US3064580A - Assembly for pumping well fluids - Google Patents

Assembly for pumping well fluids Download PDF

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US3064580A
US3064580A US521688A US52168855A US3064580A US 3064580 A US3064580 A US 3064580A US 521688 A US521688 A US 521688A US 52168855 A US52168855 A US 52168855A US 3064580 A US3064580 A US 3064580A
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pump
fluid
tubing
port
valve
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US521688A
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John G Calvert
Jr Charles B Corley
John V Fredd
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Otis Engineering Corp
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Otis Engineering Corp
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/12Methods or apparatus for controlling the flow of the obtained fluid to or in wells
    • E21B43/121Lifting well fluids
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/14Obtaining from a multiple-zone well

Description

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6 Sheets-Sheet l JNVENTORS.
A T To John 6. Ca/verl. Charles B-Cor/ey, Jr.. John V. Fredd,
J. G. CALVERT ETAL ASSEMBLY FOR PUMPING WELL FLUIDS Nov. 20, 1962 Filed July 15, 1955 6 SheetsSheet 2 J. G. CALVERT ETAL ASSEMBLY FOR PUMPING WELL FLUIDS Nov. 20, 1962 Filed July 15, 1955 Nov. 20, 1962 J. G. CALVERT ETAL ASSEMBLY FOR PUMPING WELL FLUIDS Filed July 13, 1955 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTORS. f John G- Calveri, gi Charles B-Car/eyJr.
ago/m V- Fndd,
6 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTORS. John 6- Calvert, Charles B-Corley.Jr., BY John V. Fredd,
A TT
iny/ v////,?//&./////////////////////// blfifiizl////////V/////////V///// J. G. CALVERT ETAL ASSEMBLY FOR PUMPING WELL FLUIDS Nov. 20, 1962 Filed July 15, 1955 Nov. 20, 1962 J. G. CALVERT ETAL 3,064,530
ASSEMBLY FOR PUMPING WELL FLUIDS Filed July 13, 1955 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 305 INVENTORS John 6- Calvert,
Charles B. Corley.Jr., BY John v. Fredd Nov. 20, 1962 J. G. CALVERT ETAL 3,064,580
ASSEMBLY FOR PUMPING WELL FLUIDS 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed July 13, 1955 FIG. 9.
FIG. II.
INVENTORS. John 6- Ca Iverf.
Charles B- Cor/81min, BY John ,V. Fre dd.
A TTORNE Y.
, ASSEMBLY FOR PUMPING WELL FLUIDS John G. Calvert and Charles l3. Corley, in, Tyiergand John V. Fredd, Dallas, Tex; said Calvert and said Coriey, assignors, by ine'sne assignments, to Jersey Production Research Company, Tulsa, Okia, a corporation of Delaware, and said Fredd ass'ignor to Otis Engineering Corporation, Daiias, Tern, a corporation of Texas Filed duly 13, B55, Ser. No. 521,688 11 Claims. (iii. 1fl3- i) The present invention is directed to an assembly for pumping well flu-ids. More particularly, the invention is directed to apparatus for pumping well fluids from a plurality of earth formations. in its more specific aspects, the invention is directed to apparatus for pumping well fluids comprising a plurality of hydraulically operated subsurface pumps arranged in a single tubing.
The present invention broadly contemplates a structure which is suitable for producing well fluids from a plurality of earth formations before and after it becomes neces sary to pump from the plurality of earth formations or zones. This particular assembly of the invention cornprises spaced apart flow directing means directing the fluid from one zone up the tubing and directing fluid from a second zone up the casing-tubing annulus or up through a separate conduit which may be connected to the tubing at a point removed from the point of introduction of the fluid from the other zone into the tubing.
In accordance with the invention, spaced apart flow directing means are provided with valve members being arranged in one of the spaced apart flow directing means for isolation of the hydrocarbon productive zone as may be desired. A particular feature of the spaced apart flow directing means of the present invention is a releasa-ble interconnection of the spaced apart flow directing means which allows the flow directing means to be separately placed in the tubing and separately retrieved therefrom. For example, the flow directing means may be separately introduced into the tubing by wire line tools or may be floated in or pumped into the tubing to seat in a supporting means such as a landing nipple adjacent the lower open end of the tubing with the upper of the spaced apart flow directing means being releasably connected to the lower of the flow directing means. This latter assembly allows a well to be produced naturally from a plurality of productive formations, strata, zones and/ or intervals and later on as the natural drive is exhausted, the well may be placed on pump to produce simultaneously from a plurality of productive intervals.
The present invention may be briefly described as an assembly or apparatus for pumping well fluids from a Well bore penetrating a plurality of productive zones having a casing therein perforated in at least two of said zones, the casing being provided with a tubing having its lower open end arranged above the lower of a plurality of productive zones, strata, formations, or intervals from which hydrocarbons are to be produced. The invention comprises particularly a plurality of interconnected hydraulically operated subsurface pumps arranged in a mandrel attached to and forming a part of the lower end of said tubing, each of said pumps being separately in fluid commuiiication with one of said zones. Separate valve means are provided in the tubing fluidly connected to the suction of each of said pumps. Means are provided in the assembly releasably holding the pumps in operative relationship with the valve means. Means are connected to the mandrel on the exterior surface thereof for delivering power fluid to each of the pumps, for example, from a pump at the earths surface. A specific feature of the present invention is the means for releasably holding and/or releasably fluidly connecting the pumps 3,554,58fl Patented Nov. 29, 1962 ice to the valve means. The releasable connection allows the valve means to be placed by wire line and the pumps to be placed in the tubihg from the earths surface either by wire line fishing tools or by lubricating in the tubing and letting the assembly float in or being pumpeddown to be arranged in the lower end of the tubing. The releasable holding means suitably may be 'a snap ring interconnecting the pumps and the valve means provided with fluid sealing means to allow fluid coiin'ectioh between the pumps and the valve means. The releasable holding means may suitably be a latch member which is spring engaged to snap into connection and hold the pumps in operative relationship with the valve means.
Another specific feature of the invention is that the mandrel has a full opening bore of common or substantially common dimension with the tubing such that tools and/ or equipment which are lowerable through the tubing are also lowerable through the mandrel when the several retrievable and/ or removable elements therein are retrieved and/ or removed.
The present invention contemplates that production may be obtained from a plurality of productive zones employing at least one hydraulically operated subsurface pump in the tubing in fluid communication with one of said zones but the apparatus provides also separate valve means with one of the valve means being arranged in fluid communication with the suction of said pump ahd the other of said valve means fluidly communicating the other of said zones with a conduit or passageway vertically displaced from said zone. In this particular aspect of the invention, means are also provided for releasably holding the pump in operative relationship with the valve, and conduit means are provided connected to the exterior surface of the tubing for delivering power fluid to the pump.
The present invention also contemplates that the valve means may suitably be arranged in a standing valve member with the separate valve means spaced apartone from the other. In the standing valve member a flow directing means may suitably be arranged for directing flow from one of the zones to one of the pumps and from another of the zones to another of the pumps or directing fluid from one of the zones to one of the pumps and from another of the zones to a point in a conduit or passageway vertically displaced from the pump. The flow directing means may provide a substantially common dimension with the tubing through the bore of the mandrel when the standing valve member is removed. 7
It is further contemplated that the assembly will be provided with a suitable bypass means defining passageways leading from the standing valve members to the tubing for use either with a single or a plurality of pumps as may be required.
The present invention is quite advantageous and useful in that provision is made for producing hydrocarbon fluid from a plurality of hydrocarbon productive intervals such as zones containing oil and/or gas with a plurality of pumps arranged in a single tubing while leaving a full opening tubing after retrieving the pumping assembly from the tubing. Furthermore, the present invention is advantageous in that it is unnecessary to provide dual strings for receiving the pumps and obtaining production from a plurality of hydrocarbon productive intervals as has been the practice heretofore. Thus in the present invention, hydraulically operated subsurface pumps are arranged in tandem and interconnected in one tubing string with power fluid being supplied to the plurality of pumps arranged in the single tubing string.
It is contemplated that the pumps may be interconnected and spaced apart one from the other with separate provision of power fluid to each of said pumps or it is possible to provide interconnected hydraulically operated subsurface pumps with power fluid being provided from a single source to each of said pumps.
The present invention is amenable to many modifications coming within the spirit and compass of the claims asserted herein. a
The present invention will be further illustrated by reference to the drawing in which:
FIG. 1 shows an assembly wherein a Well casing penetrates a plurality of hydrocarbon productive intervals and production is to be had separately from each of the said intervals;
FIG. 2 shows an arrangement with production being had from one of the intervals normally and production being had from the other interval by pumping with a hydraulically operated subsurface pump in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a modification somewhat similar to FIG. 2 of the present invention showing a single pump for a single zone completion and a standing valve assembly with power fluid supplied to the pump exteriorly of the tubing;
FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C are a showing in detail of a preferred embodiment of the present invention illustrating schematically production from a plurality of productive intervals with a plurality of interconnected hydraulically operated subsurface pumps;
FIGS. 4D and 413. show a detailed embodiment of the present invention illustrating schematically production from one interval naturally with production from another interval artificially withprovision made for production from both intervals artificially;
FIGS. 5 and 5A illustrate a modification of the embodiments of FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C showing a difierent arrangements of bypass conduits and the flow directing assembly with independent pump discharge conduits;
FIGS. 6 and 6A show a further modification with the 4 or shaped charge type and firing same to form the perforations 17 and 18.
Arranged in the casing 12 are a plurality of packers 19 and 20 which isolate the zones 14 and 15 for production of fluids as will be described further hereinafter. However, it is contemplated that other types of production packers may be used to isolate the zones 14 and 15 and such other types of packers as are known in the industry may be carried on the lower end of a tubing string 21 which extends to the earths surface from Well head equipment, not shown. For purposes of this description, the packers 19 and 20 have been set in the casing 12 as has been described. I I p I Forming an integral part of the tubing string 21 is a mandrel 22 which is provided with a first outer wall 23 and a second outer wall 24 which defines a bypass passageway 25 communicating the interior passageway I of the tubing 21 with a spaced apart point 27 of the mandrel 22. The purpose of the bypass passageway 26 will be described in more detail hereinafter.
Arranged in the mandrel 22 are spaced apart first flow directing means 28 and second flow directing means 29.
. The upper fiow directing means 28 is comprised of a conpower oil supplied from the tubing to each of the pumps FIG. 9 is a detailed enlarged cross sectional view of the latching means of FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C;
FIG. 10 is an enlarged cross sectional view of another latch or hold-down means for the hydraulically operated subsurface pumps;
FIG. 11 is still another mechanical means in an enlarged sectional view of a connecting and sealing means for the pump and valve assembly;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged partial view in section of a still further latch arrangement suitable for use in the present invention; and
FIG. 13 is an enlarged partial view in section of another modification of a latch and sealing means.
Referring now to the drawing in which similar nu- 'merals will be employed to designate identical parts and particularly to FIG. 1, numeral 11 designates a well bore drilled from the earths surface, not shown, in which a casing 12 is arranged therein and cemented in place with primary cement 13. The well bore 11 and the casing 12 traverse a plurality of hydrocarbon productive intervals 14 and 15 separated by a non-productive or impermeable interval 16. The cement sheath 13 has been perforated in hydrocarbon productive intervals 14 and 15 to open up the casing 12 into fluid communication with zones 14 and 15 by perforations 17 and 18. These perforations may suitably have been formed in the casing 12 after placing same by lowering a gun perforator either of the bullet ducting member 30 to which is attached a fishing head 31 having opposed cup packers 32 and 33 carried on the upper end thereof below a fishing head or neck 34. The lower end of the tubular conducting member 30 is provided with a hold-down or releasable connecting means 35 provided with a sealing member 36. The hold-down or interconnecting means 35 may suitably be a snap ring, a latch member or a plurality of spring members connected to the conductor member 30. The flow directing means 28 is provided with spaced apart packing means 37 carried thereby which suitably may be chevron packing but other packing may suitably be used. The flow directing means 28 has a side door port, such as 39, which is in fluid communication with a port 40 in the mandrel 22. Connected to the mandrel 22 is a conduit 41 which serves to direct fluid from the ports 39 and 40 to the earths surface, not shown.
The lower flow directing means 29 has a seat or shoulder 42 which is adapted to seat and be located in a landing nipple 43. This seating member 42 serves to anchor, support and/or secure the flow directing means 29 in the lower portion of the mandrel 22. The flow directing means 29 is provided with a tubular spacing member 44 which carries a packing member 45 to provide a seal between the interior wall of the mandrel 22 and the spacing member 44. The lower end of the spacing member 44 has a suitable valve 46 arranged therein having a seating member 47; the valve 46 allows flow upwardly through the spacing member 44 but resists flow downwardly therethrough. The lower end of the spacing member 44 has an equalizing knockout pin 48 arranged thereon which can be fractured or broken off after the assembly has been removed by inserting a prong through the member 44 to allow fluid to drain from the member 44 or to equalize on either side of the packremovable member 53 is of a frangible or rupturable' nature and may suitably be broken or pierced by a prong to establish communication with the passageway 52 which may be necessary and/or desirable.
The flow directing means 29 is also provided with a fishing neck 54 which has an exterior conical surface 55. Arranged in seating engagement with the surface 55 is a valve member 56 which has an interior conical surface 57 which seats on the surface 55 of the flow directing means 29 and provides a fluid passageway 58 which, in turn, communicates with the conductor member 39. The passageway 53 is provided with a check valve 59 having a seating member 60. This check valve 59 allows flow upwardly through passageway 58 but resists flow downwardly therethrough.
The wall members 23 and 24 provide a second bypass 61 which provides communication with the space 62 isolated by a packing member 63 carried by the valve member 56 which is similar to packing members 37, 45 and 49 and the upper of the packing members 49 with a space 64 between the packing member 45 and the packing member 63. Actually, the spaces 62 and 64 are in fluid communication by the bypass 61. Fluid communication is had with the interval 14 through perforations 17 with the space 65 between the production packers 19 and 2t) and which, in turn, communicates with the space 64 through a port 66 in the lower portion of the mandrel 22.
The embodiment of FIG. 1 shows a well completed in a plurality of zones and provision of apparatus in the well for producing from said zones under the natural drive in said well with provision being made for putting one zone of the well, particularly the upper zone, on pump when the natural drive has become depleted or exhausted so that economical production of hydrocarbons may not be obtained therefrom by the natural lift.
Referring now to FIG. 2, the same well 11 having the casing 12 cemented therein with primary cement 13 is provided with a hydraulically operated subsurface pump for pumping fluids from the zone 14 while the zone 15 is on natural lift. in this particular instance, fluid is flowing through the perforations 18 into the passageway 52 of the spacing member 44 and through the flow directing means 29 by way of port 56 through bypass passageway 26 into the passageway P in tubing 21 and then to the earths surface. However, production from interval 14 has declined to the extent that the natural formation pressure or drive will no longer lift the oil and/or gas economically to the surface and it is desirable to lift this remaining oil from the interval 14 by a hydraulically operated subsurface pump. In this particular instance, the conductor member 3%) and the flow directing means 23 are pulled from the mandrel 22 by engagement of the fishing neck 34 with a wire line fishing tool, not shown, the conductor member 36 being released from engagement with the valve member 36 by releasable connection 35. It is to be pointed out, however, that the flow directing means 28 may be removed hydraulically and such is preferred. After the conductor member 30 and flow directing means 28 have been removed from the tubing 21 and the mandrel 22, a hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67, the details of which will be described more fully hereinafter, is lubricated into the tubing 21 at the wellhead through a suitable lubricator and allowed to float in or to be pumped in through the tubing 21 and into the mandrel 22. The hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 is releasably connected to the valve member 56 by a releasable holding or connecting means a provided with a sealing member 36a which are similar to releasable connecting means 35 and sealing means 36%. These releasable connecting and sealing means serve to hold and/ or connect fluidly the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 with the valve member 56 and passageway 58 through port 51 with space 62 and space 64 through bypass 61 and then by port 66 with space 65 between the packers 19 and 20 and through perforations 17 with the hydrocarbon productive interval 14.
The upper end 68 of the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 is provided with a lateral passageway 69 which communicates with the port 44 in the mandrel 22 and with conduit 41 which leads to the earths surface.
The upper end 68 of the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 is also provided with spaced apart packing members 76 which are similar to the packing members 37, 45, and 4 of FIG. 1.
The upper end of the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 is also provided with a fishing neck 71 which may be the same as the fishing neck 31 or similar thereto having a fishing head 72 for engagement with a wire line fishing tool, not shown. Likewise, the fishing neck 71 may be provided with opposing cup packers, such as 32 and 33, as illustrated in FIG. 1.
The hydraulically operated subsurface pump '67 is provided with power fluid exhaust ports 73 and pump fluid exhaust ports 74. It is to be noted that the power fluid and the pump fluid intermingle in the annulus 75' between the pump 67 and the interior surface of the wall 23 of the mandrel 22 which fluidly communicates by way of a port 75 with the annulus 76 between the casing 11 and the mandrel 22.
Referring now to FIG. 3, an illustration is presented of the application of the present invention to a single completion interval employing the hydraulically operated subsurface pumping assembly of the present invention. In this particular embodiment, the well bore 11 has been drilled to penetrate a single hydrocarbon productive interval, such as 150, and the casing 12 arranged therein and cemented in place with primary cement 13, as in FIGS. 1 and 2. In this particular instance, a modified mandrel 22a forms part of the tubing string 21 and is provided with a conduit, such as 41, communicating with a port, such as 40a, in the mandrel 22a. The mandrel 22a is provided with a bypass passageway, such as 26a, defined by outer walls 23a and 24a. Like in PEG. 2, a hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 is arranged in the mandrel 22a having a suitable fishing neck 71 and fishing head 72 and opposing cup packers 32 and 33 as have been described. 7
The hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 is likewise provided with packing members 76 for directing flow from the port 46a through the inlet 69. In this particular instance, the pump 67 is modified only slightly and is provided with a recess 77 in which is arranged an O-ring 78 to isolate a space 7? between the lower packer 70 and the O-ring 78 and enclosing the power fluid exhaust port 73. The mandrel is also provided with a port 78b in the wall 23a.
The lower end of the pump 67 is further modified to provide on the exterior surface thereof a recess 86 in which a suitable packing member 81 is retained which suitably may be a packer such as the packing member 70. This packing member 81 serves to isolate a space 82 between the O-ring 78 and the packing member 81 and to allow communication between the pump fluid exhaust port 74 through the bypass passageway 26a with the passageway P of the tubing 21.
Arranged on the landing nipple 43 in the lower end of the mandrel 22a is a standing valve assembly 83 which is suitably supported by spring load shoulders or engaging means 84 in the landing nipple 43. It is to be noted that the valve member 83 is provided with a valve 85 having a seat 86 which allows fluid flow upwardly through the passageway 37 but resists fluid flow downwardly therethrough. The valve member 83 is also provided with an equalizing knockout pin 37a which is similar to knockout pin 58 and functions in a similar fashion. The valve member 83 and the pump 67 are releasably interconnected by a releasable holding or connecting means, such as 35a, and are also provided with a sealing means, such as 36a.
A packing member, such as 86a, which is similar to packers 19 and 2t seals between the annulus 76 and the exterior of the mandrel 22a and the productive interval 15a. It is to be noted that perforations, such as 18a, have been formed in the wall of the casing 12 to establish a fluid communication with the productive interval 15a.
Referring now to FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 4C, a casing 12 has been arranged in the borehole as in the other figures of the drawing and cemented in place with a primary cement. For reasons of clarity the borehole and cement are not shown in these figures. The casing 12 is perforated with perforations 17 and 18 in hydrocarbon productive intervals 14 and to open up communication between the casing and the hydrocarbon productive interval. A tubing string 21 has a mandrel 90 forming an integral part thereof and the mandrel 90 has a conduit 91 connected thereto at spaced apart points to provide power fluid to the mandrel 90. The conduit 91 communicates with the mandrel 90 by lateral conduits 92 and 93 which connect, respectively, into ports 94 and 95 in the wall of the mandrel 90.
Defined by a first outer wall 96 and a second outer wall 97 is a first bypass passageway 98. The walls 96 and 97 also define a second bypass passageway 99 and a third bypass passageway 100, the purpose of which will be described in more detail hereinafter.
Arranged in the lower portion of the mandrel 90 is a valve assembly 56a which is similar to the valve assembly 56 of FIG. 1 and a flow directing means 29 which is identical to the flow directing means 29 of FIG. 1. Thus the valve assembly 56a is provided with packing means 63, a valve 59, and a valve seat 60. The flow directing means 29 has a removable plug 53 arranged therein in passageway 52. The shoulder 42 of the flow directing means 29 is seated in a landing nipple 43 of the nature described supra.
Like in FIGS 1 and 2, the intervals 14 and 15 are isolated by packers 19 and 20. Likewise the port 50 communicating with the bypass 99 in FIG. 4B is isolated by packers 49. It is to be noted that a packing member 45 seals between the spacing member 44 and the interior wall of the mandrel 90. While the valve member 56a and the flow directing means 29 are interconnected by seating surfaces 55 and 57, like in FIG. 1, a positive releasable connection may be provided by a shear pin 101 which forms the valve member 56a and the flow directing member 29 into an integral assembly.
It may be seen from the foregoing description taken -With respect to FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 40 that the lower portion of this embodiment of the invention is identical to the assembly 105 extending into the lower end 106 of the pump 103 and which provides a fluid passageway 107 therein.
The pump assembly 102 is comprised of pumps 103 and 104 constructed generally in accordance with the Coberly patents as identified below:
US. Patent 2,081,220 issued to C. Coberly US. Patent 2,568,320 issued to C. J. Coberly It is to be understood, however, that the present invention is specifically concerned with the arrangement of flow directing means and/ or pumps in a single tubing for obtaining production simultaneously from a plurality of zones and, therefore, the present invention is directed to an assembly for accomplishing this end.
The pump 103 serves to pump fluid from the interval ,15 while the pump 104 takes suction on'the interval 14. The assembly of pumps 103 and 104 is mechanically and fluidly connected to the valve member56a and the fluid directing means 29 by a mechanical connecting means 107', provided on a nose 108 of the pump 104. This mechanical connecting means is comprised of spring-loaded dogs .or latches 109 which are biased outwardly on shear pins 110. Carried on the nose 168 of the pump 104 is a seal ing means, such asan O-ring 112, which provides a fluid seal between the nose 108 and the interior wall of the 8 valve member 56a. Thus, it may be seen from the fore going brief description that the pumps 103 and 104 may be releasably connected and held in the valve member 56a which connects into the flow directing means 29. V
The pump 104 is identical in construction to the pump 67 of FIG. 2 and is provided with a passageway 69 in which is arranged an orifice member 113 providing an orifice member 114. This orifice 113 is replaceable and orifices of diiferent sizes may be inserted in the passageway 69 to control the amount of pumped power fluid being introduced into the pump 104 through the passageway 69 which communicates through port with conduit 93 and vertical conduit 91.
The upper end 115 of the pump 104 carries on the exterior surface thereof packing members 116 whichform a seal with the interior wall of the mandrel 90 as illustrated. Arranged in the chamber 117 which communicates with the passageway 69 is a slidable sliding D valve 115 or engine end valve. This engine end valve 118 is floatingly or slidably arranged on a piston rod 119 which carries a first piston 120 in chamber 117 and a second piston 121 in chamber 122. Piston 120 is a power piston and piston 121 is the piston which pumps the well fluid.
The piston rod 119 reciprocates from chamber 117 through chamber 122 into a balance tube 123. A port 124 communicates with the chamber 117 and a port125 connects into a bypass passageway 126a which, in turn, communicates with the chamber 117 below the piston 120.
The chamber 122 has ports 126 which communicate with the exterior of the pump 104 and arranged in passageways 127 which communicate the ports 126 with the chamber 122 are check valves 128. A bypass passageway 129 provided with check valves 130 communicate the chamber 122 ahead of the piston 121 with the portion of the chamber behind the piston 121.
The pump 103 is similar in construction to the pump 104 except that the pump 103 is provided with a fishing neck 131 which is connected to the pump 103 by an eccentric joint 132 provided with a fluid seal such as an O-ring 133 and a threaded connection 134 having mating threads 135 which allows proper alignment of the pumping assembly in the mandrel 90.
The aligning means 134 is connected to a head member 136 carrying packing members 137 and 138 which, in turn, is connected to the fishing neck 131 having a fishing head 1395; on the end thereof for engagement by a wire line tool. The fishing neck 131 is provided with opposing cup packers 139 and 140. I
A passageway 142 communicates with the port 94 and the conduit 92 and with the vertical conduit 91 and supplies power fiuid to the pump 103. Arranged in the passageway 142 is an orifice plate 143 which serves to regulate flow of power fluid into the pump 103. The member 134 has a passageway 145 therein which communicates with a power chamber 146 which has a sliding engine end valve 147 arranged on the piston rod 148 in slidable relationship therewith.
Arranged in the chamber 146 is a power piston 149 which serves to power the pump 103. The chamber 146 ing valves 12% arranged therein. Likewise, the chamber 153.has a bypass 129 and is provided with check valves 130 like in pump 104. The pump 103 has a recess 156 arranged between the port 150 and the upper of the ports 126 in which a sealing member, such as an O-ring 157, is
arranged to isolate the pumped fluid from the power fluid discharge.
Referring now to FIGS. 41) and 4E which are modifications of FIGS. 4A to 4C, an embodiment of the present invention is illustrated wherein production is being had from interval 15 naturally while production from interval 14 is being obtained artificially. in this embodiment of the invention a pump, such as 1134, is arranged in a mandrel $1 which is the same as that described with respect to FIGS. 4A to 4C, but instead of pump 153 a flow tube or flow directing means, such as similar to flow tube or flow directing means 3% of FIG. 1 is attached to the head 115 and arranged in the mandrel 99 to provide a seal with the packers 137 and 138 to isolate the passageway 92 which communicates with the conduit 91. This allows the passageway 92 to be used to provide power fluid to a hydraulically operated pump, such as 1513, as illustrated in F165. 4A to 4C. The flow tube or concluctor pipe 3% has a fishing head 31a arranged on its upper end with the fishing head 310 having opposed cup packers 32a and 33a. carried on the upper end thereof below a fishing neck The port 14621 is isolated by means of a sealing member, such as an Oring or packing member 1.57, co-operating with the packing member 138. The remaining part of tie apparatus is identical to that described in detail in FIG. 4A and also in FIG. 1.
Referring now to F168. 5 and 5A a further embodiment of the present invention is presented in which different forms or" bypass means are provided and different fluid directing means as well as a modified form of interconnecting the hydraulically operated subsurface pumps with the valve means.
Referring now to FIGS. 5 and 5A of the drawing,
numeral 12 designates a well casing penetrating the hydrocarbon productive intervals 14- and 15 which are isolated by means of packers 19 and 21's, as shown in PEG. 1 described supra. In this particular instance, the pumps 163 and 1134 are shown schematically since they have already been described in some detail with respect to FIGS. 4A and 4B. In this embodiment of the invention, a modified mandrel 161) forms part of and is connected to the tubing string 21. The pumps 113-3 and 164 are interconnected by means of a spacing member 161 and the pump 194 is mechanically and fluidly connected by a connecting means 162 including a seal 163 to a standing valve and fluid directing means 164. The standing valve member 164 comprises a first standing valve 165 having a seat 166 to allow flow upwardly through the member 164 but resisting flow downwardly. A second standing valve member 167 is provided with a seat 1-63 to allow flow upwardly therethrough but resists flow downwardly.
Arranged between the valves 165 and 167 is a flow directing means 169 having a passageway 17%) and a passageway 171 arranged therein. Passageway 173 communicates with the space between the packers 19 and 29 and passageway 171 communicates with the producing interval 15. The fiow directing means 169 has suitable paclc ng members 172 for isolating the flow through the passageways 179 and 171, respectively, as shown in the drawing.
The standing valve member 164 is suitably seated in a landing nipple 173 in the mandrel 16% by means of a shoulder, anchor or latch 174 carried on the exterior surface of themember 164. A seal 175 isolates between the mandrel 160 and the valve member 164. The pump 104 is also provided with packing members 176 to isolate the power fluid discharge ports 124. The mandrel 166 is provided with a first bypass conduit 177 which extends from just above the packing member 19 to the suction of the pump 1&3 andprovides fluid communication with the standing valve 167. The suction port 13hr: of pump 1.23 is isolated by packing members 178 and 178a.
A packing member 179 isolates the pump fluid discharge ports 12% while the power fluid exhaust port is isolated by packers 179 18%}. Connected to the mandrel 16b is a power fluid conduit 181 which extends to a source of pumped power fluid at the earths surface. This conduit 1S1 connects into port 182 by conduit 183 which connects into port 134 in the pump 193 and then communicates by delivery passageway 142 to the engine end of the pump 163 while a lateral conduit 185 communicates with port 136 which, in turn, communicates with the power delivery inlet 69 of pump 104. A second bypass member, such as conduit 137, delivers pumped fluid from the discharge port 126 of pump 103 to the tubing 21 above the pump it)? while conduit 188 connected to port 189 by lateral conduit 19% delivers pumped fluid from productive interval 14 from discharge ports 126 of pump 104. It is to be noted that the power oil fluid discharges into the annulus 76 through port 191 from pump 1153 and port 192 from pump 194. Thus in this embodiment of the invention the power fluid is completely separated from the pumped fluids and the pump fluids from the individual productive intervals are also separated.
Referring now to H68. 6 and 6A, a still further modification of the present invention is described in which the power fluid is provided to a plurality of interconnected hydraulically operated subsurface pumps through the tubing. In this particular embodiment of the invention pumps 1%3 and 104, similar to previous embodiments, are interconnected by a spacing member 2%. The pumps lit-3 and 194 are arranged in a mandrel 291 which forms part and is connected into the tubing string 21, the casing 12 like in the other several embodiments penetrating the hydrocarbon productive intervals 14 and 15 as has been described. In this particular embodiment, the intervals 14 and 15 are likewise isolated by packers 19 and 26 described supra. The embodiment of FIG. 6 differs from the other'embodiments in that the power fluid is provided down the tubing which requires a modified head, such as 2%2, for the assembly 103, which has a longitudinally extending passageway 2% extending therethrough and communicating with the power chamber of the pump 103 which has been described in detail supra. Like the other embodiments, the fishing neck r 262 is provided with opposing cup packers 2&4 and 255 and a fishing head 206 for retrieving the apparatus from the tubing 21 and the mandrel 201.
In order to provide power fluid to the pump 104 a bypass conduit 207 interconnects the tubing 21 with the mandrel 201 at a point adjacent to the power fluid delivery port of pump n24. such that the fluid may be delivered to pump 1134 through the passageway 207 through the port 209 to port 208.
It is to be noted that a packing means, such as 210, is arranged above the port 2119 and the port 2418 to isolate the power fluid from the pumped fluid and that a second packing member 211 is arranged on the pump 103 to allow delivery of hydrocarbons to the suction port 107 of the pump 103. Fluid is delivered to the suction 167 of pump 193 by way of bypass conduit 212 which connects into a flow directing means 213 which is connected to the pump 104 as will be described.
It is to be noted that the bypass 212 is provided with a standing valve 214 having a seat 215' arranged thereon to allow flow upwardly through the bypass 212 but to resist flow downwardly therethrough. Alternatively, standing valve 214 may be placed in the annulus between the members 213 and 219 above the port 224 and made retrievable by wire line.
A seating shoe 216 forms part of the tubing string 21 and the mandrel 201 and connects into the flow directing means 213. A seating member 217 for the nose 218 of pump 104 is arranged in the shoe 216 and has an elongated standing valve member 219 connected thereto in which a standing valve 22% provided with a seat 221 is .arranged. As has been described, the valve 229 allows flow upwardly through the member 219 but resists flow downwardly therethrough. The member 219 is provided with a seal 222 to seal the passageway between the shoe 216 and the member 215. A packing member 223 allows fluid to be directed from the formation 14 into the space between the packers 19 and 2t and through the port 224 and thence upwardly through the bypass 212 as has been described.
In this particular embodiment of the invention, the power fluid from both pumps and the pumped fluid from the interval 14 are commingled in the annulus 76, being introduced thereto from the respective pumps 103 and 104 by ports 225 and 226 in the mandrel 291. The
pumped fluid from the interval is discharged through port 227 into lateral passageway 22% which connects into conduit 229 which extends to the earths surface.
FIGS. 7 and 7A will now be described in which a gas bleed is provided for the interval 14 from the casingtubing annulus 76 to allow greater pumping efiiciency if gas from interval 14 should be a problem. In this modification of the invention, pumps 1G3 and 104 are interconnected like in FIGS. 6 and 6A by a spacing member 2%.
.In this embodiment of the invention the power fluid is delivered to the pumps down the tubing 21 and into the pump M3 by longitudinal passageway 2-93 in the fishing neck 202. The fishing neck 292 is provided with opposing cup packers 204 and 265 as have been described and a fishing head 206. Power fluid is delivered to the pump 194 by bypass 2% which connects to port 2119 which, in turn, communicates with the inlet 2% isolated by the packers 210 and 213a similar to FIGS. 6 and 6A.
It is to be noted that a still diflerent type of mandrel is required for FIGS. 7 and 7A than that used for FIGS. 6 and 6A in that a gas bleed for the interval 1 is provided and a somewhat modified flow directing means. In the gas bleed, the gas proceeds upwardly through the liquid in the annulus and may be bled from the well at the well head, providing a gas bleed obviates gas locking in the pump assembly. Also by virtue of employing a single packer a somewhat different arrangement is necessary.
In this particular embodiment the pumps 163 and 194 are arranged in the mandrel 251 to which the bypass member 297 connects as has been described. A conduit 251 for power fluid from both pumps and pumped fluid from the upper interval 14 connects into the mandrel 250 by lateral conduits 252 and 253. The nose 218 of the pump 104 is arranged in a shoe 254 which is a shoe of the type 216 but modified somewhat as will be described. Arranged in the shoe 254 is pump seat 255 to which is connected a standing valve member 256 having a valve 257 and a valve seat 258 therefor. A passageway 259 between the member '6 and the shoe 254 is sealed against the passage of fluid by sealing means 269.
A' vertically extending conduit 261 connects into the space 262 of the shoe 254 which, in turn, communicates with the ports 126 of the pump 1%. The ports 126 of pump 193 communicate with the lateral conduit 252 wherein the power fluid from both pumps is commingled with the pumped fluid from the upper interval 14 and pumped to the earths surface through conduit 251.
It is to be noted that a packing member 263 is provided above the packing member 210 to isolate the inlet 107 of the pump 103 which communicates with the annulus 76 by way of a port 264 in the mandrel25tl.
It is' to be noted further that a packing member 265 isolates the discharge port 15% from the tubing 21 through which power fluid is being introduced into the pumps 193 and 104. In this particular instance, an O-ring or a sealing member, such as Zfiiisolates the power fluid discharge port 124- from the discharge ports 126 of the pump 1%. This particular embodiment of FIGS. 7 and 7A issimilar to the embodiment of FIGS. 6 and 6A 7 in that the pump 1113 takes suction from the interval 14 12 while the pump 104 in FIGS. 7 and 7A takes suction from the interval 15, whereas in FIGS. 5 and 5A the pump 103 takes suction from the interval 15 and the pump 194 takes suction from the interval 14.
In FIGS. 8 and 8A a still further embodiment of the invention is presented in which pumps 103 and 134 are interconnected, such as in FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C by a suitable connecting means as has been illustrated. FIG. 8 diflers from FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C in eliminating the lower bypass member 1% and employing only one production packer. In this particular instance, the annulus is not employed to conduct any pump fluid but is employed to allow a gas bleed, from the annulus at the earths surface, of the oil from the interval 14. In this embodiment, the mandrel 915 of FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C is slightly modified to eliminate the bypass 1% and to provide a port 3% which communicates with a vertically extending conduit 3&1 which extends to the earths surface. The conduit 361 which is also connected by a lateral conduit 332 to the port 3% in the modified mandrel it.
It is to be noted that the mandrel 9% of FIGS. 8 and 8A is provided with a port 304 through which hydrocarbon from interval 14 is introduced into the space between the packers 63 and 4%. Power fluid is delivered to the pump 163 like in FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 4C through a conduit 91 which extends to the earths surface and which connects into port 95 and into port 94 as has been described.
It is to be noted that the structure of valve member 56 and the fluid directing means 29 are identical to FIG. 4B. it is also to be noted, however, that only a single packer, such as 3%, is employed in this embodiment since the fluid from interval 14 enters directly into the annulus 76 and is directed by way of the port 364- into the port 51 and thence into passageway 58 as has been described with respect, for example, to FIG. 2.
Referring now to PEG. 9, an enlarged view of the latching assembly of FIG. 4B is presented. It will be noted that the nose 1&8 of pump 104 engages with the upper end 560 of the valve assembly 56. As the nose assembly 108 is stabbed into the opening 56b of the end 560 of the valve member 56, the dogs 1&9 are expanded I out by the coil springs 19%. to cause the dogs to engage with the interior wall of the valve member 56, as shown. When the pumps 103 and 1M disengage by fluid pressure exerted thereagainst, the shear pins 110 are sheared causing the dogs 199 to drop off, allowing the pumps 103 and 11.14 to be disconnected and retrieved.
Another embodiment of the latching means of FIG. 9 is indicated with respect to FIG. 10 in which a member 32% is provided with a flange 321 and bolt holes 322 or other means for connecting to the pump 104. The shank of the member 32% is comprised of fleirible spring arms 323 carrying on a free end thereof latch plates 324 which are attached thereto by shear pins 325.
The member 328 also is provided with a recess 326 in which a sealing member, such as an O-ring 327, is arranged. When the member 320 is stabbed in the opening 56b of the valve member 56, the arms 323 are flexed outwardly to engage and a seal is provided with O-rings 327. When the pumps 163 and 104 are disengaged by hydraulic pressure exerted thereagainst, the shear pins 325 are sheared and latch plates 324 drop off allowing the pumps 1G3 and A34 to be removed and retrieved from the tubing 21.
Referring now to FIG. 11, a further modification of a latching assembly is shown in which a latching member 334) has a flange 331 attached thereto having holes 332 for securing to the lower end of one of the hydraulically operated subsurface pumps, such as pump 104. Arranged in a recess 333 of the member 330 are latching dogs 334 which are biased outwardly by springs 334a.
- member 33% is stabbed in the opening 56b, the spring members 334a hold the assembly together while a seal is provided by an O-ring 335 arranged in a recess 336.
When the l3 When the pump assembly and the valve assembly are disconnected by exerting hydraulic pressure against the pump assembly, shear pins 337 are sheared allowing the dogs 334 to rotate on the pivot pins 338 and hang vertically.
A further modification of the latching member of the present invention is illustrated in FIG. 12 in which a latching assembly sea having a connecting means or flange for attachment to the pump 164 and is provided with a recess 342 having an O-ring 34-3 arranged therein. A latch 344 is attached to the member 346 by a shear pin 345. Arranged in a recess 346 of the latch 344 is a snap ring 347. When the free end 348 of the member 349 is stabbed in the opening 56b, the latch 344 cooperating with the O-ring 343 provides a sea ed connection. When it is desired to disconnect the assembly 56 and the pumps lltlfl and N4, hydraulic pressure exerted on the pump lit-t causes shearing of shear pin 345 and the latch 344 is moved downwardly on the free end 343 of the member 346 as the pump moves upwardly in the mandrel 9t and the tubing 21.
In HS. 13 a still further modification is provided with a member 350 which is adapted to be attached by a connecting means 351 to the pump li id. Arranged on the member 35% is a latching means 352 having an external shoulder 353. The latching means 35?. in stabbing position is connected to the member 359 by a shear pin 354 with the member 352 enclosing a snap ring 355 which is held thereby in recess 355.
A Fluid-tight seal is provided with a plurality of O-rings 357 arranged in recesses 358. When the assembly 350 is stabbed in the opening 56b of the valve assembly 56, the member 352 holds the spring 355 in the recess 356 being in the down position. However, on engagement of the shoulder 353 with the upper end 560 of the member 56, the member 352 moves upwardly with respect to the member 35% causing shearing of shear pin 354 and releases the snap ring 355 to move out and engage with the interior wall of the member 56.
When the pumps 103 and 194 are to be retrieved, hydraulic pressure exerted thereagainst forces the assembly upwardly and the snap ring 355 is urged into the recess 356, allowing removal and retrieving of the pumps 103 and 1%.
The present invention operates in the following manner with respect to FIG. 1. In this embodiment, a tubing string 21 is run into the casing 12. and run through the packers 19 and 20 to place the port 65 in fluid communication with the interval 34 and to arrange the spacing member 44- so that the valve 46 can take fluid production from the interval 15. After the tubing has been arranged in the well provided with a conduit 41, as shown, the assembly including the flow directing means 29 and the valve member 56 are lowered through the tubing by means of a wire line. The assembly may be lowered together as one unit or may be separately lowered into the well since, as it will be noted, the assembly is made of separate parts with the flow directing means 29 one part and the valve assembly 56 another part. Preferably, however, as described with respect to FIG. 4B, the valve assembly 56 and the flow directing means 29 are lowered together connected by a shear pin 101.
The assembly is seated in the landing nipple 43 and supported, anchored and/or secured on the shoulder 42. It is to be noted that the landing nipple 43 serves to locate the flow directing means 29 so that the side door port 55 is adjacent the bypass 26 to direct flow from the passageway 52 into the bvpass 25. Also it is to be noted that the port 51 in the flow directing means 29 is also arranged adjacent the outlet of bypass 61 so that fiow may be had from the interval 14 through the port 66 and thence by bypass 61 through port 51 and thence by passageway 58 upwardly through the conductor pipe 30. Thereafter the how directing means 23 is lowered on a wire line into the Well or may be pumped in or lubricated in by virtue of being provided with the packers 32 and 33. It is to be noted that the fishing neck 31, the conductor pipe 30 and the flow directing means 28 comprise a unit. In any event, the holddown or connecting means 35 and the seal ng member 36 are stabbed into the passageway '58 of the valve member 56 and the spring members which comprise the holddown means 35 expanding outwardly and serve to mechanically attach the conductor pipe 36 to the valve means 56 and in cooperation with the sealing members 36 form a fluid-tight passageway for fluid, as will be described further hereinafter.
After the conductor pipe 30 and the flow directing means 28 have been located, as has been described, in the mandrel 22 it will be seen that the side door port 39 of the fiow directing means 28 is in fluid communication with the port 40. Thereafter, the Well is brought on production by manipulation of certain valves at the well head or by swabbing the well in to initial production from the intervals 14 and 15. The fiow from the interval 15 is through the perforations 18 into the casing 12 and thence upwardly through the passageway 52 through the port 50 and by way of bypass 26 into the passageway P as indicated by the arrows and thence up the tubing 21 to the earths surface. The flow from interval 14- is through perforations 17 into space 65 through port 66 and thence into space 64 and into bypass 61 and thence into space 62 and following flow through port 51 into passageway 53 up the conductor pipe 3i into the flow directing means 28 and outwardly therefrom by port 39 into and through port as into conduit 41 to the well head. At this point, it is to be pointed out that under some conditions it may be desirable to .omit the conduit 4-]; and let the flow from port 4%) proceed up the annulus 76 or by dispensing with the lower of packers 37 allowing the flow to proceed in the space between the conductor pipe 39 and the mandrel 22. through port 75 into annulus 7%. However, it is to be preferred that the flow proceed through the conduit 4 since this conduit is hereinafter used for providing power fluid when it is necessary to use an artificial lift for production from intervals 14 and 15.
In fact, the provision of apparatus in accordance with FIG. 1 makes use of the mandrel 22. and the internal equipment as has been described for initial flowing of the well preparatory later to putting interval 14 of the well on artificial lift. In this particular embodiment, the arrangement of the mandrel 2'2 and the particular conductor pipe 36 and the flow bypass means 23 and 29 allow production by artificial lift from interval 14. If it is desired to produce artificially from interval 15, subsequent modification of the apparatus of FIG. 1 may be necessary. However, it is considered that such subsequent modification will come within the purview and scope of the present invention.
Referring now to FIG. 2, it will be noted that, as has been described, the assemblies 55 and 29 of FIG. 2 are identical to the assemblies 56 and 29 of FIG. 1. Since these assemblies are arranged in the mandrel 22 in an identical fashion to the arrangement thereof, as has been described in detail with respect to FIG, 1, no further discussion of such lowering or locating of assemblies 56 and 23 will be necessary.
Therefore, this discussion of the operation of FlG. 2 will be confined to the placement of the pump 67 and the operation thereof in conjunction with the valve assembly 5d and the flow directing means 29.
Assuming for the purpose of this description that the valve assembly 56 and flow directing means 25: have been arranged in the mandrel 22 on the landing nipple 43, as has been described, the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 having attached thereto by the end 68 a first fishing neck 71 and a fishing head 72 is lubricated into the tubing 21 and/ or pumped downwardly therein until the hold-down or connecting means 35a is stabbed into the valve assembly or member 56. As with respect to the hold-down or connecting means 35a, the spring members expand outwardly and in cooperation with the O-ring 36a is provided with a fluid-tight connection for fluid to enter the suction of the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67. Thereafter the flow from the interval 15 is identical, as has been described with respect to FIG. 1, and further description thereof need not be made here in the interest of briefness.
However, the flow from the interval 14 is somewhat different by virtue of the artificial lift. The fluid still enters the perforation 17 into space 65 and thence through port 66 into the space 64 and thence upwardly through the by-pass 61 to the space 62 and thence through port 51 into passageway 58 of the valve member 56.
Suction is taken on passageway 58 from the suction of the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 and the fluid is discharged from the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 through ports 74 and then discharged into the port 75 where it comrningles with the power fluid discharged into the port 75 through power fluid discharge port 73. The commingled power and pumped fluid then is discharged through port 75 into annulus 76 and proceeds to the surface of the earth for recovery through the valving arrangement at the well head. Of course, in this embodimenhit is to be noted that the conduit 41 which is used in FIG. 1 for production from the interval 14, is used in this embodiment for providing power fluid for the hydraulically operated subsurface pump, the fluid being introduced through the port 46 and thence into the inlet 69 to the power chamber of pump 67, not shown, but which will be described hereinafter.
The embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2 are quite advantageous in that whenever it is necessary, for example, to place the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 of FIG. 2 in the arrangement of FIG. 1, the conductor pipe 30 and the flow directing means 28 of FIG. 1 may be retrived from the well hydraulically. In this particular instance, reverse flow would be provided by introducing fluid into the annulus 76 and cause this fluid to enter port 75 and be exerted against the flow directing means 28 which will cause same to move to the well head for retrieving from the tubing 21. Likewise, after the assembly of FIG. 1 has been removed from the tubing 21 and the pump 67 has been floated, lubricated or pumped in and then it is desired to remove the pump 67 after production or for servicing, then the same procedure may be used to remove the pump 67 from the mandrel 22 and the tubing 21. Fluid pressure would be placed on the annulus 76 and exerted through port 75 against the exposed surface of the pump 67 which will force same to the well head through the mandrel 22 and the tubing 21. Thereafter, if desired, the assemblies 56 and 29 may also be removed by wire. line fishing tools engaging with the fishing neck 56a of the assembly 56 or with the fishing neck 2% of the flow directing means 29 when the latter is not interconnected with the assembly 56.
It will be seen from this embodiment of the present invention that a well is provided wherein artificial lift is had from one zone or interval while the other zone is producing under natural drive. 7
It may be seen from this particular embodiment of the present invention that the flow directing means and the two standing valves cooperate with the hydraulically operated subsurface pump to provide artificial lift from the one zone while natural lift is being employed for production from the other zone. In other words, there is a unique cooperation between the valve assemblies and the flow directing means and the hydraulically operated subsurface pump.
It is also to be noted that provision has to be made in the embodiment of the nature of FIG. 2 where a fluid-tight connection is provided between the valve assembly 56 and the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67 since otherwise it would not be possible in this particular embodiment to maintain the pump 67 in position since the power fluid is supplied thereto extraneously to the tubing and is would cause the pump 67 to be pumped 01f seat or displaced from pumping position.
In FIG. 3 a still further embodiment of the present invention is provided where only a single packer 88a is employed and production is had from a single zone or interval, such as 15a, the packer 38a isolating the annulus 76 as with respect to the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2..
In this particular embodiment, the flow directing and valve assembly 83 is located in the landing nipple 43 such that flow may be had from the open end of the mandrel 22a into the passageway 87 and such that the port 75 is isolated by the packing means 83a carried by the valve assembly 83 and by the packing means 81 carried by the pump 67.
The pump 67 in this particular instance is floated in and engages with the valve assembly 8 3 as has been described in FIG. 2 with the holding or connecting means 35a and sealing means 36a cooperating to provide a fluid-tight seal. The O-ring 78 carried on the pump 67 serves to isolate the power fluid discharge port 73 from the pumped fluid such that there is no intermingling of power fluid with the pumped fluid and to allow the power fluid discharge to proceed through-a port 78b into the annulus 76 and then to the earths surface.
It is to be noted that the packers 70 isolate the port 4911 and allow fluid to be pumped into the pump 67 from the well head and enter into power inlet passageway 69 into the power chamber in the hydraulically operated subsurface pump 67. The hydrocarbons from zone 15a proceed upwardly into the passageway 87 and into the suction of the pumps 67 and thence outwardly therefrom through discharge ports 74 into the space 82 and thence through the bypass 26a into the passageway P of tubing 21 and to the earths surface. The power fluid discharges into the space 79 through discharge ports 73 and then outwardly therefrom by way of port 78b to the annulus 76 and to the well head as has been mentioned.
It will be seen in this particular embodiment of the invention that the cooperating structure allows the power fluid to be isolated from the pumped fluid. Also this particular structure allows the hydraulically operated subsurface pump to be retrived from the well and this may be accomplished by reverse circulation through the annulus 76 through the port 75 against the exposed surfaces of pump 67 which causes the assembly, including the fishing neck 71, to move upwardly through the tubing for retrieving therefrom. Thereafter the assembly 83 may be 7 retrieved by lowering a wire line fishing tool through the tubing and through mandrel 22a In FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 4C the preferred embodiment is described in which pumps 1% and 104 are interconnected in tandem. Prior to placing the pumps 103 and 104, a mandrel, such. as 90, is provided as part of the tubing string 21. The valve assembly 56a and the flow directing means 29 are arranged in the mandrel 90 in a manner similar to the method employed in FIGS. 1 and 2. In this particular instance, the valve means 56a and the flow directing means 29 are interconnected by a shear pin 161 and the integrated valve and flow directing assemblies are lowered on a wire line until the shoulder 42 becomes supported and/or anchored or secured in the landing nipple 43. Thereafter the pumps 103 and 104 interconnected, as has been shown, are lubricated into the tubing 21 and/ or pumped downwardly into the tubing and into the mandrel 90 until the nose member 108 is stabbed into the opening of valve member 56a. The latching member comprised of dogs 189 pivoted on shear pins 17 be suitably crude oil from one of the producing intervals as will be described.
The power fluid is supplied in parallel to pumps .165 and 1134. Turning to pump 103, the power fiuid enters into the passageway 142 through to lateral conduit 92 and enters port 94 and passes through orifice 144 in the orifice plate 143 and thence through passageway 145 in the eccentric connecting means 134 and thence into power chamber 146. Engine head valve 147 alternately opens and closes the ports 15d and 151 by virtue of its mechanical and hydraulic arrangement on the piston rod 148 and allows the power fluid to be exerted against the piston 149. As fluid is exerted against the piston 149 through bypass 146a, the piston 149 moves downwardly in the chamber 146 and the fluid below piston 149 is then passed through bypass 152 and port 151 and thence through passageway 15% and outwardly into the annulus 76 through port 1421b.
Movement downwardly of the piston 149 causes a corresponding downward movement of piston 154 which forces fluid outwardly from chamber 153 into passageway 127 and through port 126 between the O-ring 157 and the packing 157:: which causes the pumped fluid to proceed into bypass 9S and thence into passageway P of tubing 21 to the earths surface. Meanwhile, the fluid by downward stroke of the piston 154 is being drawn into the chamber 153 through passageway 12? and forms the suction for the pump 163. The fluid enters into the pump 163 through passageway 167a in the head member 115 of pump 10-1 and thence through passageway 1%7 into the lower portion of the pump and thence through passageway 12% into chamber 153, the fluid being drawn into port 1117:: from bypass 59 which connects into side port of flow directing means 29 which, in turn communicates with the lower productive interval 15 through pipe 44 and valve 46.
Power fluid is delivered to pump 194 from conduit 91 and lateral conduit 93 into port 95 and thence into inlet 69 through orifice 114 in orifice plate 113 into chamber 117. The position of the engine head valve 118 allows the fluid to flow through bypass 117a into the upper portion of the chamber 117 and to be exerted against the power piston 12%. The power fluid of piston 129 in chamber 117 is forced through bypass 126a through port 125 and thence through port 124 into the space 116a be tv een packer 116 and packer Movement downwardly of power piston 12% causes a corresponding downward movement of the piston 121 which serves to force fluid in chamber 122 through passageway 127 and through port 125 into space 116a where it commingles with the power fluid from chamber 117.
The downward movement of piston 1'21 causes fiuid to be drawn into chamber 122. through passageway 125 by way of inlet port 129:: which is in fluid communication with the passageway 53 in valve 59 through port 51 into the space 62 and which is supplied through bypass 1 1 3 from space 64 which communicates through port 66 by way of perforations 17 with the interval 14. Thus fluid is drawn from the interval 14, proceeds through perforations 17 and is directed from port 65 into space 64 through bypass 1619 into space 62 and thence by way of port 51 into passageway 58 upwardly into the pump 1% as has been described.
The pumped and power fluids from pump 164 are then discharged into the annulus 76 through port 75 and proceed to the earths surface for recovery.
When it is desired to retrieve the pumps 1% and 1%, pressure may be placed on the annulus 76 and forced against the exposed surfaces or" pump 1M which will cause release of the latching arrangement on nose assembly 158 and disconnect the pumps 103 and 154 therefrom. The pressure by virtue of the several packing arrangements will force the pumps to the earths surface for retrieving same.
In this respect, it must be pointed out that the standing valve members, such as 46 and 59, perform a unique and distinct plural service in that when pressure is applied for retrieving the pumps through ports 75, this pressure is prevented from coming into contact with the intervals 14- and 16. The pressure cannot be applied against the interval 14- since the valve 59 is forced against the seat 611 by the pressure provided through port 75. The pres sure cannot be applied against the interval 15 because fluid pressure would be exerted against the valve 46 forcing it against the seat 47. Once the pump 104 passes the bypass 99, the fiuid pressure is caused to pass downwardly through the bypass and close the valve 46. Thereafter the assemblies 56 and 29 may be retrieved as has been described. The operation of the device of P168. 4D and 4E quite similar to the operation of the preceding embodiments. In this embodiment, however, provision is made for pumping from the interval 14 while producing naturally from the interval 15 and further provision is made that when interval 15 will no longer produce naturally it may be produced artificially. Flow is had from interval 15 through the perforations 18 and up through the passageway 52. as has been described and thence by way of passageway 99 and thence by way or" space 5% into bypass 98 which connects into the passageway of the tubing 21 and thence to the earths surface as has been described. The artificial flow from interval 14 is through the perforations 17 and thence by way of port 66 into the space 64- through bypass 61 to space 62 and thence by' way of ports 51 into passageway 58 and upwardly into the suction of the pump 1134 as has been described.
When the natural production from interval 15 is no longer economical, the whole assembly may be retrieved by imposing fluid pressure from the annulus 7s through the port on to the lower end of pump 16% which will cause the assembly to be pumped to the surface and retrieved and allow pump 163 to be connected to pump 1134 by head 115. Thereafter the operation will be as has been described.
It is to be understood that many modifications of the embodiment of FIGS. 49 and 45 are possible. For example, instead of employing pump 1M and a flow tube or conductor pipe 313a, pump 1113 may be provided with a conductor pipe 3% to produce artificially from the interval 15 and naturally from the interval 14. Of course, it will be understood that some variations in the flow passageways may be necessary for this alternate embodiment.
Also it is to be understood that natural production may be had from intervals 14 and 15 by providing an assembly similar to that described in 516. 1 using a mandrel, such as 22, to allow subsequent use of artificial means for producing from intervals 14 and 15.
The mode of operation of the embodiment of FIGS. 5 and 5A is similar to the mode of the preceding embodiments. The operating details of pumps M3 and 1134 are identical to that described with respect to FIGS. 4A, 4B and 4C. In this particular embodiment, the power fluid is supplied to the pump 1213 and the pump 1&4 through the common conduit 181. Instead of a bypass passageway, a bypass conduit 177 is provided for taking fluid from the interval 15 into the pump 153 and likewise the bypass 143-9 of the preceding figures has been illustrated by providing a different form of flow directing means, such as 169. In this embodiment of the invention, the assembly 164 containing the flow directing means 169 is lowered on a wire line and arranged in the landing nipple 173 and supported by shoulder or securing means 174. The pumps 153 and 194 are then lubricated and/or pumped downwardly until the engaging means, such as illustrated with respect to FIGS. 4A and 4B, engages with the assembly 164 as is shown. Suction is taken from the interval 15 through the valve 167 and through passageway 171 and then through bypass conduit 177 to the space between the packers 178 and 178a communicating with the inlet 139a of the pump 1'63.
. 19 The pumped fluid from pump 103 discharges by ports 126 into the space 179a between the packers 178 and 179 and thence by way of conduit 187 to the passageway P in tubing 21.
The fluid from interval 14 enters into the passageway 170 and proceeds upwardly through assembly 164 through valve 165 and thence into the suction of pump 104 being discharged through discharge port 126 into a space 176a through port 189 and thence by way of conduit 188 to the earths surface. Of course, the power fluid, as has been described, is introduced into the pumps 103 and 104 as is shown and is discharged therefrom, respectively, by discharge ports 150 and 124. The fluid from pump 103 discharges into the annulus 76 by port 191 while the fluid from pump 104 discharges into the annulus 76 by port 192 and proceeds thereby to the earths surface.
To retrieve the pumps 103 and 104 from the tubing in this embodiment, fluid is pumped down the conduit 188 and exerted against the exposed surfaces of pump 104 which forces the two interconnected pumps to the earths surface through tubing 21 for retrieving same.
The assembly 164 may be removed from the tubing by a wire line fishing tool as has been described with respect to the other embodiments. In this particular embodiment and mode of operation, it will be seen that each of the fluids is separated from the other and the power fluid is separated from the pump fluids.
The mode of operation of FIGS. 6 and 6A is similar to that of the preceding figures in that the shoe 216 is also run in integrally with the tubing and made up therewith. The seating member 217 and the pipe 219 are run in on wire line and seated in the shoe. Thereafter the pumps 103 and 104 interconnected as shown are pumped in or lubricated into the well to seat in the seating member 217.
In this particular embodiment, a mechanical connection between the pump 104 and the seating member 217 is not provided because the hydraulic fluid for operating the hydraulically operated subsurface pump is supplied through the tubing and this pressure serves to hold the pumps 103 and 104 on the seating member 217.
It is to be noted that a standing valve 214 is provided in the bypass conduit 212 which supplies suction to the pump 104. This bypass valve may be arranged elsewhere as has been described and made removable or retrievable.
The operation of the two pumps is similar to the previous embodiments with the flow being shown as indicated by the arrows. When the pumps need servicing or have to be removed for other reasons, fluid pressure is exerted through the conduit 229 against the exposed surfaces of pump 104 which forces the two pumps to the surface through the tubing 21. The seating member 217 and pipe 219 may then be retrieved by wire line. Common to the other embodiments of the present invention, this embodiment may be dimensioned to provide a full opening tubing, as shown more clearly in FIG. 5, and also provides two interconnected free pumps arranged in tandem in a single tubing string which heretofore had not been possible. In other words, this particular embodiment of the present invention has all the advantages of the previous embodiments.
The mode of operation for the embodiment of FIGS. 7 and'7A is substantially the same as the previous embodiments with the exception that a gas bleed for the oil produced from the upper zone 14 is taken in the annulus 76.
This allows the pump 103 to operate more efl'iciently since only one packer is employed. This is by virtue of the particular arrangement of conduits and the flow directing means used embodied in shoe 254. In this instance, the pumps 103 and 104 interconnected as shown are pumped in or lubricated into the tubing 21'and seated on the seating element 255 to form a metal to metal or other seal as indicated. The sealing member 260 serves to close off the passageway between the pipe 256 and the shoe 254. Fluid from the lower interval proceeds through the valve 257 into the suction of pump 104. The pumped fluid discharge therefrom through discharge port 126 and then proceeds downwardly through the space 26611 which is in communication with conduit 261 and is forced to the earths surface.
The suction for pump 103 is from the annulus 76 which is in communication with the interval 14 by way of port 264. The fluid is discharged through discharge port 126 of pump 103 and thence into space 2650: and by way of lateral conduit 252 into conduit 251 to the earths surface.
The power oil discharge port of pump 103 communicates with a space 265a and allows the commingling of the power fluid from pump 103 with the pumped fluid from pump 103 while the discharged power fluid from pump 104 also discharges into lateral conduit 253 and thence into conduit 251 and commingles therewith When the pumps 103 and 104 are to be retrieved or serviced, fluid pressure is placed on conduit 261 which forces the pumps 104 and 103 to the surface. The other member 255 and its associated elements may then be retrieved by wire line fishing tools again leaving full open= ing tubing for other operations.
The embodiment of FIGS. 8 and 8A is somewhat similar to that of FIGS. 7 and 7A in that a gas bleed is provided from the annulus 76 for production from the upper interval 14 which allows more eflicient functioning of the pump 104. In this particular instance, however, pump 103 serves the lower zone while pump 104 takes suction on the upper zone 14. Like in the other embodi ments, the assemblies 56 and 29 are located on the landing nipple 43 and thereafter the pumps 104 and 103 are V lubricated and/ or pumped in and interconnected with the assembly 56 by means of engaging or holding means 35a and the seal 36a to provide a fluid connection.
Power fluid is supplied to the pumps 103 and 104 through the common conduit 91 and the operation of pumps 103 and 104 is as has been described. The fluid from interval 14 proceeds through the perforations 17 into the annulus 76 and thence through the port 304 and through port 51 into the passageway 58 and thence into pump 104, the discharge being through the discharge passageways 126 which communicates with the conduit 301 and takes the fluid to the earths surface. The power fluid from pump 104 commingles with the pumped fluid and is likewise discharged to the earths surface through conduit 301 as shown. The fluid from interval 15 proceeds up through the valve 46 and passageway 50 and thence by bypass99 into the inlet of pump 103, the discharge from ports of pump 103 and then by bypass 98 into passageway P of tubing 21. It is to be noted that the only difference between FIGS. 4A, 4B, and 4C and FIGS. 8 and 8A is the provision of the additional conduit 301 to take the combined effluent of power fluid from pumps 104 and 103 and production fluid from pump 104 and also a gas bleed for the interval 14 fluid in the annulus 76 is provided. The reversal of the subsurface hydraulic engines are actuated hydraulically. The means of actuation are not shown on the schematic drawings. As an example of the operation, reference is made to engine valve 147 of FIG. 4A. Reversal at the end of the downstroke of piston 149 occurs when a port is opened, which allows high pressure to be applied to a differential area on engine valve 147. This shifts the engine valve to an 2i ports in the piston rod 148 pass into the engine valve and allow pressure on the underside of the engine valve to be released. This results in the engine valve being shifted to a downward position whereby flow i power fluid is diverted to the upper side of piston 149.
The particular embodiment of FIGS. 8 and SA has been used successfully in commercial production of hydrocarbons from vertically displaced productive intervals. In other words, the pumps 1% and 1.04 or the equivalent thereof have been used in a spaced apart interconnected relationship and in a common tubing string freely movable therethrough to pump crude petroleum from two zones which heretofore has required a plurality of tubing strings or separate wells. This is an important advance in the pumping of fluids hydraulically from subsurface formations using hydraulically operated subsurface pumps. A full opening tubing is provided, the pumps are retrievable and retrieved hydraulically from the common tubing, round trips of running in tubing is unnecessary, and provision is made for well servicing operation employing the permanent well completion technique which has been referred to and described briefly supra.
The nature and objects of the present invention having been completely described and illustrated, what we wish to claim as new and useful and to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Apparatus for producing fluids from a borehole penetrating a plurality of productive zones having a casing arranged therein, said casing having tubing arranged therein forming a tubing-casing annulus and being perforated adjacent two of said zones comprising: a hydraulic pump assembly arranged in said tubing, said pump assembly including power means adapted to receive and discharge power fluid and at least one pump means adapted to receive and discharge well fluid, said pump assembly being lowerable and retrievable through said tubing; power fluid means fluidly communicating with said power means; flow directing means arranged in said tubing below said pump assembly, said flow directing means being lowerable and retrievable through said tubing separately from said pump assembly; packing means positioned in said casing-tubing annulus between said two zones adapted to prevent fluid flow therethrough, said tubing being provided with ports and passageways cooperating with said flow directing means to fluidly communicate one of said zones with said pump means; and releasable hold-down means adapted to restrain movement of said pump assembly provided on said pump assembly and interconnecting said pump assembly and said flow directing means.
2. A device as recited in claim 1 including valve means positioned in said flow directin means adapted to permit fluid flow to said pump means and to prevent fluid flow to said zones.
3. Apparatus for pumping production fluids from a cased borehole penetrating two subsurface zones contain ing production fluids and being perforated adjacent sai' zones, said casing having tubing arranged in it forming thereby a tubing-casing annulus comprising: a hydraulic pump assembly which includes pump power means and first and second pump means arranged in said tubing, said power means receiving and discharging power fluid from and to, respectively, the earths surface to operate said pump means; flow directing means including seals arranged on said tubing for directing production fluid from one zone only to said first pump means and production fluid from said other zone only to said second pump means in order to pump each zone independently; means including a first pipe arranged in said casing forming an isolated power fluid passageway for independently conveying power fluids mm the earths surface to said po yer means; means for directing production fluid discharged from said first pump means and discharged power fluids to said tubingsca-sing annulus, said tubin -casing annulus forming an isolated fluid passageway for independently conveying said production fluid discharged from said first pump means and said discharged power fluids to the earths surface; means forming together with said tubing an isolated fl= 'd geway for independently conveying production fluid discharged from said second pump means to the earths surface.
4. Apparatus for producing fluids from a borehole penetrating a plurality of productive Zones having a casing arranged therein, said casing having a tubing arranged therein forming a tubing-casing annulus and being perforated adjacent two of the zones, comprising a hydraulic pump assembly arranged in said tubing, said pump assembly including power means adapted to receive and discharge power fluid and two spaced-apart pump means each adapted to receive and discharge Well fluids, said pump assembly being lowerable and retrievable through said tubing, common power fluid means fluidly communicating with said power means, flow directing means arranged in said tubing, said flow directing means being lowerable and retrievable through said tubing separate from said pump assembly, first packing means positioned in said casing-tubing annulus between said two zones adapted to prevent fluid flow thcrethrough, second packing means positioned in said casing-tubing annulus above the uppermost of said two zones and below said pump assembly adapted to prevent fluid flow therethrough, said tubing being provided with ports and passageways cooperating with said flow directing means tofluidly communicate one of said zones with one of said pump means and the other of said zones with the other of said pump means and releasable hold-down means provided on said pump assembly at the lower end thereof adapted to restrain movement of said pump assembly.
5. A device as recited in claim 4- wherein said releasable holddown means interconnects said pump assembly and said flow directing means.
6. A device as recited in claim 5 including valve means positioned in said flow directin means adapted to permit fluid flow from said zones to said pump means and to prevent fluid flow from said pump means to said zones.
7. A device as recited in claim 6 wherein said releasable hold-down means includes pivotally mounted springbiased dogs.
8. A device as recited in claim 6 wherein said releasable hold-down means includes flexible spring arms provided with severable latch plates.
9. A device as recited in claim 6 wherein said holddown means includes shear pin and a snap ring.
it). A device :as recited in claim 6 wherein said releasable hcld-down means includes a slidable sleeve and a snap rin ll. Apparatus for producing fluids from a borehole pen trating a plurality of productive zones having a casing arranged therein, said casing having a tubin arranged the-rein and being perforated adjacent two of said zones, comprising a hydraulic pump assembly arranged in said tubing, said pump assembly including power means adapted to receive and discharge power fluid and two spaced-apart pump means adapted to receive and discharge well fluids, said pump assembly being lowerable and rctrievable through said tubing, power fluid means fluidly communicating with said power means, flow directing means arranged in said tubing adjacent said two zones, said flow directing means being lcwerable and retrievable through said tubing separate from said pump assembly, first packing means positioned in said casing-tubing annulus between said two zones adapted to prevent fluid flow therethrough, second packing means positioned in said casing-tubing annulus above the uppermost of said two zones and below said pump assembly adapted to prevent fluid flow there trough, said tubing being provided with ports and passageways cooperating with said flow directing means to fluidly communicate one of said zones with one of said pump means and the other of said zones with the ether of said pump means.
References Cited in th file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Coberly Mar. 7, 1950 24 Hoffer Sept. 19, 1950 Coberly Sept. 18, 1951 Coberly Mar. 18, 1952 Coberly Mar. 18, 1952 Davis et a1. Aug. 5, 1952 Morris et a1 "June 23, 1953 Hofier Feb. 9, 1954 Coberly Apr. 27, 1954 Deitrickson June 11, 1957 Kangas July 16, 1957 Coberly Feb. 11, 1958
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Cited By (12)

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US3159105A (en) * 1962-10-12 1964-12-01 United States Steel Corp Hydraulic pumping unit
US3170520A (en) * 1962-08-28 1965-02-23 Reda Pump Company Dual-flow transfer assembly
US3302721A (en) * 1964-02-28 1967-02-07 Shell Oil Co Dual zone completion system with special valve
US3326292A (en) * 1964-12-07 1967-06-20 Otis Eng Co Multiple string well pumping system and apparatus
US3326290A (en) * 1965-02-01 1967-06-20 Kobe Inc Multiple zone well completion with separate inlet tubings and a common production tubing
US3357492A (en) * 1965-12-21 1967-12-12 Texaco Inc Well completion apparatus
US3363693A (en) * 1965-10-18 1968-01-16 Exxon Production Research Co Servicing a plurality of well tubings
US3410221A (en) * 1966-11-14 1968-11-12 Leo T. Erck Pressure pump device
US3509941A (en) * 1968-04-22 1970-05-05 Baker Oil Tools Inc Confluent production apparatus
US3973630A (en) * 1975-05-22 1976-08-10 Seaboard Oil & Gas Co. Wash-out tool and method of use thereof
US4268227A (en) * 1979-06-11 1981-05-19 Roeder George K Downhole, hydraulically-actuated pump and cavity having closed power fluid flow
US6325143B1 (en) * 1999-01-04 2001-12-04 Camco International, Inc. Dual electric submergible pumping system installation to simultaneously move fluid with respect to two or more subterranean zones

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US3170520A (en) * 1962-08-28 1965-02-23 Reda Pump Company Dual-flow transfer assembly
US3159105A (en) * 1962-10-12 1964-12-01 United States Steel Corp Hydraulic pumping unit
US3302721A (en) * 1964-02-28 1967-02-07 Shell Oil Co Dual zone completion system with special valve
US3326292A (en) * 1964-12-07 1967-06-20 Otis Eng Co Multiple string well pumping system and apparatus
US3326290A (en) * 1965-02-01 1967-06-20 Kobe Inc Multiple zone well completion with separate inlet tubings and a common production tubing
US3363693A (en) * 1965-10-18 1968-01-16 Exxon Production Research Co Servicing a plurality of well tubings
US3357492A (en) * 1965-12-21 1967-12-12 Texaco Inc Well completion apparatus
US3410221A (en) * 1966-11-14 1968-11-12 Leo T. Erck Pressure pump device
US3509941A (en) * 1968-04-22 1970-05-05 Baker Oil Tools Inc Confluent production apparatus
US3973630A (en) * 1975-05-22 1976-08-10 Seaboard Oil & Gas Co. Wash-out tool and method of use thereof
US4268227A (en) * 1979-06-11 1981-05-19 Roeder George K Downhole, hydraulically-actuated pump and cavity having closed power fluid flow
US6325143B1 (en) * 1999-01-04 2001-12-04 Camco International, Inc. Dual electric submergible pumping system installation to simultaneously move fluid with respect to two or more subterranean zones

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