US3132880A - Wellhead apparatus utilizing tubing hangers having single lug suspension means - Google Patents

Wellhead apparatus utilizing tubing hangers having single lug suspension means Download PDF

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US3132880A
US3132880A US17202A US1720260A US3132880A US 3132880 A US3132880 A US 3132880A US 17202 A US17202 A US 17202A US 1720260 A US1720260 A US 1720260A US 3132880 A US3132880 A US 3132880A
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bore
hangers
hanger
tubing
head
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US17202A
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Marvin R Jones
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Cameron Iron Works Inc
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Cameron Iron Works Inc
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/02Surface sealing or packing
    • E21B33/03Well heads; Setting-up thereof
    • E21B33/04Casing heads; Suspending casings or tubings in well heads
    • E21B33/047Casing heads; Suspending casings or tubings in well heads for plural tubing strings

Description

May 12, 1964 M. R. JONES 3,132,880

WELLHEAD APPARATUS UTILIZING TUBING HANGERS HAVING SINGLE LUG SUSPENSION MEANS Filed March 23. 1960 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTOR/VEVJ May 12, 1964 Filed March 23. 1960 M. R. JON WELLHEAD APPARATUS UTILIZING TUBING HANGERS HAVING SINGLE LUG SUSPENSION MEANS 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Mam/#7 M00 e:

INVENTOR.

May 12, 1964 R JONES 3,132,880

M. WELLHEAD APPARATUS UTILIZING TUBING HANGERS Filed March 23, 1960 HAVING SINGLE LUG SUSPENSION MEANS 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Marv/x7 A. done;

INVENTOR.

ATTOR/VEVJ y 2, 1964 JONES 3,132,880

WELLHEAD APPARA s UTILIZING TUBING HANGERS HAVING SIN us SUSPENSION MEANS Filed March 23, 19s

Sheets-Sheet 4 Mar 10/7 R 6/0/766 INVENTOR.

ATTO/P/VEVJ United States Patent WELLHEAD AHARATUS UTlLlZlNG TUBING HANGERS HAVING SKNGLE BUG SUSPEN- SEQN MEAN Marvin R. Jones, Houston, Tex assignor to Cameron Iron Works, inc Houston, Tex., a corporation of Texas Filed Mar. 23, 1960, Ser. No. 17,202 2 Claims. (til. 285-442) This invention relates broadly to wellhead apparatus for suspending two or more tubing strings in side-by-side relation within the well so as to produce a separate zone of the well through each string. More particularly, it relates to improvements in apparatus of the general type disclosed in a copending application, Serial No. 679,621, filed August 22, 1957, now Patent No. 3,004,778, which is assigned to the assignee of the present application. In such apparatus, hangers for the strings can be individually lowered beneath and then returned tosupported positions within the bore of the tubing head in order to permit the performance of certain operations common to the completion of a well, such as setting and unsetting a production packer, washing drilling mud out of the bottom of a well, and taking a strain on the string to place it in tension.

In the apparatus of the earlier invention, each hanger is substantially sector-shaped in transverse cross-section and has a seat about an intermediate portion of its curved side to engage, in its supported position, a corresponding seat on the inner end of a ram mounted on the tubing head and extended into the bore, a separate ram and hanger being provided for each tubing string to be suspended. Although this earlier invention enables manipulation of the hangers in the manner above described, and thus represents a considerable advance over the prior art, the particular apparatus illustrated in the copending application has several shortcomings.

For one thing, as shown in the drawings of this earlier application, the sector-shaped hangers are adapted to fit closely adjacent one another as well as the bore through the tubing head so as to support packing on the hangers for sealing off the bore when all the hangers are supported therein. As a result, it is ordinarily necessary to retract the ram from the bore of the tubing head in order to raise and lower the hanger supported therefrom for the purpose of performing the operations above described. Not only does this require that an operator manipulate the rams as well as the hangers in using the apparatus, but also it necessitates the manufacture and assembly of separate rams as well as parts for moving them between their extended and retracted positions.

This problem is particularly acute when, as is often the case, the operator does not know, at the time of installing the tubing head, just how many zones will be produced from the well and thus how many tubing strings are to be suspended. Therefore, he may find it expedient to install a head having rams for supporting a certain number of hangers and then find that all of them are not required in suspending the production tubing strings.

Furthermore, the inside diameter of the casing beneath 1 the tubing head may vary a fairly substantial amount depending on the weight of the casing. Since the outer curved sides of the hangers of this earlier apparatus are adapted to fit closely adjacent the bore of the head, it may be found necessary to provide a wide range of heads and hangers having diiferent diameters to accommodate the different weights of casing.

An object of this invention is to overcome these shortcomings by providing apparatus of this general type which does not require the use of retractible rams and which is usable with a full range of casing weights.

3,132,880 Patented May 12, 1364 ice Another object is to provide such apparatus in which the hangers may be lowered below and raised above supported positions in the head solely upon manipulation of the hangers.

Yet another object is to provide apparatus of this general-type which enables the operator to provide, at the time of installing the tubing head, for producing from the maximum number of zones then contemplated, without unduly increasing the expense of such apparatus.

Another object is to provide apparatus of this type in which the bore through the tubing head need be substantially no larger than is required to pass the couplings on the tubing strings suspended from the hangers to be supported Within such head.

A further object is to provide such apparatus having a tubing head of a simplified construction which facilitates manipulation of the hangers as well as sealing oil? of the bore when the hangers are supported therein.

Still another object is to provide tubing hangers of a' construction particularly well adapted for support within such a head.

Other objects, advantages and features of this invention will be apparent to one skilled in the art, upon examination of the written specification, the attached claims and the annexed drawings.

In the drawings, wherein like referencecharacters are used throughout to designate like parts:

FIG. 1 is a half-sectional view of apparatus constructed in accordance with the present invention, wherein one hanger has been lowered within the bore of the tubing head beneath its supported position;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the apparatus, as seen along broken line 22 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a full sectional view of part of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1, but with one hanger raised above its supported position;

FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3, but with the one ganger lowered into supportedposition within the tubing ead;

FIG. 55 is a cross-sectional view of the apparatus, as seen along broken line -5 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is another full sectional view of the apparatus, with a second hanger lowered into supported position within the tubing head to suspend a second tubing string in side-by-side relation to the string suspended from the first-mentioned hanger, and with a sealing assembly in place for sealing between the hangers and the bore of the tubing head;

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of the apparatus, as seen along line 7-7 of FIG. 6;

FIGVS is an enlarged perspective view of one of the hangers removed from the tubing head; and

FIGSV9A to 913 are cross-sectional views of alternative embodiments of the apparatus.

Referring now in detail to the above-described drawings, the apparatus of the present invention comprises a tubing head it having a bore 11 therethrough and a plurality of tubing hangers 1.2 disposable within the bore for suspending tubing strings 13 in sideby-side relation within the well (see FIG. 6). The tubing head has a plurality of sockets 14 which extend downwardly within its bore 11 in circumferentially spaced apart relation, as best shown in FIG. 2, each to receive a lug 15 on a hanger, as the hanger is lowered into the bore for supporting such hanger against downward, lateral and rotational movement in side-by-side relation to the other hanger or hangers similarly supported within the bore. Although there are only two such hangers and sockets in the embodiment of the apparatus illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 7, it is obvious that the invention contemplates apparatus having three or more hangers and a corresponding number of sockets in the head from which they are supported.

Furthermore, there may be more sockets in the head than there are hangers actually supported therein. For example, and with reference to FIGS. 9A to 9D, the operator may provide a head 16 having a first set of four sockets 14a spaced at about 90 from one another about the bore 11 of the head, and a second set of two sockets 1412 which are spaced approximately 120 from one another and one for the sockets 14a. Thus, the operator, at the time of installing the head, has provided for the support of two hangers 12a (FIG. 9A), three hangers 12b (FIG. 9B), or four hangers 120 (FIG. 9C) of the same size, or, in the alternative two to four hangers of different size, as illustrated by the small hangers 12d and one large hanger 12d" of FIG. 9D. It will be understood that this apparatus allows such flexibility with only the small additional cost required to form the extra sockets. Even though the hangers may be of difierent sizes, as shown in FIG. 9D, the lugs 15 thereon are preferably interchangeably disposable in any of the sockets.

Each hanger has a surface 16 beneath the lug 15 thereon for bearing against the bore 11 of the tubing head in the supported position of the hanger. As will be apparent from FIGS. 4 and 6, this bearing surface resists a moment due to the weight of the tubing string which would otherwise tend to swing the string and its hanger out of vertical alignment within the bore. Preferably, each surface 16 is laterally curved on the same radius as the bore 11 of the tubing head to provide a maximum bearing area and also resist sidewise sway of the hanger in its supported position. Each hanger comprises a substantially cylindrical body 17 having an opening 18 therethrough and an arcuate part 19 extending longitudinally along one outer side thereof to provide the bearing surface 16 and also mount the lug 15 at its upper end above the bearing surface. Obviously, the arcuate part 19 may be thinner than shown in the drawings; and, in fact, may be sufficiently thin that the surface 16 thereon approaches a point of tangency with the outer diameter of cylindrical body 17.

Also, the hangers 12, and particularly their cylindrical bodies 17, may be disposed closer to one another than they are shown to be in the drawings, although some spacing is required between them when the space between them and the bore of the head is to be sealed oil in the manner described hereinafter. In fact, in accordance with one novel aspect of this invention, the spacing between the hangers is governed primarily by the size of the couplings (not shown) on the tubing strings 13 within the well beneath the head 10. That is, due to the cylindrical shape of the hangers, they occupy substantially no more space within the bore of the head than is required for passage of the couplings during running of the strings. Thus, this novel hanger construction permits the size of the tubing head to be kept to a minimum-Le, substantially no greater than is required to provide a bore for passing the couplings.

As shown in the cross-sectional views of FIGS. 2, and 7, the bore 11 of the tubing head is substantially cylindrical or of some other shape having a lateral dimension on opposite sides of each socket which permits the hanger lug 15 adapted to be supported therein to be rotated or turned from the rotational position it occupies when so supported, as shown for example in FIGS. 4, S, 6, and 7, into another position, as shown in FIG. 2, and then lowered beneath (FIG. 1) and raised above (FIG. 3) its supported position independently of the adjacent hanger supported in the bore. That is, each hanger may be so manipulated without infringing upon the portion of the bore occupied by the other hanger, whereby either string 13 may be run or pulled in the manner previously described while the other hanger remains in supported position. From the raised position of FIG. 3 the hanger may be rotated or turned back in the opposite direction to disposeits lug 15 in vertical alignment with the pocket 14 and then lowered back into supported position within such pocket, as shown in FIG. 4. Obviously, the same is true of each of the hangers shown in FIGS. 9A to 9D.

The upper end 20 of the tubing head bore 11 is enlarged with respect to the lower end 21 thereof to provide an upward continuation of the downwardly extending socket. Thus, the upper end 20 of the bore has a radius which is larger than the lower portion thereof by a distance somewhat larger than the radial extension of the lugs 15 from the arcuate part 19 on each hanger. Thus, as each hanger is lowered into place within the tubing head, its lug 15 will pass freely through the upper end 20 of the bore and then into seated position in a pocket when vertically aligned therewith. When it is desired to move the hanger from its supported position to a position therebelow, the lug is raised above the pocket and into the up er enlarged end 20 of the bore and then rotated or turned in the manner previously described, as shown in FIG. 3, whereby it may be moved downwardly to a position such as shown in FIG. 1. In this latter rotational position, all portions of the hanger are spaced from the side of the lower reduced end 21 of the bore 11. Therefore, in the event that it is necessary to lower the hanger beneath the position shown in FIG. 1 and into the casing 30 below the head, the size of the casing provides no obstructioni.e., the apparatus is usable with a full range of casing weights.

As shown in each of FIGS. 1 and 3, the hanger has been rotated approximately from the rotative position it occupies when supported by the pocket 14. Obviously, however, the hanger can be raised and lowered in the manner desired with a somewhat lesser amount of rotation, as for example when three of the four hangers are to be supported in the head, as shown in FIGS. 9B to 9D, so that there is proportionately less space available for rotation of each hanger when adjacent hangers are in place.

When both hangers 12 are in supported position within the bore of the tubing head, as shown in FIG. 6, a sandwich type of sealing assembly 22 having a pair of openings 23 therein for fitting over the upper ends of the hangers is lowered into place into the upper end 20 of the bore for sealing oil the space between the hangers and bore. If desired, of course, this sealing assembly 22 may be attached to and lowered into place with the second of the hangers to be supported. As best shown in FIG. 6, this seal assembly is seatable upon a tapered shoulder 24 which connects the upper and lower ends of the bore.

Referring now particularly to FIG. 1, the lower flanged end 25 of the tubing head is connected to the upper end of a casing head 26 by means of bolts 27 and sealed with respect thereto by a seal ring 28, all in a conventional manner. The lowermost end of the lower portion 21 of the tubing head bore is recessed at 29 to receive the upper end of casing 30 supported from the casing head 26 in a conventional manner (not shown). As shown in FIG. 1, the inside diameter of the casing 39 forms at least a substantial continuation of the portion 21 of the tubing head bore, although it might be somewhat smaller or larger than the bore depending on the weight of the casing.

Pressure control apparatus including a blowout preventer 31 is connected to the upper flanged end 32 of the tubing head 10 by means of bolts 33 and sealed with respect thereto by means of a seal ring 34-, again in accordance with conventional practice. The bore 35 through the preventer forms at least a substantial continuation of the upper end 20 of the tubing head bore to pass the lugs 15 of the tubing hangers as well as permit production packers and other apparatus on the tubing strings 13 to be run therethrough. It will also be appreciated that inasmuch as the tubing headnbore is unobstructed prior to the running of either string of tubing, gas lift valves and other auxiliary equipment may be lowered into the well on the first string to be run.

Furthermore, since each hanger occupies substantially no more space within the head when supported therein than the space required for running the equipment connected to string suspended from such hanger, similar equipment may be lowered into the well on a subsequently run hanger or hangers. Obviously, such equipment is similarly removable from the well upon pulling of the string to which it is connected, and, since the support and manipulation of each hanger is independent of the support and manipulation of the other hanger or hangers, the strings may be run or pulled in any de sired sequence.

Referring now in still more detail to the above-described hangers, the opening 18 through the cylindrical body 17 of each is threaded at opposite ends for connection with a handling joint 36 at its upper end and the tubing string 13 suspended therefrom at its other end. As well known in the art, the handling joint 36 is connected to the hanger for raising and lowering it in the manner previously described and, when it has accomplished this function, it is disconnected from the hanger and removed from the wellhead equipment, as shown in FIG. 6.

The longitudinally extending arcuate part 19 of each hanger extends downwardly from the lug 15 as well as laterally about one side of the hanger distances sufficient to provide the desired bearing area between the surface 16 and the bore of the tubing head. The lug 15 formed on the upper end of the arcuate part has opposite sides 37 which converge downwardly toward the lower end of the hanger body and inwardly toward the axis of the body for seating upon complementary sides 38 of each pocket 14. Obviously, this downward convergence of the interfitting sides of the lug and pocket guides the lug of the hanger into the pocket as the hanger is lowered into supported position, supports it against further downward movement when the lug becomes fully seated in the pocket, and prevents it from moving rotationally out of its supported position. The inward convergence of these seating surfaces prevents lateral or radial inward movement of the lug and hanger.

The sandwich type seal assembly 22 includes a disc 39 of rubber or other resilient sealing material disposed between upper and lower discs 40 and 41 of relatively rigid material, each of the discs having aligned holes therethrough to form the openings 23 for fitting over the upper ends of the hangers. More particularly, the outer diameter of the sealing disc 39 is adapted to fit closely within the upper portion 20 of the tubing head bore, and the holes therethrough are adapted to fit closely about the upper ends of the hangers so that, upon compression of the discs 40 and 41 toward one another, the rubber sealing material is deformed into sealing engagement with the hangers and bore.

For this latter purpose, the outer periphery of the upper disc 40 is tapered at 42 for engagement by the inner tapered ends 43 of the hold-down screws 44. As shown in FIG. 6, wherein they have been rotated about the circumference of the bore of the tubing head for purposes of illustration, these screws are threadedly mounted in the upper flange 32 on the tubing head for extension into and retraction from the bore. Thus, when the sandwich is in place, as shown in FIG. 6, the hold-down screws 44 are moved radially inwardly so that their inner ends 43 bear upon the tapered surfaces 42 to compress the upper disc toward the lower disc and thereby deform the sealing ring into sealing engagement between the hangers and tubing head bore. Obviously, upon retraction of the hold-down screws, the sandwich and one or both of the hangers may be moved upwardly out of the bore. Preferably, the lower outer circumference of the lower disc 41 is also tapered at 45 to seat it more firmly upon the tapered shoulder 24 in the tubing head.

When the seal assembly 22 is held down by the screws 44, it in turn will hold down the hangers 12 by virtue of the engagement of the hanger lugs and ribs, in the event of their upward movement due to well pressure, with the underside of the assembly. It will be noted, in

this respect, that the area of the hangers over which well pressure is effective is that of the bodies 17 so that, as distinguished from the previously mentioned sectorshaped hangers, there is less likelihood of theirbeing raised by well pressure.

In accordance with conventional practice, and in a manner unimportant to the present invention, when the hangers are supported and held down in the tubing head and sealed with respect to the bore of the tubing head, as shown in FIG. 6, and with back pressure valves (not shown) normally disposed within the opening 18 through the hangers, the pressure control equipment including the blowout preventer 31 may be removed from above the tubing head and a wellhead fitting such as a master valve and Christmas tree (not shown) connected thereabove in its place. At this time, the well is completed and ready for production from the two or more zones within the well.

From the foregoing it will be seen that this invention is one well adapted to attain all of the ends and objects hereinabove set forth, together with other advantages which are obvious and which are inherent to the apparatus.

It will be understood that certain features and subcombinations are of utility and may be employed without reference to other features and subcombinations.

This is contemplated by and is within the scope of the claims.

As many possible embodiments may be made of the invention without departing from the scope thereof, it is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

The invention having been described, what is claimed is:

1. A well tubing hanger adapted to be suspended in the bore of a tubing head, comprising a substantially cylindrical body having an opening extending longitudinally therethrough from one end to the other and having means at its lower end to suspend a well tubing string therefrom, a longitudinally extending part projecting radially outwardly from the body and extending circumferentially about approximately 90 of the periphery of the body to provide an outer curved surface for bearing against the bore of the tubing head, and a lug projecting radially outwardly from the upper end of the longitudinally extending part and having its opposite sides converging downwardly from its upper end toward its lower end and converging inwardly from their outer edges to their inner edges.

2. Wellhead apparatus comprising a tubing head having a bore therethrough with an enlarged upper portion arranged concentrically of a lower portion thereof, a plurality of sockets recessed into the wall of the lower portion of the bore and opening upwardly into the upper portion of the bore in circumferentially spaced-apart relation, and a plurality of tubing hangers for suspending tubing within the well, each hanger comprising a substantially cylindrical body having an opening extending longitudinally therethrough from one end to the other, a longitudinally extending part projecting radially outwardly from the body and extending circumferentially about approximately of the periphery of the body to provide an outer surface of the same curvatureas the lower portion of the bore, and a lug projecting radially outwardly from the upper end of the longitudinally extending part for movement downwardly into seated position in a socket, each socket being recessed into the wall of the lower portion of the bore a distance slightly greater than the radial projection of the lug seated therein and the opposite sides of each said socket and lug converging downwardly from their upper ends toward their lower ends and inwardly from their outer edges to their inner edges to support said hanger against downward, lateral and rotational movement within the bore with the outer surface on said longitudinally extending part bearing against the lower portion of the bore, and each lug being of sufiiciently short radial extent as to enable it, when raised above said socket and rotated within the enlarged upper portion of the bore, to be lowered into a position beneath its supported position and into the lower portion of the bore independently of an adjacent hanger supported therein.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Cummins Mar. 18, 1884 Agricola Oct. 17, 1916 Penick Oct. 8, 1935 Howard Feb. 24, 1942 Martinson Sept. 21, 1954 Allen June 7, 1960 Disken July 26, 1960 Williams Octv 17, 1961 Sherman Nov. 7, 1961

Claims (1)

1. A WELL TUBING HANGER ADAPTED TO BE SUSPENDED IN THE BORE OF A TUBING HEAD, COMPRISING A SUBSTANTIALLY CYLINDRICAL BODY HAVING AN OPENING EXTENDING LONGITUDINALLY THERETHROUGH FROM ONE END TO THE OTHER AND HAVING MEANS AT ITS LOWER END TO SUSPEND A WELL TUBING STRING THEREFROM, A LONGITUDINALLY EXTENDING PART PROJECTING RADIALLY OUTWARDLY FROM THE BODY AND EXTENDING CIRCUMFERENTIALLY ABOUT APPROXIMATELY 90* OF THE PERIPHERY OF THE BODY TO PROVIDE AN OUTER CURVED SURFACE FOR BEARING AGAINST THE BORE OF THE TUBING HEAD, AND A LUG PROJECTING RADIALLY OUTWARDLY FROM THE UPPER END OF THE LONGITUDINALLY EXTENDING PART AND HAVING ITS OPPOSITE SIDES CONVERGING DOWNWARDLY FROM ITS UPPER END TOWARD ITS LOWER END AND CONVERGING INWARDLY FROM THEIR OUTER EDGES TO THEIR INNER EDGES.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4919459A (en) * 1989-08-03 1990-04-24 Cooper Industries, Inc. Metal-to-metal backseat lockdown screw

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US295151A (en) * 1883-07-27 1884-03-18 James cummin s
US1201420A (en) * 1915-05-24 1916-10-17 Coosa Pipe & Foundry Company Cast-metal pipe.
US2016454A (en) * 1931-05-25 1935-10-08 Arthur J Penick Well head
US2274477A (en) * 1939-08-24 1942-02-24 Meevoy Company Tubing hanger
US2689611A (en) * 1953-06-19 1954-09-21 Milton B Martinson Means for extracting the liquid from a cased well below the top end of the casing
US2939534A (en) * 1956-04-10 1960-06-07 Cameron Iron Works Inc Sealed telescopic connection
US2946385A (en) * 1956-09-05 1960-07-26 Robert W Dicken Well system
US3004778A (en) * 1957-08-22 1961-10-17 Cameron Iron Works Inc Wellhead apparatus
US3007719A (en) * 1959-07-24 1961-11-07 Mcevoy Co Plural hanger apparatus

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US295151A (en) * 1883-07-27 1884-03-18 James cummin s
US1201420A (en) * 1915-05-24 1916-10-17 Coosa Pipe & Foundry Company Cast-metal pipe.
US2016454A (en) * 1931-05-25 1935-10-08 Arthur J Penick Well head
US2274477A (en) * 1939-08-24 1942-02-24 Meevoy Company Tubing hanger
US2689611A (en) * 1953-06-19 1954-09-21 Milton B Martinson Means for extracting the liquid from a cased well below the top end of the casing
US2939534A (en) * 1956-04-10 1960-06-07 Cameron Iron Works Inc Sealed telescopic connection
US2946385A (en) * 1956-09-05 1960-07-26 Robert W Dicken Well system
US3004778A (en) * 1957-08-22 1961-10-17 Cameron Iron Works Inc Wellhead apparatus
US3007719A (en) * 1959-07-24 1961-11-07 Mcevoy Co Plural hanger apparatus

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4919459A (en) * 1989-08-03 1990-04-24 Cooper Industries, Inc. Metal-to-metal backseat lockdown screw
AU623009B2 (en) * 1989-08-03 1992-04-30 Cooper Cameron Corporation Metal-to-metal backseat lockdown screw

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