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Fire detection apparatus

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Publication number
US3017513A
US3017513A US84528059A US3017513A US 3017513 A US3017513 A US 3017513A US 84528059 A US84528059 A US 84528059A US 3017513 A US3017513 A US 3017513A
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Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
detector
fire
apparatus
barrel
means
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Stephen J Messelt
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Perkin-Elmer Corp
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Perkin-Elmer Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/0205Mechanical elements; Supports for optical elements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/0265Handheld, portable
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/04Casings Mountings
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/08Optical features
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J5/00Radiation pyrometry
    • G01J5/02Details
    • G01J5/08Optical features
    • G01J5/0803Optical elements not provided otherwise, e.g. optical manifolds, gratings, holograms, cubic beamsplitters, prisms, particular coatings
    • G01J5/0806Optical elements not provided otherwise, e.g. optical manifolds, gratings, holograms, cubic beamsplitters, prisms, particular coatings using focussing or collimating elements, e.g. lenses or mirrors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B17/00Fire alarms; Alarms responsive to explosion
    • G08B17/12Actuation by presence of radiation or particles, e.g. of infra-red radiation or of ions

Description

Jan. 16, 1962 s. J. MESSELT 3,017,

FIRE DETECTION APPARATUS Filed Oct. 8, 1959 INVENTOR.

j STEPHEN J. MESSELT mm tatcs 3,0175% Patented Jan. 16, .1952

Free

ration of New York Filed Oct. 8, 1959, Ser. No. 845,280

1 Claim. (Cl. 250-83.3)

This invention relates to fire detection systems and, more particularly, to a portable, infra-red fire detection apparatus.

Many scientific advances have been made in the field of fire fighting in the past few years. Many of these advances are at least partially nullified, however, by the difficulty of pin-pointing the exact location of hidden blazes. Smoke is one of the major problems of all fire fighters. Smoke fills a building in a matter of moments, obscuring the fire. Not only can the blaze continue its destructive course behind the obscuring screen but extensive water damage may be done in the necessary effort to reach all possible points of combustion.

Furthermore, even the apparent extinguishment of a fire may not result in its eradication. Unseen blazes often remain within walls and partitions. There is little visible indication of the existence of such fires. A fireman may use his hand to locate hot spots on a wall but this is a slow and time consuming procedure. Fires within wall spaces are notoriously rapid spreading. Air spaces act like flues in spreading the blaze from floor to floor.

It will be readily appreciated that firemen investigating burning buildings, carrying protective equipment, working under all sorts of weather conditions and in all types of structures, cannot be burdened with heavy, cumbersome equipment. This is particularly true when haste is imperative.

It is, therefore, the primary object of the present invention to provide a fire detection apparatus.

Other objects of this invention are to provide such an apparatus sensitive to infra-red radiation; having a selfcontained power supply; portable and easy to handle by one man; fast acting and reliable; and rugged and adaptable to operation under severe conditions.

The above objects are achieved by providing fire detection apparatus including focusing means adapted to receive and focus radiation from an inspected area and a detector positioned at substantially the focal point of the focusing means. The detector is part of an electronic circuit designed to produce an electrical signal responsive to the radiation. Indicating means are also provided responsive to the electrical signal to disclose the presence of fire in an inspected area.

The manner in which the above objects are attained will be more apparent from the following description taken together with the figures of the attached drawing, wherein FIG. 1 is a sectional elevational view of a detection apparatus of the invention; and

FIG. 2 is a schematic block diagram of a circuit usable in the present invention.

The apparatus of FIG. 1 includes a tubular barrel member which may be constructed of metal or other suitable material. A pistol grip 12 is provided to afford the user a positive, comfortable grip. A window 14 is enclosed within the barrel near its open end. A paraboloidal mirror 16 is positioned within the barrel to receive rays of entering infra-red radiation 18. Infra-red detector 20 is positioned on a bracket 22 at the focal point of reflector 16. A toroidal supporting member 24 is secured within barrel 10 as a support for mirror 16 which is bonded thereto. Member 24 may be of any suitable material but in the illustrated embodiment is of rubber or plastic to provide shock absorbing qualities. The

necessary circuit elements are reduced to printed circuit form and are positioned as members 26 within the barrel by means of supporting screws 28. A meter 30 for visual observation is mounted at the rear of the apparatus, electrically connected to the circuit by wires 32. Wires 34 are connected to a calibration knob 36. The wires interconnecting the detector and the various printed circuit boards are not shown. A battery 38 positioned within a suitable compartment within grip 12 provides the necessary power for operation.

The electrical circuit of the device as illustrated in the block diagram of FIG. 2 includes the detector 20, preamplifier 40, amplifier 42, rectifier 44, and meter 30. A

variable oscillator 46 may also be provided along with head phones 48 for producing an useful when visibility is limited. components is of standard construction and well known in the art, it has not been considered necessary to illustrate the circuits in more detailed fashion.

The primary function of window 14 is to maintain cleanliness within barrel 10 and thereby protect the surface of reflector 16. Window 14, however, may also be used as a filter, for example, to eliminate visible light which might give erroneous readings.

For the detection of fire sources, a detector responsive to a temperature of approximately 210 F. is required. However, in order to provide some margin of safety and, at the same time, compensate for the insulating qualities of walls and partitions, the apparatus is preferably made sensitive to heat sources of F. In addition, for maximum efficiency, the heat source should be detectable at a distance of ten feet. The energy emitted by a black body radiator at 150 F. is 7X10 watts/cm. By using a three inch paraboloidal reflector to focus the radiation, the available energy at a detector is approximately 1.26 10- watts.

The detector should be of the uncooled type and have a spectral response within a wavelength band not absorbed by the atmosphere. Examples of usable wavelengths are 3.5 to 4.3 and 5.0,!L. The noise equivalent power of the detector should provide a good signal to noise ratio at 126x10 watts.

Several detectors will satisfy the foregoing requirements-a bolometer, lead selenide, or lead sulfide, to name a few.

Because of the drift problems encountered in the DC. amplification of detector signals, it is preferable to utilize an AC. amplifier. In order to do this, the signal must be chopped. In order to eliminate the necessity for a mechanical chopper, the detector may be wired into an AC. bridge circuit excited by an oscillator. Any of a number of easily portable battery sources may be utilized for a power supply. In the described embodiment, a rechargeable 9 volt mercury battery is employed.

It will now be seen that in order to locate the existence of hot spots, an operator need only scan an area, such as a wall, by pointing the apparatus in the proper direction. The infra-red energy, guided through barrel 10 and focused on the detector by the reflector, will cause a signal to flow in the electrical circuit. The signal, amplified and impressed on a meter or headphone, will thus give a physical indication of the presence of fire.

It will be apparent that the device of the present invention has wide application in all fields in which the location of heat sources is of importance. It will be further apparent to those skilled in the art that the apparatus of this invention is capable of many variations. The tubular radiation path, for example. is not limited to a construction of circular cross section but may be of any convenient shape such as square, octagonal, or oval. The

foregoing description is therefore to be construed as descriptive rather than limiting.

audible signal especially As each of the electrical I claim:

Fire detection apparatus comprising a tubular barrel having an infrared permeable window at one end thereof, said window being of substantially disk-like configuration and lying in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of said barrel; pistol grip means attached to said barrel for supporting the apparatus in a users hand; paraboloidal reflector means positioned in said barrel to receive the radiation passed by said window and focus said radiation on a finite area between said window and said reflector; detector means selected from the group consisting of lead selenide, lead sulphide, and bolometers positioned to receive the focused radiation, said detector being responsive to radiation Wavelengths selected from the group consisting of about 3.5;1, to 4.3 4 and approximately 5,u.; electronic alternating current circuit means within said barrel means for producing an electrical signal responsive to the radiation on said detector; battery means within said pistol grip for supplying electric power to said circuit means; and indicating means responsive to said electric signal to disclose the presence of fire in an inspected area.

References Cited in the file of this patent Osborne: Airborne Infrared UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES Warning System Measures Range, Electronics, July 1, 1957, pp. 190192.

Osborne: Infrared Detector Aids Medical Diagnosis, Electronics, October 1, 1957, pp. 115-157.

US3017513A 1959-10-08 1959-10-08 Fire detection apparatus Expired - Lifetime US3017513A (en)

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Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3110814A (en) * 1961-07-11 1963-11-12 Charles E Wright Light responsive device for producing sounds
US3444739A (en) * 1965-12-22 1969-05-20 Kettering Scient Research Inc Radiant energy measuring instrument
US3761713A (en) * 1971-07-13 1973-09-25 Us Interior Method of detecting loose rock
US4494881A (en) * 1982-03-10 1985-01-22 Everest Charles E Intra-optical light beam sighting system for an infrared thermometer
US4634294A (en) * 1979-09-12 1987-01-06 Raytek, Inc. Hand-held digital temperature measuring instrument
WO1991009389A1 (en) * 1989-12-20 1991-06-27 Selenia Industrie Elettroniche Associate S.P.A. Infrared sensor suitable for fire fighting applications
FR2665533A1 (en) * 1990-08-06 1992-02-07 Ortomedic Distance measuring device temperature and / or temperature differences.
US5751215A (en) * 1996-11-21 1998-05-12 Hall, Jr.; Joseph F. Fire finding apparatus
US5790040A (en) * 1996-12-13 1998-08-04 Interactive Technologies, Inc. Battery-operated security system sensors
US6719456B2 (en) 2001-10-23 2004-04-13 Randall S. Mundt Methods and apparatus for firefighting
US20050248759A1 (en) * 2004-04-30 2005-11-10 Peidong Wang Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy
US20060045151A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2006-03-02 Daryoosh Vakhshoori External cavity wavelength stabilized Raman lasers insensitive to temperature and/or external mechanical stresses, and Raman analyzer utilizing the same
US20060088069A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2006-04-27 Daryoosh Vakhshoori Uncooled, low profile, external cavity wavelength stabilized laser, and portable Raman analyzer utilizing the same
US20060170917A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2006-08-03 Daryoosh Vakhshoori Use of free-space coupling between laser assembly, optical probe head assembly, spectrometer assembly and/or other optical elements for portable optical applications such as Raman instruments
US20060245700A1 (en) * 2003-07-17 2006-11-02 Draka Comteq B.V. Groove cable
US20070024848A1 (en) * 2004-04-16 2007-02-01 Knopp Kevin J Method and apparatus for conducting RAMAN spectroscopy using a remote optical probe
US20070116069A1 (en) * 2005-11-08 2007-05-24 Peidong Wang Uncooled external cavity laser operating over an extended temperature range
US7250603B1 (en) 2006-03-24 2007-07-31 Draeger Safety, Inc. Crawling handle for thermal imaging camera
US20080170223A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2008-07-17 Daryoosh Vakhshoori Low Profile Spectrometer and Raman Analyzer Utilizing the Same
US20090033928A1 (en) * 2006-08-22 2009-02-05 Masud Azimi Raman spectrometry assembly
US7548311B2 (en) 2005-04-29 2009-06-16 Ahura Corporation Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy
US7767963B1 (en) 2006-12-08 2010-08-03 Draeger Safety, Inc. Thermal imaging camera internal damping system
EP2706331A1 (en) * 2012-09-05 2014-03-12 Robert Bosch Gmbh Temperature measuring apparatus, in particular hand-held infrared measurement device
US9723229B2 (en) 2010-08-27 2017-08-01 Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Thermal detection systems, methods, and devices
US9883084B2 (en) 2012-03-15 2018-01-30 Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Thermal imager

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US842314A (en) * 1905-11-11 1907-01-29 Cfcmug Pyrometer.
US2491192A (en) * 1944-11-11 1949-12-13 Gen Motors Corp Sealed heat ray detector
US2674155A (en) * 1949-07-30 1954-04-06 Nat Res Dev Pyrometer
US2738432A (en) * 1953-01-09 1956-03-13 Saito Sachio Meterless radiac survey instrument
US2798962A (en) * 1951-06-30 1957-07-09 Servo Corp Of America Total-radiation pyrometer
US2871366A (en) * 1955-12-29 1959-01-27 Librascope Inc Apparatus for sensing radioactivity

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US842314A (en) * 1905-11-11 1907-01-29 Cfcmug Pyrometer.
US2491192A (en) * 1944-11-11 1949-12-13 Gen Motors Corp Sealed heat ray detector
US2674155A (en) * 1949-07-30 1954-04-06 Nat Res Dev Pyrometer
US2798962A (en) * 1951-06-30 1957-07-09 Servo Corp Of America Total-radiation pyrometer
US2738432A (en) * 1953-01-09 1956-03-13 Saito Sachio Meterless radiac survey instrument
US2871366A (en) * 1955-12-29 1959-01-27 Librascope Inc Apparatus for sensing radioactivity

Cited By (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3110814A (en) * 1961-07-11 1963-11-12 Charles E Wright Light responsive device for producing sounds
US3444739A (en) * 1965-12-22 1969-05-20 Kettering Scient Research Inc Radiant energy measuring instrument
US3761713A (en) * 1971-07-13 1973-09-25 Us Interior Method of detecting loose rock
US4634294A (en) * 1979-09-12 1987-01-06 Raytek, Inc. Hand-held digital temperature measuring instrument
US4494881A (en) * 1982-03-10 1985-01-22 Everest Charles E Intra-optical light beam sighting system for an infrared thermometer
WO1991009389A1 (en) * 1989-12-20 1991-06-27 Selenia Industrie Elettroniche Associate S.P.A. Infrared sensor suitable for fire fighting applications
US5422484A (en) * 1989-12-20 1995-06-06 Alenia Spazio Spa Infrared sensor suitable for fire fighting applications
FR2665533A1 (en) * 1990-08-06 1992-02-07 Ortomedic Distance measuring device temperature and / or temperature differences.
US5352039A (en) * 1990-08-06 1994-10-04 Ortomedic Remote temperature and/or temperature difference measuring device
WO1992002792A1 (en) * 1990-08-06 1992-02-20 Ortomedic Remote temperature and/or temperature difference measuring device
US5751215A (en) * 1996-11-21 1998-05-12 Hall, Jr.; Joseph F. Fire finding apparatus
US5790040A (en) * 1996-12-13 1998-08-04 Interactive Technologies, Inc. Battery-operated security system sensors
US6719456B2 (en) 2001-10-23 2004-04-13 Randall S. Mundt Methods and apparatus for firefighting
US20060245700A1 (en) * 2003-07-17 2006-11-02 Draka Comteq B.V. Groove cable
US20070024848A1 (en) * 2004-04-16 2007-02-01 Knopp Kevin J Method and apparatus for conducting RAMAN spectroscopy using a remote optical probe
US7499159B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2009-03-03 Ahura Corporation Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy using a remote optical probe
US20080024777A1 (en) * 2004-04-30 2008-01-31 Peidong Wang Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy
US7420672B2 (en) 2004-04-30 2008-09-02 Ahura Corporation Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy
US7636157B2 (en) 2004-04-30 2009-12-22 Ahura Corporation Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy
US20050248759A1 (en) * 2004-04-30 2005-11-10 Peidong Wang Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy
US8107069B2 (en) 2004-04-30 2012-01-31 Ahura Scientific Inc. Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy
US20090251694A1 (en) * 2004-04-30 2009-10-08 Ahura Scientific Inc. Method and Apparatus for Conducting Raman Spectroscopy
US20080170223A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2008-07-17 Daryoosh Vakhshoori Low Profile Spectrometer and Raman Analyzer Utilizing the Same
US20060170917A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2006-08-03 Daryoosh Vakhshoori Use of free-space coupling between laser assembly, optical probe head assembly, spectrometer assembly and/or other optical elements for portable optical applications such as Raman instruments
US20100290042A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2010-11-18 Ahura Corporation, A Massachusetts Corporation Use of Free-space Coupling Between Laser Assembly, Optical Probe Head Assembly, Spectrometer Assembly and/or Other Optical Elements for Portable Optical Applications Such as Raman Instruments
US20060088069A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2006-04-27 Daryoosh Vakhshoori Uncooled, low profile, external cavity wavelength stabilized laser, and portable Raman analyzer utilizing the same
US7595877B2 (en) 2004-08-30 2009-09-29 Ahura Corporation Low profile spectrometer and raman analyzer utilizing the same
US20060045151A1 (en) * 2004-08-30 2006-03-02 Daryoosh Vakhshoori External cavity wavelength stabilized Raman lasers insensitive to temperature and/or external mechanical stresses, and Raman analyzer utilizing the same
US7548311B2 (en) 2005-04-29 2009-06-16 Ahura Corporation Method and apparatus for conducting Raman spectroscopy
US20070116069A1 (en) * 2005-11-08 2007-05-24 Peidong Wang Uncooled external cavity laser operating over an extended temperature range
US7773645B2 (en) 2005-11-08 2010-08-10 Ahura Scientific Inc. Uncooled external cavity laser operating over an extended temperature range
US7250603B1 (en) 2006-03-24 2007-07-31 Draeger Safety, Inc. Crawling handle for thermal imaging camera
US7701571B2 (en) 2006-08-22 2010-04-20 Ahura Scientific Inc. Raman spectrometry assembly
US20090033928A1 (en) * 2006-08-22 2009-02-05 Masud Azimi Raman spectrometry assembly
US20100296085A1 (en) * 2006-08-22 2010-11-25 Ahura Scientific Inc. Raman spectrometry assembly
US7767963B1 (en) 2006-12-08 2010-08-03 Draeger Safety, Inc. Thermal imaging camera internal damping system
US9723229B2 (en) 2010-08-27 2017-08-01 Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Thermal detection systems, methods, and devices
US9883084B2 (en) 2012-03-15 2018-01-30 Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Thermal imager
EP2706331A1 (en) * 2012-09-05 2014-03-12 Robert Bosch Gmbh Temperature measuring apparatus, in particular hand-held infrared measurement device

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