US3038120A - Electronic transistorized metronome - Google Patents

Electronic transistorized metronome Download PDF

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US3038120A
US3038120A US83485359A US3038120A US 3038120 A US3038120 A US 3038120A US 83485359 A US83485359 A US 83485359A US 3038120 A US3038120 A US 3038120A
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metronome
transistor
transistorized
circuit
connected
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Malcolm E Bernstein
Harold L Rodman
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Malcolm E Bernstein
Harold L Rodman
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G04HOROLOGY
    • G04CELECTROMECHANICAL CLOCKS OR WATCHES
    • G04C21/00Producing acoustic time signals by electrical means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G04HOROLOGY
    • G04FTIME-INTERVAL MEASURING
    • G04F5/00Apparatus for producing preselected time intervals for use as timing standards
    • G04F5/02Metronomes
    • G04F5/025Electronic metronomes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03KPULSE TECHNIQUE
    • H03K17/00Electronic switching or gating, i.e. not by contact-making or -braking
    • H03K17/28Modifications for introducing a time delay before switching

Description

June 5, 1962 Y M. E. BERNSTEIN ET AL 3,038,120

ELECTRONIC TRANSISTORIZED METRONOME Filed Aug. 19, 1959 Ma/ca/m E. Bernstein Harold L. Rodman JNVENTORz? ATTORNEY United States Patent Filed Aug. 19, 1959, Ser. No. 834,853 4 Claims. Cl. 32468) This invention relates generally to educational apparatus, and more particularly it pertains to an electronic transitorized metronome device which can be utilized in the training of speakers.

In order to present a talk or idea-implanting speech with force and conviction, it is well-known that proper delivery of the speech by a speaker is of the essence. Only spoken lines having rhythmic flow, intonation or inflection in proper timing can be interest-rousing to an audience. The projection of the personality of the speaker and his idea or product is mainly through his speech and therewith his ability to gain or lose the attention of the listening audience. A speaker may have the problem of too rapid speech, which results in anxiety or lack of comprehension on the part of the listening audience. On the other hand, a slow, bland delivery results in loss of interest by the listening audience. In addition, the speaker may have the problem of not being able to speak con tinuously over a period of time.

The present invention is, therefore, an improvement on the apparatus shown in a co-pending US. patent application of Malcolm E. Bernstein entitled Metronome Audiometer, Serial Number 799,601, filed March 16, 1959, and now abandoned, in which there is disclosed an educational instrument for training a speaker in voice inflection and intensity, and in which regulation of speech cadence as well as speech intensity is accomplished by the speaker comparing his delivery in a visual and audible manner with an adjustable metronome and sound intensity arrangement.

It is most important for anyone delivering a talk or speech to phonate immediately without any additional control of the breath, discomfort, or warm-up. Most untrained speakers are nervous and very apprehensive because they cannot control or beautifully deliver lines in a speech at all times and under all circumstances. The apparatus of the present invention can be used to achieve full phonation of a speaker.

It is well-known that humming by a performer immediately causes the vocal chords to be put into action and emit sound. However, once the performer has gotten to the focal point through the hum, immediate speech is a natural follow-up. In brief, humming, speaking, and singing, all must have instant sound, without pausing for additional breath, because once the performer has arrived at a point to deliver sound, he is immediately ready to carry through the motion of speech without any additional physical or mental gymnastics.

It is also to be pointed out that through the hum, immediate speech of the performer is more sonorous and controlled. The performer from that point can increase intensities volume-wise and without moving a muscle, decrease volume to a whisper and still retain the intensities. As a voice builder and a breath builder which without question is the key to understanding delivery of the spoken word, thoughts can be measured and weighed to communicate the real meaning.

A performer, delivering lines based on his own innate lung power, has abilities which vary from live (5) to ten seconds to as much as ten (10) to fifteen seconds. Thus, without full realization of just how long fifteen seconds is in speaking, the performer often throws himself into panic when he realizes that he is gasping for breath, and as a result breaks continuity of speech.

3,038,120 Patented June 5, 1962 In the electronic transitorized metronome of the present invention, the sound of the beat of the metronome gives the sensation of pulse and consequently acquaints the student with the rapidity or slowness of his speech. Through this, the student senses the proper speed for efiective speaking or communication of the thought he wishes to convey to the listening audience.

It is, therefore, a principal object of this invention to provide an electronic transistorized metronome which can be utilized to give audible or visual indications of heat or both simultaneously.

Another object of this invention is to provide an electronic transistorized metronome circuit arrangement which can be utilized for training speakers in continuous voice inflection and maintaining continuity for the spoken phrase.

Another object of this invention is to provide an electronic transistorized metronome which is economical to manufacture, easy to maintain, and which is an effective and eihcient educational instrument for use in training persons in speech delivery.

Other objects and advantages of this invention will become more apparent from the following specification and accompanying drawing which is a schematic diagram of an electronic transistorized metronome incorporating features of this invention.

Referring now to the drawing, there is schematically depicted a transistorized metronome circuit which can be used to give audible or visual indications or both simultaneously. This circuit includes a first transistor 10, together with an associated transformer, capacitor, resistor, and battery components comprising a blocking oscillator arrangement.

To understand this first transistor portion of the metronome circuit, let there temporarily be considered a common point A as the electrical return of the positive side of a battery 18. This common point A is also the connection to the emitter E of the transistor 10, and the terminal S of the secondary coil S of a transformer 12.

The negative side of the battery 18 is connected to a terminal P of the primary coil P of the transformer 12. The other terminal P of primary coil P is connected to the collector C of the transistor 10. The other terminal S of the secondary coil S is connected through a capacitor 14 to the base B of the transistor 10 which additionally connects to a resistor 16.

The resistor 16 is serially connected to a variable resister 15 in the circuit to form a bias path from the base B of the transistor 10 to the negative side of the battery 18. Current from the battery flows through the primary coil P of the transformer 12 to the collector C of transistor 10. This current induces a voltage in the secondary coil S of the transformer 12 which causes the capacitor 14 to charge rapidly through the base-emitter circuit B--E.

As capacitor 14 starts to charge, the base current change in the transistor 10 causes the collector current to increase, thereby cumulatively increasing the secondary voltage. Both base and collector currents of the transistor 10 are brought to a peak when capacitor 14 is fully charged. As the voltage thereacross approaches a maximum, the charging current starts to decrease. This causes the base and collector currents of the transistor 10 to drop. The drop in collector current reverses the polarity of the voltage induced in the secondary coil S of transformer 12.

Since the conductivity of base-emitter circuit BE is unidirectional, the capacitor 14 can only discharge through resistors 15 and 16. The resulting waveform is an abrupt pulse of current somewhat fiat-topped, followed by a relatively long period of practically no current flow with the repetition time determined by the resistancecapacitance product of resistors and 16, totalized, and capacitor 14. This wave form is suitable for driving a loud speaker in metronome service. The loud speaker 20 is shown connected to taps T and T of the secondary coil S of the transformer 12 for this purpose.

In the current path from point A to the positive side of battery 18, there is now to be considered the basecollector circuit B C of an emitter-follower connected second transistor 22. A bias resistor 24 from emitter E to base B of the second transistor 22 limits the current in its emitter-collector circuit E --C to a low value. Under these conditions a battery 26 will not light a serially connected incandescent lamp 28 when connected to the emitter E and collector C of transistor 22 as shown.

With each pulse of the blocking-oscillator connected first transistor 10, a pulse of current flows as related between its collector C and emitter E. This current returns through battery 18 and the collector-base circuit C B of the second transistor 22 to common point A and causes a large increase in the emitter-to-collector current from battery 26. Consequently, the lamp 28 flashes in unison with the pulsing of the first transistor 10 and with the pulse clicks emanating from the speaker 2.0.

If it is desired to operate the metronome circuit visually indicated only or audibly indicated only, a twopole three-position switch 30 may be connected so that one pole SW1 thereof, is in circuit with the loudspeaker 20 and the other pole SW2 is in circuit with the lamp 28. In the center position, as shown, for the switch poles SW1 and SW2 of switch 30 both the speaker 20 and lamp 28 are in circuit.

In the right throw position of the switch 30, the circuit to lamp 28 is opened but the speaker remains connected. In the left throw position from center, the switch 30 disconnects the speaker 20 but completes the lamp circuiting.

To avoid an impedance charge in the discharge circuit of capacitor 14 and a resulting undesirable repetition rate change of the pulsing when the speaker 20 is switched out, a compensatory resistor 32 in place thereof is switched in, if desired.

The metronome may be turned on or off by opening 4 the circuits for the batteries 18 and 26 with a double pole switch 34. Switch 36 is preferably linked to a variable arm 36 which by changing the resistance value of resistor 15 alters the discharge rate of capacitor 14. Thus, the same control knob can alter the metronome beat time as desired.

Obviously, many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is, therefore, to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.

What is claimed is:

l. A transistorized metronome device for producing observations audible or visual or both simultaneously, comprising, a circuit including a transistorized blocking oscillator having a transformer for producing periodic pulses, a first power supply connected thereto, an emitterfollower connected transistor coupled to said transistorized blocking oscillator, a second power supply connected to said emitter-follower connected transistor, a loudspeaker connected to the output of said transformer for audible observations of said periodic impulses, a signal type incandescent lamp connected to the output of said emitter-follower connected transistor for visual observation of said periodic impulses, and means for electrically switching said outputs from said transistorized blocking oscillator and said emitter-follower connected transistor for audible observations alone, or visual observations alone, or both together simultaneously.

2. A transistorized metronome device as recited in claim 1, wherein said power supplies are of the low voltage type.

3. A transistorized metronome device as recited in claim 1, and means for adjusting the period of said periodic impulses.

4. A transistorized metronome device as recited in claim 1, and means for compensating for change in the period of said periodic impulses upon switching from audible observations to visual observations alone.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,522,492 Andersen Sept. 19, 1950

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3263551A (en) * 1965-05-07 1966-08-02 Clair O Musser Electronic metronome
US3271670A (en) * 1962-04-02 1966-09-06 Connecticut Technical Corp Electronic beat producing device
US3643540A (en) * 1970-07-21 1972-02-22 Milton M Rosenstock Apparatus, including electronic equipment for providing a tonal structure for the metronomic divisions of musical time
US3691896A (en) * 1971-12-29 1972-09-19 Tele Conn Enterprises Inc Metronome
US3789402A (en) * 1971-04-01 1974-01-29 R Heywood Electronic signal device and method
US4018131A (en) * 1975-05-27 1977-04-19 Cannon Robert L Electronic metronome
US4052799A (en) * 1975-03-25 1977-10-11 Journot Vida M Manually indexed visual test recording apparatus
US4078319A (en) * 1976-03-12 1978-03-14 Mazeski Conrad A Apparatus and method for teaching reading
US4195292A (en) * 1978-03-09 1980-03-25 Puhich Joseph M Programmable bobbin thread detector
US5007838A (en) * 1990-02-20 1991-04-16 American Business Seminars, Inc. Tactile enhancement method for progressively optimized reading
US5061185A (en) * 1990-02-20 1991-10-29 American Business Seminars, Inc. Tactile enhancement method for progressively optimized reading
US5083924A (en) * 1990-02-20 1992-01-28 American Business Seminars, Inc. Tactile enhancement method for progressively optimized reading
US5402188A (en) * 1992-08-17 1995-03-28 Wayne; Thomas R. Athletic pacing goggles

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2522492A (en) * 1946-05-29 1950-09-19 Crystal Res Lab Inc Electronic metronome

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2522492A (en) * 1946-05-29 1950-09-19 Crystal Res Lab Inc Electronic metronome

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3271670A (en) * 1962-04-02 1966-09-06 Connecticut Technical Corp Electronic beat producing device
US3263551A (en) * 1965-05-07 1966-08-02 Clair O Musser Electronic metronome
US3643540A (en) * 1970-07-21 1972-02-22 Milton M Rosenstock Apparatus, including electronic equipment for providing a tonal structure for the metronomic divisions of musical time
US3789402A (en) * 1971-04-01 1974-01-29 R Heywood Electronic signal device and method
US3691896A (en) * 1971-12-29 1972-09-19 Tele Conn Enterprises Inc Metronome
US4052799A (en) * 1975-03-25 1977-10-11 Journot Vida M Manually indexed visual test recording apparatus
US4018131A (en) * 1975-05-27 1977-04-19 Cannon Robert L Electronic metronome
US4078319A (en) * 1976-03-12 1978-03-14 Mazeski Conrad A Apparatus and method for teaching reading
US4195292A (en) * 1978-03-09 1980-03-25 Puhich Joseph M Programmable bobbin thread detector
US5007838A (en) * 1990-02-20 1991-04-16 American Business Seminars, Inc. Tactile enhancement method for progressively optimized reading
US5061185A (en) * 1990-02-20 1991-10-29 American Business Seminars, Inc. Tactile enhancement method for progressively optimized reading
US5083924A (en) * 1990-02-20 1992-01-28 American Business Seminars, Inc. Tactile enhancement method for progressively optimized reading
US5402188A (en) * 1992-08-17 1995-03-28 Wayne; Thomas R. Athletic pacing goggles

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