US309163A - Insom - Google Patents

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US309163A
US309163A US309163DA US309163A US 309163 A US309163 A US 309163A US 309163D A US309163D A US 309163DA US 309163 A US309163 A US 309163A
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cylinder
heater
piston
chamber
cap
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02GHOT GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT ENGINE PLANTS; USE OF WASTE HEAT OF COMBUSTION ENGINES; NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F02G1/00Hot gas positive-displacement engine plants
    • F02G1/04Hot gas positive-displacement engine plants of closed-cycle type
    • F02G1/043Hot gas positive-displacement engine plants of closed-cycle type the engine being operated by expansion and contraction of a mass of working gas which is heated and cooled in one of a plurality of constantly communicating expansible chambers, e.g. Stirling cycle type engines

Description

(No Model.) 2 SheetsSheet 1.
A. E. & H. ROBINSON.
- HOT AIR ENGINE.
No, 309,168.- Patented Dec. 9, 1884.
Zdifiwsises: lnvanibz" h Xgmm 51mm. Mawvw WW. $0M WM 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.,
A. E. & H. ROBINSON.
6N0 Model.)
HOT AIR ENGINE.
Patented Dec. 9, 1884 ImerzZor \Mmw, Wm wwkd. bwd Wm \MMQTU -nrrnD drarns arnnr rrren.
ARNOLD EDMUND ROBINSON AND HORACE ROBINSON, OF MANCHESTER, COUNTY OF LANCASTER, ENGLAND, ASSIGNORS, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO THE VICTOR CALORIC ENGINE COMPANY, OF JERSEY CITY, N. J.
HOT-AIR ENGINE.
SPBCIFECATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 309,163, dated December 9, 1884.
Application filed .Tune 24, 1884. (No model.) Patented in England November 18, 1 88l, No. 5,056.
To aZZ whom it may concern:
Be it known that we, ARNOLD EDMUND ROB- INsON and HORAOE ROBINSON, subjects of the Queen of Great Britain, and residents of Man- 5 chester, county of Lancaster, England, have invented certain new and useful Improve ments in Hot-Air Engines, of which the following is a specification.
Our invention relates to that class of airengines in which the air is alternately heated and cooled, and the consequent expansion and contraction and variation of pressure is utilized to produce motive power.
\Ve construct our engine with a vessel or cylinder open at one end, and formed of suitable metal, such as iron. The part nearer the open end is cooled, preferably, by means of a water jacket or tank surrounding it, while the part nearer the closed end is made of a larger in ternal diameter, and is lined internally with fire-clay, plunibago, or other material being a good non-conductor of heat. The internal diameter ofthe said lining is equal to or slightly larger than the internal diameter of the cooled part of the cylinder, thus forming a continuation of it. The lined portion of the cylinder or vessel is closed by an end orheater, preferably of an egg-ended form, or of a partlyhollow cylindrical form with an egg end,
0 which extends into the lined part of the cylinder, but leaving a space between the heater and the said lining. This space constitutes part of the heatingchamber. The heater is formed separately, and is bolted to the chamher or cylinder, with a ring of asbestos or other good non-conductor of heat interposed. The aforesaid enlarged lined portion of the cham her or cylinder may be formed separately and attached to the cooled portion of the cylinder.
0 The object of the aforesaid lining of non-conductor is to more effectually confine the heat within the heating-chamber, and so that heat shall not readily be transferred to the metal cylinder. The position of the non-conductor 4 5 also better separates the heater from the cooled end of the cylinder. The heater is heated by means of a flame or fire within it, in the manner described hereinafter, and the heat is transmitted through it to the air within the lined portion of the cylinder or chamber. The heater being of the form already described,
the pressure within the cylinder subjects the material of the heater to compression. The heater may with safety be made thinner than if it were subject to strains of tension. Thus 5 5 heat is easily conducted into the heating-chamber. Another advantage of this form of heater is that it can be carried into the heating-chain ber within the internal diameter of the aforesaid lining of nonconductor. The workingpiston operates within the aforesaid cooled end of the cylinder or vessel, and a displacingpiston, combined with a moving regenerator, also works partially within the cooled end of said cylinder and partially within the before- 6 5 mentioned lined portion of the cylinder or chamber, in the manner described hereinafter. The working-piston is constructed of metal, and is made preferably of considerable length. On the external diameter may be 0 formed a groove, within which is placed sponge or cotton wick or other suitable material for taking up and distributing the oil on the sides of the cylinder. At the inner end of the piston a junk-ring is fitted for the purpose of adjusting the main cup-leather, (turned inward which leather works against the sides of the cylinder. A second j unk-ring ofsinaller diameter is fitted to the piston to adjust a small cup leather in the working piston, through which works the displacer-rod; or a gland may be substituted. Within the hollow portion of the working-piston are formed two bosses projecting inward. The piston is connected to the crank-shaft by means of a con- 8 5 necting'rod, the end of which, connected to the piston, is formed as a ring with two bosses thereon, which bosses fit between the aforesaid two bosses in the piston. The said connecting-rod is continued from one side of the 0 ring. A pin on each side is fitted through each of the said bosses on the piston into each of the bosses on the ring of the connecting rod, so that the connecting-rod is free to os cillate. The other end of the connecting-rod is connected to one crank of atwo-throw crank shaft.
The mode of attaching the working-piston connectingrod to the working-piston by means of the ring in the connecting-rod and bosses on the piston is for the purpose of relieving the working-piston from undue side strain,
'rod is formed with an enlargement or boss upon it outside 'or beyond the cup-leather,
and the rod is carried up through ,the guide.
A pin is fixed tightly to the small end of the displacer connecting-rod, and is free to work in the boss in the displacer-rod. The displaeer-rod and the small end of the displacer connecting-rod can work through the ring end of the working-piston connecting-rod. The
. object of this arrangement of connecting-gear is to get a compact and as direct a connect-ion as possiblewithout imposing undue side strain.
The combined displaeer and regenerator is constructed preferably in the following manner: A metal cap or piston is made to form the end of the said displacer farthest away from the heater. The displacer-rod is attached thereto. This cap or piston works within the working-cylinder. Theouter part of the said cap or piston is of'smaller diameter than the cylinder, and has holes formed through its sides in such a manner that the air passing out through them from the regenerator shall be proj eeted against the cool sides of the cylinder. The said cap or piston is enlarged near its inner end to fit the working-cylinder, and a groove maybe turned upon it, within which is placed sponge or wick, or suitable material to take up and distribute the oil on the sides of the cylinder. A cylinder, preferably of thin sheet metal, is attached to the aforesaid cap, and is of such a diameter that it works near to the non-conducting lining of the heating-chamber aforesaid, but leaves a space between the aforesaid lining and the sides of the saidcylinder of thin metal. This cylinder of thinanetal is carried to such a length that when the said combined displacer and regeneratd'r is at the extremity of its inward stroke the thin sheet metal shall be interposed between the non-conducting lining of the heated chamber or cylinder and the heater, leaving an annular-shaped passage on either side of the said thin metal. A cap of castiron or other suitable material is attached within the said thin-metal cylinder in such a position that when the displacer is at the end of its inward stroke the said cup shall nearly touch the egg-ended part of the heater. Holes are formed in the thin-metal cylinder of the displacer near to the part where the said cap is attached. These holes are for the purpose of allowing the air to pass from the regenerator to the outside of the said thinmetal cylinder. .The aforesaid cap is formed 'shaped end of the heater.
so that it follows the lines or form of theegg- WVebs are cast on the cap, which support an annular or hollow shaped piece of material, being a good nonconductor of heat, within the said thinmetal cylinder This non-conducting material extends to or nearly to the outer cap or piston, already described. Within the inner diameter of the said non-conductor is placed the regenerator, of wire-gauze or other suitable material, presenting a large surface. At the end of the said non-conductor farthest away from the heater is placed a ring, and at the same end of the regenerator is placed another ring. These rings are just within the outer cap or piston of the displaeer, and several screws are placed in the said outer cap, hearing on each of the said rings, for the purpose of adjusting the said non-conductor and regenerator, the aforesaid non-conductor bearing against the said wings or projectionsof the inner cap, with a metal ring interposed, and the regenerator bearing againsttheinner cap.
erably in the following manner: Round the chimney which carries away the products of combustion of the flame or fire is placed a tube or casing of larger diameter or size than the chimney. This space or passage leads to a chamber or fire-box beneath the heater, which chamber may be lined with a material which is a good non-conductor of heat, such as fire-clay or cement. The top of the said chamber or fire-box consists of a diaphragm formed with a tubular extension or uptake upon or attached to it. This tube or uptake extends toward the apex of the heater, and being of smaller diameter or size than the heater, a space is left between it and the heater. This space leads to an annular space opening into the chimney.
\Vhen gas is used to heat the apparatus,'we prefer to use a Bunsen burner within the closed chamber or fire-box. In the side of the chamber is formed an opening through which the burner can be withdrawn from the chamber for lighting and inspection, and replaced. A cover or lid for the opening is formed upon or attached to the pipe or burner. This lid or eoveris larger than the hole or opening in the chamber. When the burner is in its proper position for use, the lid or cover at its lower side drops in between a stop and the lip of the opening, and the weight of the burner within the chamber causes the upper part of lid to bear against the lip or opening, thus closing it.
We do not confine ourselves to gas for heating the apparatus, as liquid or solid fuel may be used. When liquid fuel is used-such as petroleum or other hydrocarbon-the flame of the lamp is used in the chamber or fire-box in place of the Bunsen burner. W'hen coal or other solid fuel is used, the chamber or firebox is made deeper, and fire-bars are provided within it. The heated air from the space The heating apparatus is constructed pref- I around the chimney is in this case brought into that part of the chamber below the lirebars, which part of the chamber acts as an ash-box; or air may be brought direct from the atmosphere into this part of the chamber without being drawn down the space around the chimney.
The action ofthe engine is as follows: The heater is heated by means of the gas-flame or fire in the chamber or firebox. The flame being supplied with airheated by being drawn through thespace formed around the chimney, as already described, the flame or heated products of combustion pass'throngh the tube or uptake before mentioned and come into contact with the heater, and are carried or drawn down the sides of the heater to the annular space leading to the chimney, up which they escape. The air within the heated chamber is heated and the expansion drives the working-piston outward. This actuate-s the crankshaft, and rather before the working-piston has reached the outer extremity of its stroke the crank-shaft causes the combined displaccr andv regenerator to commence its travel from the cool portion ot'the cylinderto the heated chamber. The air from the heated. end of the chamber passes between the sides of the heater and the inner sides of the lower portion of the thinmetal cylinder forming part of the displacer, then passes up part way along between the outer side of said thin-metal cylinder and the inner side of the non-conductor of the heated chamber, then through the holes or openings through thethiirmetal cylinder, near to the inner cap of the displacer, to the regenerator, oi'wirc-gauzc or other suitable material, contained within the displacer. The air then passes through the said regenerator, giving up a portion of its heat to the regenerator, and passes out cousiderably cooled through the holes or open ings in the outer cap of the displaccr. "he air rushes through said holes against the cooled sides of the workiug-cylinder, and is further cooled. The consequent contraction reduces the pressure in the cylinder and allows the working-piston to descend, continuing the motion of the crank-shaft, and, rather before the workingpiston has reached the extremity of its inward stroke, causes the displacer to commence its outward stroke. This causes the cool air to rush through the holes in the outer cap of the combined displacer and re generator into and through the regenerator. Part of the heat previously left in the regenerator is now taken up by the air in its passage, and the air which is thus partially heated passes over the inner cap,and is further heated, then passes out through the holes or openings in the thin-metal cylinder of the displacer, and flows between the outer sides of the thin-metal cylinder and non-conductor of the heated chamber. The air then passes between the inner sides of the thin-metal cylindrical portion of the displacer and the heater, andis thus heated, the consequent exend having a lining,
pansion of the air forcing the working piston I outward. Motive power is thus obtained. The crank actuating the displaeer is set so as to move the displacer in advance of the work ing-piston.
In place of the double crank with one intermediate sheai or link and connection, as de scribed, we may connect the working-piston by an ordinary connectingrod to one crank or disk. A pin attached to another disk or crank or to the flywheel aetuates the combined displacer and regenerator through the following connections: A rocking arm or lever is providcd, which oscillates or works within the aforesaid chamber or cylinder and a recess formed in the side of the said chamber or cylinder. The combined displacer and regenerator is suitably connected to the end oi'this arm or lever, and the other end of said arm or lever is attached to a rocking shaft, which rocking shaft is carried out through a cupleather or suitable packing. Another arm or lever is attached outside to the said rocking shaft, and this arm or lever is connected by a rod to the aforesaid crank or disk pin, or pin in the fly-wheel; and in order that our invention niay be fully understood and readily car- .ried into effect, we will describe the accompanying sheets of drawings, reference being had to the figures and letters marked thereon.
Figure l is a vertical section of a hot-air engine,taken in line with the crank-shaft. Fig. 2 is a vertical section on :r m, Fig. 1.
A is the vessel or cylinder, open at one end, surrounded at its cooled or working end A by a water jacket or tank, A and at its heated A, of lire-clay, cement, plumbago, asbestns, or other material being a good non-conductor of heat. The lined portion of the cylinder may be formed separately and attached to the cooled portion. of the cylinder.
B is the healer, of an egg-ended form, or partly of a hollow cylindrical form with an egg end. This heater extends into the lining A of the cylinder or vessel, but leaves aspace, a, between the heater l3 and the lining A. The space a constitutes partof the heat-ingchamber. The object of the'lining A is to more eli'eetually confine the heat within the heatingchamber a, and so that heat shall not readily be transferred to the metal cylinder or vessel. The position of the noncondnctor lining A." also better separates the heater B from the cooled part of cylinder or vessel. The heater B is preferably formed separate] y, and is attached or bolted to the cylinder or vessel A, with a ring, 13, of asbestus or other good non-conductor of heat, interposed. The heater B being of the form described, the pressure within the cylinder subjects the material or part of the material of the heater to compression, and the heater may with safety be made thinner than if it were subject to strains of tension. Thus heat is more readily conducted into the heating-chamber. Another advantage of this form of heater is that it can IiO be carried into the heating-chamber within the lining A.
C is the working-piston, which works within the cooled end of the cylinder A. A groove, 0, may be formed on the piston, within which may be placed sponge or cotton wick or other suitable material for taking up and distributing the oil on the sides of the cylinder.
0 is a cup-leather turned inward. O is a smaller cup-leather.
O is a j unk-ring for adjusting the cup leather 0 is a junk-ring for adj usting cup-leather O. G G are two bosses formed within the working-piston, and project inward.
The crank-shaft E is made with two cranks, EE, set at about an angle of ninety degrees, and as it is desirable to have the crank-pins E E as close to one another as possible, they are connected together by a single sheaf or link, E
F is the combined displacer and regenerator, and is constructed in the following manner:
F is a metal cap or piston forming the end of the displaeer and regenerator F. This cap or piston F works within the cylinder A. The outer portion, f, of cap Fis of smaller diameter than the cylinder A, and has holes or openings f f f formed through its sides. The enlarged end of the cap F fits the cylinder A.
F 'is a'hollow cylinder or hood, preferably of sheet metal, which is attached to the cap F, and is of such a diameter that it works within the lining A but leaves a space between itself and the lining A This cylinder or hood F is of such a length that when the combined displacer and regenerator F is at the extremity of itsinward stroke part of the thin metal F shall be interposed between the lining A of the heater B, leaving an annularshaped passage on either side of F.
F is a cap, preferably of metal, attached within F in such a position that when the combined displacer and regenerator is at the end of its stroke, as shown in Fig. 1, the said cap F shall be close to the egg-ended part of the heater B. Holes f f f are formed in the thin-metal cylinder F near to the part where the cap F is attached. ,These holes f f f are for the purpose of allowing the air to pass from the regenerator to the outside of the hood or cylinder F". The cap F is so formed that it follows the lines or form of the egg end of the heater B. \Vebs may be formed on the cap. These webs support an annular or hollow shaped piece of material, f -such as asbestus or fire-clay-being a good non-conductor of heat. This material extends toward the outer cap, F.
F* is the regenerator, of wire-gauze or other suit-able material, presenting a large surface.
At the end of the non-conductor f 5 farthest away from the heater may be placed a ring,
f and at the same end of the rcgenerator F" is placed another ring, f These rings are within the cap F, and several screws may be placed in the cap F, bearing on each of the said rings f f, for the purpose of adjusting the aforesaid non-conductor f".
D is the connecting-rod for connecting the piston G to the crankshaft E. The end of the connecting-rod D which is attached to the piston is formed as a ring, D, (shown more clearly in Fig. 1,) with two bosses, (Z (Z, there on. These bosses fit between the bosses C O. A pin on each side is fitted through each of the said bosses O G into each of the said bosses d 02, so that the connecting-rod D is free to oscillate. The other end of the connectingrod D is connected to a crank, E, of the crankshaft E.
F is the displacer-rod,brought through the cup-leather (J or gland in the working-piston C. This rod F is connected to the crank-pin FF by means of a connecting-rochF, and works through the guide F The displacer-rod F is formed with an enlargement or boss, f", upon it, outside or beyond the cup-leather 0 A pin, f is fixed tightly to the small end of the connecting-rod F, and is free to work in the bossf on the rod F The rod F and a small end of displacer connecting-rod F can work through the ring end D of the piston connecting-rod D. The object of this arrangement of connecting-gearis to get a direct connection betwecnthe crank-shaft and the reciprocating parts.
R is a governor.
G is a chimney to carry away the products of combustion of theflame or fire.
G is a casing around the chimney G, but leaving a space, 9, between the chimney G and the casing G. to a chamber or fire-box, G. This chamber may have a lining, 9 of a material which is a good nonconductor of heat.
G is a diaphragm formed with a tubular extension or uptake, G, upon or attached to it. This uptake G extends toward the heater B, and being of smaller diameter or size than the heater B a space, 9 is left between G and B. This space 9" leads to an annular space, 9, opening into the chimney G.
H is a Bunsen gas-burner within the chanr ber G In the side of the chamber G is formed an opening, h, through which the burner can be withdrawn from the chamber for lighting and inspection, and can be replaced. A cover or lid, h, for the opening it is formed upon or attached to the pipe or burner H. Thelid h is larger than the hole or opening h. When the burner H is in its proper position for use, as shown, the lid h at its lower side drops in between a stop, h and the lip of the opening h, and the weight of the burner H within the chamber causes the uppermost part of the lid h to bear against the lip of the opening, thus closing it. \Vhen liquid fuelsuchas petroleum or other hydrocarbon-is used instead of gas, the flame of the lamp is used in the chamber G in place of the Bunsen burner H.
The action of the engine, as shown at Figs. 1 and 2, is as follows: The heater B is heated This space or passage 9 leads by the flame of the Bunsen burner H or lire, the flame being supplied with air heated by being drawn through the space 9, formed around the chimney G, as already described. The flame or heated products of combustion pass through the tube or uptake G, and come in contact with the heater B, and are carried along the sides of the heater, as shown by the arrows 1 1, Fig. 2, to the annular space 9, leading to the chimney G, up which they escape. The air or part of the air within the cylinder or vessel A is caused to flow from the cooled to theheated part and from the heated to the cooled part alternately by the action of the combined displacer and regenerator F on the Sterling hot-air engine. The regeneratoris actuated by the crank Eflwhich is in advance of the crank E. The combined displacer and regcnerator F is moved from the heated to the cooled part. The air or part of the air passes in the direction of the arrows 1 1, Fig. 2, from the cooled part through the holes f f into and through the regenerator F", taking up some of the heat left in the regencrator by the previous instrolze. The air then passes through the holes f f, then between thelining A and thehood F and round between the hood F and the heater B. The air is thus heated, and the consequent expansion drives the piston O outward. \Vheu the combined displacer and regenerator is moved from the cooled to the heated part of the cylinder or vessel A, the air or part of the air passes in the opposite direction to that shown by the arrows 1 1, Fig. 2, and the air passing through the regenerator F gives up a portion of its heat to the regenerator and passes out into the cooled part of cylinder or vessel, andis further cooled, and the consequent contraction allows the piston C to perform its inward stroke.
e have shown and described in the accompanying specification and drawings an improvement in governors which we consider as new, but do not claim herein, but reserve for a future separate application.
Having stated the nature of our invention and described the manner of performing the same, we declare that we claim- 1. I n hot-air engine, the combinatlon of a double crankshaft, lfl,with the connecting-rod N f, the said casing containing a regenerator,
F, and cap F, the hood F being arranged s9 that air shall pass through the holes f f j and f f f and over the heater B, as hereinbeiore described, and illustrated in the accon'ipanying drawings.
3. In a hot-air engine, the lining A withln the cylinder or vessel for more cifectually confining theheat, the saidlining Asurround1ng the heater B, a space being left between the heater B and lining A, in which space the hood F works, as hereinbefore described, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
In testimony that we claim the foregoing as our invention we have signed our names, in
presence of two witnesses, this 14th day of May, 1881-.
ARNOLD EDMUND ROBINSON. HORACE ROBINSON.
\Vitnesses:
ARTHUR O. HALL, ALBERT E. HALL,
U. S. Consulate, ilfimclzcsfer.
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2662370A (en) * 1949-10-27 1953-12-15 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Burner and heater device with plurality of whirl chambers
US3415054A (en) * 1966-04-05 1968-12-10 Leybold Holding Ag Demonstration model of hot air motor and heat pump

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2662370A (en) * 1949-10-27 1953-12-15 Hartford Nat Bank & Trust Co Burner and heater device with plurality of whirl chambers
US3415054A (en) * 1966-04-05 1968-12-10 Leybold Holding Ag Demonstration model of hot air motor and heat pump

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