US31357A - Coleman sellers - Google Patents

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US31357A US31357DA US31357A US 31357 A US31357 A US 31357A US 31357D A US31357D A US 31357DA US 31357 A US31357 A US 31357A
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    • G02OPTICS
    • G02B27/00Other optical systems; Other optical apparatus
    • G02B27/02Viewing or reading apparatus
    • G02B27/06Viewing or reading apparatus with moving picture effect



Patented Feb 5, 1-861.



' Specification of Letters Patent No. 81,857, dated February 5, 1861.

T 0 all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, COLEMAN SnLLnRs, of the city of Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in the Mode of Exhibiting Stereoscopic Pictures of Moving Objects; and I do declare that the following is a full and exact description of the mode, reference being made to the annexed drawings, making a part of this specification, and

which can be understood as they are described during the progress of the specification.

IVhat I aim to accomplish is as I have above stated, to so exhibit stereoscopic pictures as to make them represent objects in motion such as the revolving wheels of machinery, and various motions of the human body, adding to the wonders of that marvelous invention the stereoscope a semblance of life that can only come from motion. It is to breathe into the statue like forms of the stereograph as it were, the breath of life. It may have occurred to many the possibility of effecting this desirable result, and the phantasmascope gives a clue to the manner of accomplishment of it. That is, that it must be done by viewing in succes sion a series of pictures (taken in different positions of the moving object) with sufficient rapidity to insure the image of one being retained on the retina until the next one is brought into view. This has frequently been done with plane pictures but has never been, with stereoscopic pictures, nor can it be done with them in the usual manner of exhibiting such pictures. In the phantasmascope as it is usually constructed, the pictures are arranged in a circle on a card board, and the pictures are viewed through holes corresponding in number to the pictures. In these toys, the pictures pass before the eye, and are seen for a greater or less time, according to the size of the holes, and it has been found that unless the holes are very small, there is a blurring effect produced. On this plan my first instruments were designed, that is, I arranged a series of stereoscopic pictures around a cylinder, and made use of various cut off devices to produce the instantaneous visions required, but in all cases, though I found the appearance of motion was produced, yet there was a blurring of the image that prevented my seeing the fine detail of the picture. After a long series of experiments I made the discovery that it is abso lutely necessary, that the pictures should be entirely at rest during the moment of vision or that motion should be in a direction of the line of vision, that is, advancing toward the eye, or receding from it, just as you would take a card in both hands, and move it rapidly to and from you, in contradistinction to moving it from right to left, or up and down.

In order to explain how I reduce my dis covery to practice I will proceed to describe an instrument which in the simplest manner is capable of showing the principle of my invention.

Referring to Figure l of the annexed drawing which represents a perspective view of the instrument consisting of a cylinder case A, provided with an eye piece B, containing the usual stereoscope prisms C O. and a shield to protect the eyes from outside light. The cylinder A is cut away on two sides :L to admit light into the inside. IYithin the cylinder is arranged a series of wings E E radiating from av center spindle D. On these wings are grooves K, K, into which the stereographs are put. Around the outside of these radial wings is a rim or band of tin Gr, G, about four inches wide through which close to each wing are pierced the slits I, I. These slits should be about one inch long each and three eighths of an inch wide. and should have one inch space between them. It is through these slits that the pictures are to be seen in succession, and that as they advance toward or recede from the eye in the direction of the line of vision, and within the range of the focus of the prisms. This form of instrument has a great advantage in keeping the picture in view for a long time for the picture cannot be seen entire through these slits except when the wheel is in motion. when as the slit is passing before the eye the picture is advancing toward the eye. and its various parts are seen in succession, and yet seems to be quite at rest. To prepare the pictures for this instrument it is necessary to consider the nature of the motion it is designed to represent and with this view motions must be divided into two general classes, under the names of reciprocating, and rotary motions. The first class or the reciprocating motion comprises all simple motions, such as fanning,

three pictures, one of each extreme of the motion, and one of a position halfway between these two. Make two of each picture, that is, six pictiires, and arrange them in the slides of the instrument in the following order: Two of the beginning of the motion,

one of the middle position, two of the end position and one of the middle position. The reason why the two extreme positions are placed in pairs together is to cause a dwell, or pause at each end of the stroke. Having arranged the pictures in this manner within the instrument upon turning the wheel by means of the knob H and at the same time, and looking through the prisms.

C, C, the picture will seem at rest except the motion designed to be shown, will appear as natural as life. It is not in this class of pictures absolutely necessary that there should be six pictures, but three can be placed in contiguous slides then by attaching a pendulum to the axis and causing it to vibrate back and forth far enough to show each of the pictures. The same effect will be produced as if the six pictures were used.

In representing motions which are included in the second class six pictures must be made and used in succession. There are again some subjects too complicated in their motions to be represented by six pictures. To represent these, more pictures must be taken, and the wheel must be made larger in diameter and have more wings, or better still adopt a plan shown in Figs. 2 and 3 of the annexed drawing.

Fig. 2 represents one of the ordinary instrumentsfor exhibiting stereoscopic pictures having two parallel shafts over which pass an endless chain of pictures. To this instrument is, added between the eye piece D and the picture to be seen a cylinder which cylinder A is pierced by an opening B which is wholly on one side of the center of the cylinder. The cylinder A has also a shield G in'closing one half of its circumference. The use of this shield is to cover up the openings as is shown in Fig. 3 when the cylinder has made half of a revolution and thus secures the possibility of the opening being seen through only once during each revolution of the cylinder. This cylinder is provided with a gear wheel to which motion is given by a larger wheel on the top axis of the instrument, and which wheel is four times as large as the one on the cylinder. Now as four pictures are thrown over as at F they can only be seen in succession during the time they occupy the relative positions as shown at Fig. 2. This plan will enable a very large series of pictures to be brought into requisition and complicated motions to be represented. Still another device applicable to the same instrument as is shown in Fig. 2 is to attach the series of pictures flatwise to an endless band of cloth as is shown in Fig. 4E and having the top axis over which they pass provided with a flat plate as wide as the card upon which the pictures are mounted, and this plate extending an equal distance on each side of the axis. By this arrangement two pictures only would be brought into view at each turn of the crank and therefore the proportion of the gearing giving motion to the cut off cylinder should be two to one.

The name I design giving .to the instru- -ments embodying the principles of my invcntion is kinematoscope, which is intended to convey the idea of I see motion.

I do not wish to limit my claim to any of the special devices above described (some of which I shall make the subject of patents for devices) but lVhat I do claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is Combining with the stereoscope a series of pictures arranged in succession as described when said pictures revolve on an axis at right angles or nearly so to the line of vision, the whole being constructed and operated substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth.



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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4528996A (en) * 1983-12-22 1985-07-16 The Mead Corporation Orifice plate cleaning system

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4528996A (en) * 1983-12-22 1985-07-16 The Mead Corporation Orifice plate cleaning system

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