. The cylinder then presses with its exterior cylindrical surface against the leather band c, forcing the same against the surface or wall Z at the precise moment when it is drawn by the small spring V', and when the lever 1, to the lower extremity of which the said band is fixed by means of a screw, is raised in consequence of the performer depressing the corresponding key. By reason of the pressure of the said cylinder against the above-mentioned leather band the lever y, to which a damper, G, is attached, is held, and the said damper is kept away from the corresponding string, which consequently vibrates until the performer pushes the arm beneath the key-board with the knee. The above arrangement is not indispensable, and
may be omitted without interfering with the working of the mechanism.
The motor M is shown in Figs. 2, 8, 4, and 5.
a a indicate sheet-iron plates, forming the casing of the mechanism, and which are joined together by means of metallic ties Z Z.
b b are disks composed of sheets of paper pasted together, or card-board, in order to avoid the wearing of the pivots bb2 of the iiywheel shaft, which revolves upon their edges, and at the same time to prevent the noise which would be produced by the rotation of the pivots on metal drums. c c are sheet-iron supports for the said drums.
O indicates a small and very light y-wheel, preferably of brass, which is mounted upon a steel shaft, carrying on one side of the iiywheel a grooved pulley, r3, and at the other a crank', V. The pulley r3, which is integral with the shaft of the iiy-wheel, imparts to the same the movement which it receives from the card-board drum e, the said drum e having its edge of suitable shape to fit the groove of the said pulley r3.
The drum eis adapted to be lowered into the groove of the pulley r3, as required, and for this purpose is mounted upon a metallic lever, d, having two arms connected together near the stud di, upon which the said lever oscillates. At the extremities of these said arms is fixed asteel pin,upon which rotates the drum e. The lowering of the said drum e is effected by the performer pressing upon the third pedal. This pressure is transmitted to the drum e, and causes thesa'meto rotate by means of a leather strap, f, the upper end of which is rolled over the brass pulley k, formed integral with the drum e, its lower end being attached to the end of a lever placed at the bot tom of the instrument and actuated by the said third pedal, vupon which the performer presses with his foot. A small leather strap, m, passing over a pulley, g, has one of its extremities attached to the spiral spring t, and
the other xed to the pulley 7o', formed integral with the large pulley k and with the drum e.
The spring and the leather strap serve to turn the wheel e in an opposite direction to theV other wheels, and at the same time raise the pedal connected with the strap f when the performer removes the pressure of his foot therefrom. The wheel e can therefore be rotated first in one direction and then in the other by alternately depressing the said pedal and allowing 4it to be raised by the spring t'.
p indicates a card-board wheel, the hub of which is made of bronze, and through the center of which a small pin passes, this pin being formed integrally with the arms of the bent leverq, to which lever q the said wheel p imparts 'the same oscillatory movement Which it receives from the crank-pin V acting upon its periphery,and formed integrally with the shaft of the fly-wheel O and rotating therewith. The lever g oseillates upon the center d5, its two arms carrying the steel pin upon which rotates the wheel p.
m is a metallic support xed by means of a screw upon one of the plates of the casing of the motor. The said support carries a small steel pin, d5, upon which the lever q oscillatcs.
r indicates an arm formed integrally with the lever q, and which serves to transmit an oscillating movement to the lever a, to which it is connected by means of the joint r. The said lever n bears against a roller, t, which serves as its fulcrum, and at its end is jointed to the rod L, which transmits an oscillating movement to the shaft A carrying the small hammers. It will thus be seen that the said arm r, fixed to the boss of the lever q, oscillating around the center d5, receives therefrom the oscillatory movement which is imparted to it by the two arms of the forked lever q. This lever is put in motion in its turn by the crank V acting upon it through the paper wheel p, turning with the steel axis or pin n, iitted in the extremity of the two arms of the lever q. The said oscillatory movement is finally transmitted to the lever a, which is articulated by means of its boss or hub o" o" and the pin m", projecting from the arm r. This pin is screwed or otherwise firmly fixed to the extremity of the arm r. The roller t rotates upon a stud fixed tothe iron lever a', pivoted at V tothe casing of the motor. The lever a is connected by a rod, b2, or other suitable means, to an arm which is adapted to be acted upon by a performers knee, whereby he is enabled to alter the position of the rollert with relation to the lever a, thereby causing the latter to make short or long strokes, as desired. Vhen the said roller assumes the position shown in dotted lines in Fig. 5, the movement imparted to the rod L by the lever a will be very slight, whereby the blows struck by the hammers E upon the strings will be.
light-and the sound resulting therefrom very soft. By altering the position of the roller t with relation to the lever a it is easy to pass through an indefinite graduation of sounds from a very soft sound to a very loud one, thus enabling full expression to be given to a musical theme or piece in the same manner as can be effected when playing'upon stringed instruments with a bow. Vhen the performer releases the arm against his knee, the spiral spring G draws the lever a back in its normal position.
In order to regulate the motion of the motor in ease the performer places his foot too suddenly upon the pedal which actuates the said motor, I attach to the lever q a projection i IOO IIO
amplitude of oscillation than necessary, which occurs when the performer pushes too rapidly the pedal. The friction resulting from the plate u bearing upon the surface of the flywheel decreases the speed of the former and regulates the movement thereof, which is indispensable in order to obtain synchronism of the blows of the small hammers. This arrangement, which forms an important part of the motor, is termed the regulaton The first and most important advantage re- Sulting from the construction hereinbefore described is the arrangement of the percussionline, or the line upon which the small hammers strike the strings below that of the large hammers. Another advantage is, that the mechanism of upright and grand piano-fortes which are supplied with the improved mechanism does not materially differ from the ordinary mechanism of piano-fortes, the only difference of any importance being the addition of small silk bands Q5, for which may be substituted very thin wires, such as are used in table or grand piano-fortes. Another advantage is being able to obtain a protracted sound of all notes from the lowest to the highest by placing the percussion-line of the small hammers bclow the large hammers-an advantage not obtainable in any other mechanism.
In mechanisms heretofore constructed, as shown in my French patent dated December 2, 1865, No. 69,539, and in the United States patent granted jointly to myself and L. Monti on the 10th day of March, 1868, No. 75,362, the force of a blow from the small hammer had to be considerable in order to obtain by the vibration ofthe string a sound of suitable intensity; but according to my invention this said force is considerably reduced.A
In mechanism heretofore constructed the percussion-line of the small hammers was above that of the large hammers, and consequently nearer the top of the sounding-board, and the wires at this place being less flexible required, in order to produce a sound of sufficient intensity, very hard blows from hammers of great weight, (fifty decigrams for low notes, graduating to twenty-five deci grams for high notes,) whereas in the mechanism constructed according to this invention, the line of percussion of the small hammers being situated below that of the ordinary hammers, and consequently farther away from the top of the sounding-board than in other mechanism, the wires at this place are much more flexible and can be made to vibrate more easily with hammers made of felt, (of a weight of ten decigrams for low notes and two for high notes,) and consequently the force of the blow required to strike these said strings is reduced to about one-eighth of that required to strike the string in other mechanism. Another advantage results from blows struck by a light and soft felt hammer not causing the noise produced by blows struck by heavy hammers, so that the sustained sound is of the same nature as that produced by the large hammers. Furthermore, the sustained sound thus produced is thoroughly clear, even in the two highest oetaves, and it is also continuous-that is to say, the sound is not composed of a repetition of sounds, which has hitherto constituted a most serious defect in other similar mechanism. The sound produced in mechanism constructed according to this invention is similar to that of' stringed instruments in which the sound is produced by means of a bow.
The inconvenience arising from the troublesome noise produced in the movement of mechanism heretofore constructed is, according to this invention, entirely obviated.
In consequence of the improved arrangement for the percussion-line, the construction of' this mechanism is greatly simplified, and although the same is lighter it is nevertheless strong, and all the pieces composing the same being subjected to a strain of about one-eighth of that required in other mechanism, it does not easily get out of order, and consequently does not require frequent repairs. For the same reason the power required by the performer to actuate the pedal which imparts the movement to the mechanism is also considerably reduced, which is a matter of importance to the performer.
By making use of the return movement of the large hammers to stop by means of a silk band the small hammers used for sustaining sounds in upright or grand pianos a further advantage is secured, inasmuch as the string is struck the moment a corresponding key of the key-board is depressed. This advantage permits the performing of a musical piece in a manner which has been hitherto impossible.
What l claim isl. The combinatiomwith the ordinary striking-hammer, damper, and other parts of the action of a piano, of an auxiliary hammer located below the line of percussion of said main hammer, a flexible band or its described equivalent for connecting the two hammers, and means, substantially as set forth, for actuating the auxiliary hammer when the key of the main hammer is depressed, substantially as described.
2. In a piano-forte, the combination, with the wires or strings and the ordinary main hammers, of the auxiliary hammer having spring-Shanks, the shaft M, carrying the auxiliary hammers, means for oscillating said shaft, and flexible bands or their equivalents for connecting the auxiliary hammers with the main hammers, substantially as described.
3. In a piano-forte, the combination, with the wires or strings and the ordinary main hammers, of an oscillating shaft, flexible blades supported thereby, small hammers carried by said blades, the said hammers being connected with the main hammers, substantially in the manner shown and described, whereby they are restrained from vibrating IIO J[he lever y, carrying damper G, of the spring V, connected therewith by a flexible band, and an eccentricfdiy-journailed roller, S, sub- I5V stantially as described.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two Subscribing Witnesses.
Titnessesz LoDovico OGIHINO, Kossi GrovANNI.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080089723A1 (en) * 2006-10-13 2008-04-17 Takeo Tsukamoto Development apparatus and an image formation apparatus

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080089723A1 (en) * 2006-10-13 2008-04-17 Takeo Tsukamoto Development apparatus and an image formation apparatus

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